English Words of Arabic Ancestry

Collection of etymologies and word histories of English words that came from Arabic words

Author: Seanwal11111

Date: circa 2018

About seventy percent of the words in this collection were transferred from Arabic into the Latinate languages in the Mediterranean region in the medieval era, especially the 12th and 13th centuries, and subsequently were transferred from the Latinate languages into English. The other thirty percent entered European languages from the 16th century onward, sometimes going directly from Arabic into English, more often going through intermediate languages before arriving in English.

Only words in current use in English are included; rare and archaic words are omitted.

Words connected with the Islamic religion are omitted. For Islamic words, see a glossary of Islam Book ''A dictionary of Islam; being a cyclopaedia of the doctrines, rites, ceremonies, and customs, together with the technical and theological terms, of the Muhammadan religion'', by Thomas Patrick Hughes, year 1885(e.g.).

The main aim is to provide the evidence that the words came from Arabic, taking each word individually.

The words have been collected from machine-searchable etymology dictionaries Note[1]. At the end of the main list, a separate listing is given for about 30 English words that many dictionaries claim are descended from Arabic words, whereas the evidence for the claim is poor or very poor. These words are unlikely to be from Arabic. So there are two lists, one where evidence of Arabic parentage is good and strong, and the other where evidence is poor. There is additionally a separate list for around 60 botany names that have come from Arabic names, and another list for cuisine names.

Only one-sixth of the upcoming text is in the top-level body of the presentation. The other five-sixths is in the footnotes. To see substantive facts it is necessary to click into the footnotes. This is especially true when a word's derivation from Arabic is complicated.

Loanwords in alphabetical order

admiral, albatross, alchemy, alcohol, alcove, alembic, alfalfa, algebra, algorithm, alidade, alkali, alkanet (plant), amalgam, ambergris, aniline (dye), apricot, arsenal, artichoke, assassin, attar, aubergine, average, azimuth, benzoin, bezoar, borax, camphor, candy, carat, caravan, caraway, carob, check, checkmate, cipher, civet, coffee, cotton, crimson, curcuma, damask, elixir, erg (landform), fennec, garble, gazelle, ghoul, giraffe, harem, hashish, henna, hookah (pipe), hummus (food recipe), ifrit (demon), intarsia (decoration), jar, jasmine, jerboa, jinn, julep, jumper (garment), kermes, khat, kohl (eye makeup), lac & lacquer, lemon, lime (fruit), luffa (plant), lute, macrame, magazine, marcasite (mineral), massicot (mineral), mattress, mohair, monsoon, morocco (leather), mufti (clothing), mummy (corpse), muslin, nadir, natron (mineral), orange, popinjay, realgar (mineral), ream (of paper), rook (in chess), sabkha (landform), safari, safflower, saffron, sandalwood, saphena (vein), sash (ribbon), sequin (ornament), serendipity, sheikh, sherbet, sofa, spinach, sugar, sultan, sumac, swahili, syrup, tabla (drum), tahini, talc, talisman, tamarind, tambourine, tanbur (guitar), tangerine, tare (weight), tariff, tarragon, demi-tasse (cup), tincalconite (mineral), typhoon, varan (lizard), zenith, zero. More botanical names and certain other names are given separately after the main listing.

It is assumed you already know the meaning of today's English word.

1 admiral
أمير amīr, military leader, emir. Amīr is common in medieval Arabic writings as a commander on land (not sea). It has records in Latin from the 9th century onward as a specifically Muslim leader. A Latin record of a different kind comes from Sicily in 1072, the year the Latins defeated the Arabs in Sicily at the capital city Palermo. In that year, after about 200 years of Arabic rule at Palermo, a new military governing official was assigned as "knight, to be for the Sicilians the amiratus", where Definition at Wikipedia's wiktionary : -atus #2, a Latin noun suffix. You can see derivatives of it in the English noun suffix -ate as in ''triumvirate'', ''episcopate'', ''principate'', ''consulate'', ''syndicate''.-atus is a Latin grammar suffix. This title continued in mainly non-marine use during the next century among the Latins at Palermo, usually spelled am[m]iratus (spelled amiraldus in year 1113, where Book ''An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language'', by A. Brachet, translated from French to English, year 1873, has short intro to Latin ''-aldus'' in paragraph § 195-aldus is a Latin suffix functioning much the same as -atus; spelled ammiral year 1112 influenced by Latin suffix Wiktionary definition for -alis, a suffix in Latin-alis). In 1178 (and earlier) the person holding the title amiratus at Palermo was put in charge of the navy of the Kingdom of Sicily.Note[6] After that start, the word meaning an Admiral of the Sea was taken up at the seaport of Genoa in year 1192 as ammiratus referring to the grand admiral of Sicily, and at Genoa around 1211 as admiratus referring to an admiral of Pisa; and early 13th century Latin at Genoa also used the wordform amiragius (which has Italian suffix Definition at Wiktionary : -aggio-aggio) meaning "admiral of the sea".Note[7] In 13th century Latin Europe the meaning as a specifically Muslim leader continued in independent circulation as well. The one word with two meanings has lots of records in all Latinate languages in the late medieval period. To be clear, the two meanings were (1) a Muslim military leader, practically always on land, and (2) a commander of two or more war-ships, practically always a Western Christian. Medieval Latin wordforms included amiraeus, ammirandus, amiraudus, amirallus, admiralius, amiragius, ammiratus, admiratus, and similar others, with both meanings.Note[7] In late medieval French and English the usual wordforms were amiral and admiral, with both meanings.Note[8] The insertion of the letter 'd' was prompted by allusion to the word admire, a commonplace classical Latin word.
2 albatross
الغطّاس al-ghattās, literally "the diver", naming birds who got their food by diving underwater, and occasionally it named the large diving seabirds of the pelecaniform class including cormorants.Note[9] Late medieval Spanish has alcatraz meaning large diving seabirds (first record 1386) and this Spanish word is undoubtedly from Arabic.Note[9] Spanish alcatraz entered English in 2nd half of 16th century as alcatras meaning large diving seabirds in the Indies seas. Alcatras has dozens of records in English in sea-voyages narratives in the late 16th and early 17th century ''Early English Books Online'' (EEBO) has nine 16th century English books having dozens of instances of alcatras_, alcatrace_, alcatraz_, alcatrarz_ birds. Another two dozen instances at EEBO are in the year 1625 Samuel Purchas collection of voyages narratives.(ref). The word is also in Italian in the late 16th as alcatrazzi with same meaning Italian alcatrazzi @ Italian-to-English dictionary of John Florio, year 1598 edition(e.g.). The albatrosses are a class of large diving seabirds that are only found in the Southern Hemisphere and Pacific Ocean regions. Beginning in the 17th century, every European language adopted "albatros" with a 'b' for these birds, the 'b' having been mobilized from Latinate alba = "white".
3 alchemy, alchemical, chemical, chemistry
الكيمياء al-kīmīāʾ, alchemy, medieval chemistry, and especially "studies about substances through which gold and silver may be artificially produced".Note[10] The Arabic word had its source in a Greek alchemy word that was in use in the early centuries AD in Alexandria in Egypt in Greek.Note[11] The Arabic entered Latin as alchimia in the 12th century and was widely circulating in Latin in the 13th century.Note[12] In late medieval Latin, alchimia was strongly associated with the quest to make gold out of other metals, but the scope of the word also covered the full range of what was then known about chemistry and metallurgy. Late medieval Latin had the word-forms alchimicus = "alchemical" and alchimista = "alchemist". By deletion of al-, those word-forms gave rise to the Latin word-forms chimia, chimicus and chimista beginning in the mid 16th century. The word-forms with and without the al- were synonymous until the end of the 17th century: The meaning of each of them covered both alchemy and chemistry.Note[13]
4 alcohol
الكحل al-kuhl, very finely powdered stibnite (Sb2S3) or galena (PbS) or any similar fine powder.Note[2] The word entered Latin and Spanish records in the 13th century spelled alcohol and meaning exactly the same as the Arabic word. In Latin in the 14th and 15th centuries the sole meaning was an exceedingly fine-grained powder, made of any material.Note[14] In various cases the powder was obtained by crushing, but in various other cases the powder was obtained by calcination, or by sublimation & deposition. In the alchemy and medicine writer Paracelsus (died 1541), the alcohol powders produced by sublimation & deposition were regarded as kinds of distillates; e.g., he regarded the soot deposited in chimneys as a distillate. With that viewpoint, he extended the word's meaning to distillate of wine. "Alcohol of wine" (ethanol) has its first record in Paracelsus.Note[15] The biggest-selling English dictionary of the 18th century defined alcohol as "a very fine and impalpable powder, or a very pure well rectified spirit" alcohol @ Nathan Bailey's English Dictionary, year 1726 edition. Bailey's dictionary was reprinted in more years than any other English dictionary in the 18th century. This implies it sold more copies than any of its competitors.(ref).
5 alcove
القبّة al-qobba, vault, dome, or cupola. That sense for the word is in medieval Arabic dictionaries.Note[2] The same sense is documented for Spanish alcoba around 1275. Alcoba semantically evolved in Spanish during the 14th to 16th centuries.Note[16] Alcoba begot French alcove, earliest known French in 1646 Note[3], and French begot English. (By the way, English "cove" is unrelated).
6 alembic (distillation apparatus)
الأنبيق al-anbīq, distillation apparatus for distilling, and sometimes the meaning was just the upper half of the distillation apparatus. The Arabic word came from Late Ancient Greek ambix | ambika with same meaning. The earliest chemical distillations were by Greeks in Alexandria in Egypt about the 3rd century AD. Their Greek ἄμβιξ | ἄμβικα for distillation (ἄμβιξ @ Lexicon of ancient Greek by Liddell-Scott-Jones (''LSJ''), year 1925. ἄμβικα ''ambika'' is an alembic in the alchemist Zosimos, who lived in the 4th century AD and wrote in Greek. Zosimos was translated to Arabic in the 9th century. At the linked page at LSJ, clicking on item ''Zos.Alch.p.141B'' will serve up a paragraph of Zosimos's alchemy text in Greek.example) became the Arabic al-anbīq starting in the 9th century (9th century text in Arabic plus translation to German : كتاب الاحجار لارسطاطاليس ''Das Steinbuch des Aristotles'', curated by Julius Ruska, year 1912. 9th-century Arabic الانبيق ''al-anbīq'' is on the last line of page 110.e.g. , Book in Arabic dated about 980 AD : بن أحمد بن يوسف الخوارزمي - مفاتيح العلوم ''Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm'' by Ibn Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Al-Khuwarizmi. Curated by G van Vloten, year 1895. الأنبيق ''al-anbīq'' on page ٢۵٧e.g.), which became 12th-century Latin alembic. In Latin the early records are in Arabic-to-Latin translations (Alchemy text ''Liber de Septuaginta'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation. Latin date is estimated around year 1200. Published in Latin in ''Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de l'Institut de France'', volume 49, year 1906, pages 310-363, having ALEMBIC on pages 317, 327 & 345.e.g. , Article, ''The PORTA ELEMENTORUM of Pseudo-Avicenna's alchemical DE ANIMA'', by Sébastien Moureau, year 2013. Article publishes Latin text titled PORTA ELEMENTORUM, dated circa 1200. Text is Arabic-to-Latin translation. It has two instances of ''alembic'', which are on pages 188 and 190. Text is component of alchemy book ''DE ANIMA in Arte Alchimiae'' @ archive.org/details/BIUSante_75697 e.g.). Alembic arrived in Latin along with some other Arabic alchemy words.Note[11]
7 alfalfa
الفصفصة al-fisfisa, alfalfa.Note[17] From the Arabic, later-medieval Spanish has alfalfez = "alfalfa".Note[17] In later-medieval Iberia, alfalfa had a reputation as the best fodder for horses. The ancient Romans grew alfalfa but called it an entirely different name.Note[18] The plant is usually called lucerne in today's British and Australian English. It is usually called alfalfa in American English. The American English name started in the far-west USA in the 1850s when alfalfa seeds were imported from Chile to California.
8 algebra
الجبر al-jabr, restoring of broken parts.Note[2] The word's mathematical use has its earliest record in Arabic in the title of the book "al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa al-muqābala", translatable as "the compendium on calculation by restoring and balancing", by the 9th-century mathematician Mohammed Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi. This book was well-known in medieval Arabic mathematics. It was translated to Latin twice in the 12th century. In medieval Arabic mathematics, al-jabr and al-muqābala were the names of the two main preparatory steps used to solve an algebraic equation. For the medieval Arabs the phrase "al-jabr and al-muqābala" came to mean "method of equation-solving". The medieval Latins borrowed the method and the names.Note[19]
9 algorithm, algorism
الخوارزمي al-khwārizmī, short name for the mathematician Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (died c. 850). The word has no record in medieval Arabic mathematics except as a person's proper name. In Latin in the 12th century a few introductory tutorials for working with the Hindu-Arabic numbers have the word alchorismi or algorizmi in the headline of the text and there is an indication in the body of the text that it represents Al-Khwarizmi's name. In Latin in the 13th century the wordform was algorismus. In Latin and English from the 13th through 19th centuries both algorism and algorithm meant only the elementary methods of the Hindu-Arabic number system.Note[20]
10 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Alidadealidade
العضادة al-ʿiḍāda (from عضد ʿiḍad, pivoting arm), the rotary dial for angular positioning on the Astrolabe surveying instrument used in astronomy. The word with that meaning was used by the astronomers Al-Khwarizmi (died c. 850) Article, ''Al-Khwārizmī as a Source for the SENTENTIE ASTROLABII'', by Paul Kunitzsch, year 1987, 9 pages. The article prints in Arabic some selections from a text written by Al-Khwārizmī (died c. 850). Arabic word al-ʿiḍāda is on pages 228 & 229.(Ref), Abu al-Wafa Buzjani (died 998) alidade @ ''Dictionnaire Étymologique Des Mots Français D'Origine Orientale'', by L. Marcel Devic, year 1876, has two quotations in Arabic from أبو الوفاء البوزجاني Abu al-Wafa Buzjani in footnotes #2 and #3 on page 23(Ref), Ibn al-Saffar (died 1035) Ibn al-Saffar wrote a 30-page tutorial on working with the Astrolabe. It is in Arabic in journal ''Revista del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid'' Volume 3, year 1955, curated by Millás Vallicrosa. The Arabic text is on print pages ٤٧ to ٧٦, which is PDF pages 158-187 in the linked PDF file. In this text the word العضادة is frequent and is on many pages. It is defined on page ٤٨ line 15.(Ref), and others. The word with the same meaning entered medieval Latin in the context of Astrolabes.Note[21] Crossref word azimuth, which entered medieval Latin on the same pathway.
11 alkali
القلي al-qalī | al-qilī, an alkaline material derived from the ashes of saltwort plants. Saltwort plants grow on salty soils or alkaline desert soils. Saltwort plants were medievally collected and burned because their ashes contained a useful chemical. The dictionary of Al-Jauhari (died circa 1003) said "al-qilī is obtained from saltworts".Note[2] In today's terms, the medieval Arabic al-qalī ashes was mainly composed of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate.Note[22] The medieval Arabs used it as an ingredient in making glass and making detergents. In the European languages the word's early records are in Latin alchemy and minerals texts in late 12th or early 13th century, spelled alkali, with the very same meaning as the Arabic word.Note[23] In Europe during 16th & 17th centuries the meaning broadened to include other chemicals with similar characteristics.
12 amalgam, amalgamate
الملغم al-malgham, amalgam, especially amalgam of mercury with metal.Note[24] In the European languages this word's earliest records are in late 13th and early 14th century Latin alchemy texts, where it meant an amalgam of mercury with another substance (nearly always a metal) and was spelled amalgama. Arabic alchemy arrived in Latin during the 12th and 13th centuries, and Arabic influence was pervasive in the Latin alchemy of the 13th and 14th centuries. In Arabic records before the 13th century, the word al-malgham | al-mulgham = "amalgam" is uncommon but does exist and was used by a number of different authors.Note[24]
13 ambergris
عنبر ʿanbar, meaning ambergris, i.e. a fragrant waxy material produced in the stomach of sperm whales and used historically for perfumery. Medieval ambergris was sourced mostly from the Indian Ocean's shores. From Arabic sellers of ambergris, the word passed into early-medieval Latin as ambar | ambra meaning "ambergris". Later, starting 13th century, the Latin ambra took on the additional meaning "amber", from causes not understood. The two meanings for the name ambra –i.e. "ambergris" and "amber"– co-existed for over four centuries in Western Europe. The qualifier gris was added to eliminate the ambiguity of ambra. The color of ambergris is grey more often than not, and gris is French for grey. An organic chemical extracted from ambergris is Definition at Wikipedia : Ambreinambrein, first named in year 1820 Book ''Chemistry of Animal Bodies'' by Thomas Thomson, year 1843 on page 151, says the name ambrein was introduced by J-P Pelletier (died 1842) and his collaborator JB Caventou (died 1877) in their examination of ambergris in 1820.(ref), named in derivation from French ambre and the Latin ambra = "ambergris" whose parent was the Arabic ʿanbar. The parentage of the medieval Latin ambra = "amber" is unknown.Note[25]
14 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Anilanil, Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Anilineaniline, Definition at Wikipedia : Polyanilinepolyaniline
النيل al-nīl | an-nīl,Note[5] indigo dye. The indigo dye originally came from tropical India. The Arabic word came from Sanskrit nīlī | nīla = "indigo". The medieval Arabs grew indigo dye plants commercially and they called them nīl.Note[27] The medieval Europeans used indigo dye imported from the Arabs sometimes (while more often the medieval Europeans used European-grown Woad dye for the same purpose). From the medieval Arabic an-nīl, the word anil became the usual for indigo in Spanish & Portuguese.Note[27] From Spanish & Portuguese anil, the word anil entered other European languages via the indigo supplied to Europe from the late 16th century onward by Spanish & Portuguese merchants who brought it from tropical America and India. Anil in English means a natural indigo dye from a tropical American plant. Aniline was created as a technical word in dye chemistry in the early 1840s.
15 apricot
البرقوق al-barqūq, apricot.Note[28] The Arabic word is traceable back to Early Byzantine Greek and thence to Classical Latin praecoqua, literally "precocious", which in Classical Latin was used with the meaning of precociously ripening peaches, i.e. apricots apricot @ ''An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language'', by Walter W. Skeat, year 1888(ref),Note[4]. The medieval Arabic al-barqūq went into late medieval Spanish as albarcoque HispanicSeminary.org is a site with a searchable collection of late medieval and 16th century Spanish texts. Search for ''albarquoque'' and ''albarcoque''.(ref) and Catalan albercoc albercoc @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by AM Alcover & FB Moll, year 1962. It quotes albercocs in Francesc Eiximenis (died 1409) and albercochs in Anselm Turmeda (died c. 1423).(ref) meaning apricot. The early spellings in English included abrecok (year 1551), abrecox (1578), apricock (1593), aprecocke (1597) meaning apricot apricot @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'', year 1888(ref). The letter 't' in today's English apricot has come from a French wordform. In French the word starts around the 1520s as aubercot and abricot meaning apricot abricot @ ''Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales''(ref). This French was from the late medieval Spanish & Catalan albercoc.
16 arsenal
دار صناعة dār sināʿa, literally "house of manufacturing" but in practice in medieval Arabic it meant government-run manufacturing, usually for the military, most notably for the navy.Note[29] The Definition at Wikipedia : Italian maritime republicsItalian maritime republics in the 12th century adopted the word to designate a naval dockyard, a place for building ships and armaments for ships, and repairing armed ships. In late medieval centuries the biggest such arsenal in Europe was the Definition at Wikipedia : Arsenal of VeniceArsenal of Venice. 12th century Italian-Latin had the spellings darsena, arsena and tarsanatus. 14th-century Italian-Latin and Italian had the spellings darsena, terzana, arzana, arsana, arsenada, arcenatus, tersanaia, terzinaia, all meaning a workyard for ships and in only some cases having navy building activity.Note[30] From the medieval word, modern Greek has tarsanás = "small shipyard" (Meaning and etymology of ταρσανάς in Dictionary of Modern Greekταρσανάς). In the 16th century in French and English, an arcenal | arsenal was a naval dockyard or an arsenal or both (Book : History of the Peloponnesian War written by Thucydides (died c.400 BC) put in French translation by Claude de Seyssel (died 1520), first published in year 1527, reprinted in year 1559 with spelling changes. It has French ARCENAL(S) on nine pages meaning a place within which war-ships are kept in safety and security.e.g., arcenal @ French-to-English dictionary by Randle Cotgrave, year 1611. It says French ''arcenal'' means English ''an Armorie; a storehouse of Armour; Artillerie; Shipping, or Ships''.e.g., arsenal @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'', year 1888, on page 465-466, gives quotations from English sources of the 16th & 17th centuriese.g.) and those two meanings are still in today's French arsenal (arsenal @ ''Dictionnaire de l'Académie française'', 8th edition, years 1932-1935e.g., arsenal @ ''Dictionnaire de l'Académie française'', 9th edition, years 1992-2011e.g.).
17 artichoke
الخرشف al-kharshuf | الخرشوف al-kharshūf, artichoke. The word with that meaning is in at least a half a dozen Andalusi and Maghrebi Arabic authors in the 10th to 14th centuries.Note[31] With the same meaning, there is Spanish alcachofa (first record around 1400), Spanish alcarchofa (1423), Spanish carchofa (1423), Catalan carxofa (1490; Catalan letter 'x' is sound /sh/), Italian carciofjo (circa 1525), German Cardchoffil (1539), French carchiophe (1542).Note[32] All of those are phonetically close to the Arabic kharshuf. Similarly close to the Arabic precedent is today's Italian carciofo and today's Spanish alcachofa. Not phonetically close, starting 2nd quarter of 16th century: English archecokk (1531), French artichault (1535), German-Latin articocalus (1542), Italian artichiocco (1544), English hortichocke (1555), Italian arcichiocco (1568), Italian artichioffo (1590), English artichowe (1599), Italian arcicioffo (1611), all meaning "artichoke".Note[32] Etymology commentators near-unanimously say these wordforms have to be mutated from the earlier Iberian and Italian wordforms. This predominant opinion has good support from the background horticultural historical context. But the mutation is far outside the bounds of ordinary phonetic change, and the way it happened is poorly understood and not understood. There isn't a competing alternative idea.
18 assassin
الحشيشية al-hashīshīya and حشيشين hashīshīn, an Arabic nickname for the Nizari Ismaili Muslim religious sect in the Levant during the Crusades era. This sect carried out assassinations against chiefs of other sects, including Crusading Christians, and the story circulated throughout western Europe in the 13th century and late 12th. Medievally in Latin & Italian & French, this sect was called the Assissini | Assassini.Note[33] Medievally in Arabic texts the wordform is al-hashīshīya Note[33] but by Arabic grammar this can be put in Arabic in the wordform hashīshīn also. Hashīshīn is the wordform in Arabic that the Latin Crusaders borrowed in the Levant. By well-known aspects of medieval Latin & Italian & French phonetics, it is well understood why the wordform got phonetically changed from the Arabic Hashīshīn to the Latinate Assissini.Note[33] The generalization of the sect's nickname to the meaning of any sort of assassin happened in Italian at the start of the 14th century. The word with the generalized meaning was often used in Italian in the 14th and 15th centuries.Note[33] In the mid 16th century the generalized Italian word entered French,Note[3] followed a little later by English.
19 attar
عطر ʿitr, perfume, aroma. The English word came from the Hindi/Urdu-speaking area of northeast India in the late 18th century and its source was the Hindi/Urdu atr | itr = "perfume"Note[34], which had come from Persian ʿitr = "perfume", and the Persian had come medievally from the Arabic ʿitr, which is an ancient word in Semitic.
20 aubergine
الباذنجان al-bādhinjān, aubergine. The plant's native place of origin was Myanmar and thereabouts. The plant was unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans. It was introduced to the Mediterranean region by the medieval Arabs. The Arabic name entered Iberian Latinate languages late medievally, producing 15th century Spanish alberengena = "aubergine" and 14th century Catalan alberginia = "aubergine". The Catalan name alberginia was the parent of French aubergine, which embodies a change from al- to au- that happened in French. Note[35]
21 average
عوار ʿawār, a defect, or anything defective or damaged, including partially spoiled merchandise; and عواري ʿawārī = "of or relating to ʿawār, a state of partial damage".Note[36] In the European languages the word's history begins in sea-commerce on the Mediterranean in late-12th-century Italy as Latin avaria. In first half of 13th century at seaports Genoa and Marseille, the Latin avaria meant physical damage on gold and silver coins, particularly Arabic coins.Note[37] At seaports Savona and Genoa around 1200, Latin avaria meant damage and non-normal expenses incurred during merchant sea voyages.Note[37] 15th century French avarie had the same meaning, i.e. "damage expenses", and it begot English "averay" (1491) and English "average" (1451, 1502) with the same meaning. However, in some late medieval cases in Italy and elsewhere the meaning is a normal and predictable import-tax expense incurred in a merchant sea voyage.Note[38] Today, Italian avaria, Catalan avaria and French avarie have the primary meaning of "damage". The huge transformation of the meaning in English began with the standard practice in late-medieval and early-modern European merchant-marine law contracts under which if the ship met a bad storm and some of the ship's cargo had to be thrown into the sea to make the ship lighter and safer, then all merchants whose goods were on the ship were to suffer proportionately; and more generally there was to be proportionate distribution of any avaria. From there, the word was adopted by British insurers, creditors, and merchants for talking about their losses as being spread across their whole portfolio of assets, and having a mean proportion. Today's "average" developed out of that, and started in the mid 18th century, and started in English.Note[38]
22 azimuth
السموت al-sumūt | as-sumūt,Note[5] the directions, the azimuths. The word was in use in medieval Arabic astronomy, including particularly with the Definition at Wikipedia : AstrolabeAstrolabe instrument, and it was transferred into Latin as azimut in the context of using Astrolabes, and records in Latin begin in the 1130s or 1140s.Note[39] The earliest in English is in the 1390s in a treatise on using the Astrolabe (Full text of ''Treatise on the Astrolabe'' by Geoffrey Chaucer (died 1400), in medieval English and modern English side-by-side. Has the word azimut about a dozen times.ref, azimutz @ Middle English Dictionaryref).
23 benzoin, benzene
لبان جاوي lubān jāwī, benzoin resin, literally "frankincense of Java". Benzoin is a natural resin from an Indonesian tree. Arab sea-merchants shipped it to the Middle East for sale as perfumery and incense in the later-medieval centuries. It first came to Europe in the early 15th century. Its European name benzoin is a great mutation of the Arabic name lubān jāwī. The linguistic factors that caused the mutation are well understood.Note[42] Among European chemists, benzoin resin was the original source for benzoic acid, which became the source for the 19th-century benzene.
24 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Bezoarbezoar
بازهر bāzahr | بادزهر bādzahr, a type of hard ball containing calcium compounds, sometimes formed in the stomachs of goats and some other ruminant animals. Today in English a bezoar is a medical and veterinary word for a ball of indigestible material that collects in the stomach and fails to pass through the intestines. Goat bezoars were recommended by medieval Arabic medical writers for use as antidotes to poisons. That is how the word first entered medieval Latin medical vocabulary.Note[43]
25 borax, borate, boron
بورق būraq, various salts, some used as cleaning agents and some used as fluxes in metalworking. Borax, i.e. sodium borate, was used medievally primarily as a fluxing agent in soldering gold and silver metal ornaments. The ancient Greeks & Latins used fluxing agents in metalworking, but borax was unknown to them. Borax was used among the medieval Arabs before it came into use among the medieval Latins. There was no borax in medieval Europe except as an import from Arabic lands. In all centuries until two centuries ago, the most important source of borax on the planet was at salty lakes in the country of Tibet, and it is quite possible that Tibet was the sole source on the planet. The Tibet borax was carried into international trade in northwest India. The borax of the medieval Arabs came from northwest India at least in part, and possibly all of it came from there. From Arabic būraq, the Latins adopted the name borax | baurach in the 12th century meaning borax for fluxing metals, and sometimes later more loosely in Latin it meant any kind of salts for fluxing metals.Note[44]  ﴾۝﴿ In medieval Arabic the more usual and more specific name for borax was التنكار al-tinkār. This name was adopted by the medieval Latins starting in the 12th century as tincar | atincar with the same meaning. Today's English tincal or at Wikipedia : Tincalconitetincalconite is a mineral variant of borax. Its name is descended from the medieval Latin tincar = "borax"Note[44], post-medievally conjoined with ancient Greek konia | konis = "powder", plus the conventional mineralogy suffix -ite. "Borate" and "boron" are post-medieval and are descended from the medieval "borax".
26 camphor
كافور kāfūr, camphor. The medieval Arabs imported camphor by sea from the East-East Indies for medical uses and aromatic uses. They resold some of it to the Latins. The medieval Arabs in general were fond of aromas and kāfūr = "camphor" was well known to them.Note[2] The medieval Latins were not so fond of aromas, and for them camphor was an item in medicine, in general. In Latin the word starts in the 9th century, though it is rare until three centuries later.Note[45]  ﴾۝﴿ Another imported Indies wood-product that had medical and aromatic uses in medieval Europe and had its name taken from medieval Arabic is sandalwood, from Arabic صندل sandal.Note[46] In Arabic these two names had come from the Indies along with the goods. The two names are in Sanskrit texts. Camphor and sandalwood were in use in Late Ancient India, aromatically and medicinally.
27 candy
قند qand + قندي qandī, sugared, made from cane sugar.Note[47] Cane sugar developed in ancient India. Medieval Persian word qand = "cane sugar" was possibly from Sanskritic.Note[48] The plant is native to a tropical climate. The medieval Arabs grew the plant with artificial irrigation and exported some of the product to the Latins. The word candi entered all the Western European languages in the later-medieval centuries.Note[47]
28 carat (gold purity, also gem weight)
قيراط qīrāt, a small unit of weight, medievally sometimes defined by reference to a weight of (e.g.) three barley seeds and sometimes defined as one twentyfourth (1/24) of the weight of a gold dinar coin. Medieval Arabic qīrāt was also in use meaning 1/24th of the money value of a gold dinar coin. In Italy in 12th & 13th centuries, Latin caratus most often meant 1/24th of the money value of Arabic and Greek gold coins. In Italy beginning in the late 13th century the word was adopted for talking about the proportion of gold in a gold alloy, especially in any gold coin, this happening soon after some city-states of Italy started new issues of pure gold coins.Note[49] The word's meaning as a small unit of weight is scarce in Western European languages in 13th century. The smallish number of 13th-century Western authors who use it meaning a weight have clearly had contact with Arabic sources in most cases. The meaning as a weight has growing records in the 14th & 15th centuries in Italy & France.Note[49]
29 caravan
قيروان qaīrawān, convoy of travelers journeying together, which could be a merchant convoy or military convoy. Qaīrawān is in all the main medieval Arabic dictionaries. It is somewhat frequent in medieval Arabic writings, even though it is not nearly as frequent as the synonymous Arabic qāfila.Note[2] Arabic qaīrawān had come from Persian کاروان kārvān with same meaning. Many English dictionaries say the word in the European languages had come directly from Persian without Arabic intermediation. Those dictionaries are mistaken. The word is in Latin in the 12th century. The early records in Latin include caravanis (1161), carvana (1190s), carrvana (1190s), carvane (1190s in French), caravana (1217), caravanna (1219-1225), karavenna (1250), carravana (1262), all meaning an overland convoy, and in a good few of those cases the people of the caravan are Muslims – quotations are at caravanna @ Du Cange's Glossary of Medieval Latinref , Declaration in Latin in year 1161 by king Baldwin III, king of Crusader Levant, published in book ''Tabulae Ordinis Theutonici, Ex Tabularii Regii Berolinensis Codice Potissimum'', curated by Strehlke, year 1869, having ''caravanis'' on page 4 on line 11ref , Book ''Gesta Regis Henrici'' is a chronicle of the Anglo-Norman kings Henry II and Richard I, years 1169-1192, written in Latin in late 12th century. It incorporates a report from a Crusader chronicle for an event in the Levant in year 1188 involving ''duas carrvanas Saracenorum'' = ''two caravans of Muslims''. Linked page 41 on 3rd line.ref , carvanna @ ''Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources'' (''DMLBS''), year 2013. It quotes instances in British Latin sources talking about the Crusades in the Levant. The dictionary names its sources through abbreviations which are defined at http://www.dmlbs.ox.ac.uk/web/dmlbs%20bibliography.html ref , French ''carvane'' is a dozen times in the Crusader narrative ''L'Estoire de la Guerre Sainte'' by Ambroise of Normandy, written in the 1190s. Ambroise has ''nostre carvane'' = ''our caravan'' meaning caravan of the Crusaders. Ambroise has ''ses carvanes'' = ''his caravans'' meaning caravans of the army of Saladin, the Muslim sultan.ref , Collection of medieval documents in Latin & French : ''Cartulaire général de l'Ordre des Hospitaliers de Saint Jean de Jérusalem'', in four volumes, compiled by Delaville le Roulx, years 1890s & 1906. Volume 3 page 51 has year 1262 Latin ''carravanerii'' and French ''karavanier'' meaning people who operate a caravan. Volume 4 page 39 has year 1302 Latin ''carravanis'' and French ''carrevanes'' meaning caravans.ref. Besides the overland convoy, the word was used for a convoy of sailing ships in the 13th century in Italian-Latin, Italian, and Crusaders'-French, with wordforms caravan[n]a | carevane | carvane | carabanacaravana @ ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, on page 224, gives 13th-century quotations for Latin ''caravana'' as a convoy of ships in Genoa authors. Source abbreviations are defined on pages 24-48.ref , Book in Latin : ''Annali genovesi di Caffaro e de' suoi continuatori'', Volume Two, curated by Belgrano & Imperiale, year 1901. Has events having ''carauanna'' year 1213 (page 127) and ''carauana'' year 1217 (page 144) in annals written shortly after the year of the event.ref , carovana @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini''. It quotes ''carevana'' & ''caravana'' meaning a convoy of ships in years 1282 & 1313 in Venice authors.ref , Year 1240 ''carabana navium'' meaning caravan of ships @ ''Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia'', by Girolamo Caracausi, year 1983 on page 157ref , Article, ''Quatre Titres des Propriétés des Génois à Acre et à Tyr'', curated by Desimoni, in ''Archives de l'Orient Latin, Tome II'', year 1884, publishes a year 1264 Latin document. The document has CARAVANN__ 3 times on page 229 meaning a caravan of ships at seaport Tyre (aka Ṣūr) in Crusader-controlled Levant.ref , caravane @ ''Trésor du langage des galères: Dictionnaire exhaustif'', by Jan Fennis, year 1995, on page 487. Quotes the word in French authors in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 13th century.ref. At that time, Western European merchant ships going to foreign ports on the Mediterranean Sea often travelled in convoys for security reasons. Latin caravana = "convoy of ships" is at the port of Genoa in 1213, 1217, 1241, and 1247 – caravana @ ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, quotations for Latin caravana on page 224. ''Ligure'' means Liguria Province in Italy. The seaport of Genoa is in Liguria Province.ref. At the port of Genoa in the 14th and 15th centuries the laborers who loaded and unloaded the ships were called caravana @ ''Vocabolario Ligure'' by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001 on page 224. Quotes Latin ''laboratores de caravana'' and Latin ''laboratores caravane'' in year 1381 and in 15th century. The quotations are extracted from ''Gli Statuti della Compagnia dei Caravana del porto di Genova (1340-1600)'' curated by Costamagna, year 1965.laboratores de caravana and they had a Trade Union called the Book, ''Gli Statuti della Compagnia dei Caravana del porto di Genova (1340-1600)'', curated by Giorgio Costamagna, year 1965. The bulk of the book publishes Latin documents. Pages 13-14 has year 1381 ''Societate de laboratores de Caravana.... socius de Caravana.... Consorcia de Caravana''.Compagnia dei Caravana. The word has been continuously in use in Europe since the 13th century meaning a convoy, especially in Italy. Late medieval Italian merchants have it in several kinds of applications contexts, spelled carovana @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini''. Gives quotations of the word in 14th century Italian writers.carovana | caravana. It was a rarity in late medieval French with the exception that it is common in French writers who were in the Eastern Mediterranean lands – caravane @ ''Les emprunts arabes et grecs dans le lexique français d’Orient (XIIIe-XIVe siècles)'', by Laura Minervini, year 2012 in journal ''Revue de Linguistique Romane'' Volume 76, on pages 119-120, gives a dozen quotations of caravan in medieval French in various spellings. Full article downloadable as PDF via the interface of the linked page.ref, caravane @ ''Dictionnaire du Moyen Français''. Quotes the word in a 15th century French travel writer who travelled to the Holy Land.ref. English has a rare instance carvan circa 1497, which is in the context of info about the Holy Land in the Eastern Mediterranean – carvan @ Middle English Dictionary, quoting an English text that was published by printing press sometime between 1496 and 1498. The text gives info for people intending to visit the Holy Land.ref. An Italian-to-English dictionary in year 1598 has Italian caravana translated as English caravan John Florio's Italian-to-English dictionary, year 1598. In this dictionary the sounds /v/ and /u/ are not distinguished in the printing. The printed letter 'u' represents sound /v/ or sound /u/.(ref) and the same happens in a French-to-English dictionary in year 1611 Randle Cotgrave's French-to-English dictionary, 1611. It has French ''caravane'' translated as English caravan. Prints it as English ''a carauan or conuoy'' where the letter u is an old way for printing the letter v.(ref). Back in the context of the 12th and early 13th century, any Persian word would necessarily have to have had intermediation through some other language in order to arrive in a Western European language, because there was no contact whatsoever between Persian and any Western European language at the time. In practice the intermediary was Arabic. The great majority of the 12th-13th century Latin records of this word involve travellers in Arabic-speaking lands, particularly Latin Crusaders in the Levant and Latin sea-merchants going to Arabic sea-ports, and none are in Iranian-speaking lands.
﴾۝﴿ English van (type of transport vehicle) arose as a contraction of English "caravan". The early records of "van" as a vehicle are in 2nd quarter of 19th century meaning one covered wagon for transporting goods. English "caravan" has records meaning one wagon since the 1670s. In caravan's early records as one wagon, the caravan was a bus, i.e. a big covered wagon for transporting many people. One such caravan advertised for sale in year 1689 had seats for 18 people. Semantically it had come from a caravan as a convoy of multiple wagons. This word history is documented in New English Dictionary on Historical Principles under caravan @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, year 1893caravan and van #3 @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, year 1928van #3.
30 caraway (aromatic seed), carvone (organic chemical)
كرويا karawiyā | كراويا karāwiyā, caraway. The word with that meaning has many records in medieval Arabic.Note[50] Medieval Italian-Latin carui with the pronunciation CAR-U-I | CA-RU-I, meaning caraway, had come from Arabic karawiyā with same meaning. Carui was in late-medieval and early-modern French pronounced also CAR-U-I. Late-medieval English had wordforms carewy, carwy, carwey, caraway, and carui. The English had come from medieval Latin & French carui pronounced CAR-U-I in Latin & French.Note[50] Today's English "carvone" is a terpene oil from caraway seeds. Carvone has a stem carv- and a suffix chemical suffix -one is used in names of ketones and analogous chemicals-one. The stem is descended from medieval Italian-Latin carui pronounced CAR-VI in Italian (later pronounced CAR-VI in French also). Medieval Italian and Italian-Latin had a sound /u/ not far from a /w/ but did not use a sound /w/ in any words. The conversion of sound /w/ to sound /v/ in going from karawiyā to carui to carvi has parallels in other Arabic loanwords in medieval Italian-Latin.Note[50]
31 carob
خرّوب kharrūb, carob. Carob pods and carob seeds were consumed in the Mediterranean area in the classical Latin era. They had more than one name in classical Latin. But a name of roughly around carrubia with meaning carob is found in Latin from only the 12th century onward and its source was Arabic.Note[51] The medieval Latinate word is the parent of today's Italian carruba, French caroube, English carob.
32 check, checkmate, chess, exchequer, chequered, checkers, unchecked, checkout, checkbox, checkbook...
شاه shāh or الشاه al-shāh, king in the game of chess. The many uses of "check" in English are all descended from Persian shah = "king" and the use of this word in the game of chess to mean "check the king". Chess was introduced to medieval Europe through Arabs; Book ''A History of Chess'' by HJR Murray, year 1913. Pages 394-416 is a chapter titled :
''Chess in Western Christendom: Its Origin and Beginnings.''
history of chess
. The medieval Arabs pronounced the last h in shāh harder and more forcefully than how shah is pronounced in English or in today's Arabic, apparently.Note[52] The word is in mid-11th-century Catalan-Latin as the grammatical plural escachs = "chess" Book, ''Documentos lingüisticos catalanes, s. X-XII'', curated by Luis Rubio García, year 1979. Has two mid-11th century Latin texts with ''escachs''. One of them is in an inventory list dated 1071 having ''parilios III escachs vivoril'' = ''3 ivory chess pairs'' meaning 3 ivory chess sets.(ref). It is in Italian-Latin in mid-11th century as the plural scaci | scachi | scacchi = "chess" An epistle by Petrus Damianus (died 1072) has Latin ''scachum'' or ''scacchum'' and also scac[c]hos, scac[c]ho and scac[c]horum, meaning chess. The book ''A History of Chess'' by HJR Murray, year 1913, prints this epistle in Latin on page 414-415 and translates it to English on page 408-409.(ref). Latin in southern Germany in mid-11th century has the grammatical plural scachi = "chess" The Latin text called ''Ruodlieb'' has ''scachorum ludo'' = ''game of chess''. Ruodlieb is date-assessed 2nd quarter of 11th century. Ruodlieb's author is unknown. The relevant paragraph of Ruodlieb is printed in Latin on page 415 and is put in English translation on page 412 in the book ''A History of Chess'' by HJR Murray, year 1913.(ref). Citations to more records in 11th century Latin are in scacus @ ''Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon'', by J.F. Niermeyer, year 1976, page 941. One of the citations is ''Liber miraculorum Sancte Fidis'' written at an abbey in south France, date-assessed 3rd quarter of 11th century, having ''tabulam scachorum'' and ''scachorum tabula'', each meaning ''board of chess; i.e. chessboard'', where tabulam and tabula is gramatical singular and scachorum is plural.Ref. The plural was derived from the singular scac = "check (in the chess game)". Italian in late 12th and 13th century has singular scaco | scaccho = "check (in chess)" and scaco mato | scacco matto = "checkmate" and plural scacchi = "chess" scacco @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini(ref). The 11th-century instances in Italian-Latin and German-Latin cited above are writing down this Italian word. Medieval & modern Italian matto #2 @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini'' (TLIO). One of TLIO's quotations is ''scaco mato'' in an Italian poem dated the late 12th century, poem originally untitled, poem published with a Latin title ''Proverbia quae dicuntur super natura feminarum'' published in journal ''Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie'' Vol IX, pages 288-332, year 1885-6.scaco mato = "checkmate" was sourced from the medieval Arabic chess term شاه مات shāh māt = "king dies", for which examples in medieval Arabic are at Search for الشطرنج شاه مات at medieval texts at AlWaraq.net. Relevant results include texts by the authors الزمخشري Al-Zamakhshari (died 1144), الذهبي Al-Dhahabi (died 1348), ابن أبي حجلة التلمساني (died 1375), الأبشيهي Al-Abshihi (died c. 1446), and others. The wordform الشاه مات is also at AlWaraq.net and requires a separate search at AlWaraq.net.شاه مات shāh māt @ AlWaraq.net and Search for the phrase SHAH MAT in the book ''A History of Chess'' by HJR Murray, year 1913Murray's History of Chess.Note[4] Phonetically the mangling of the Arabic shāh into the European scac was done in Italian and/or Catalan. Spanish did not alter words in that way when borrowing from Arabic. Examples of phonetically parallel alterations: Italian-Latin medicinal-botanical discussed elsewhere on current pagecuscuta (late 11th century) was from synonymous Arabic كشوت kushūt ; medicinal-botanical In Latin : Canon of Medicine of Ibn Sina (died 1037) translated from Arabic to Latin by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187), annotated by Andreas Alpagus Bellunensis (died 1521). Paragraph for tree-name ''scerbin'' in Book II.Latin scerbin (late 12th century) was from synonymous In Arabic : Paragraph for tree-name شربين in Book II of the Canon of Medicine by Ibn Sina (died 1037). Instances in other medieval Arabic writers are obtainable by search for الشربين at AlWaraq.netArabic شربين sherbīn | sharbīn ; Catalan-Latin discussed elsewhere on the current pagealmatrac (year 1134) and Italian-Latin materacum (year 1232) were from synonymous Arabic مطرح matrah ; Italian-Latin discussed elsewhere on current pagealcanna (mid 12th century) and Catalan-Latin alquena (mid 13th century) were from synonymous Arabic الحنّاء al-hinnāʾ. French eschac and Spanish escaque are from Italian or Catalan. 12th-13th century French has grammatical singular eschac | eschec = "check (in chess)" and plural eschas | esches = "chess" eschec #1 @ ''Dictionnaire Étymologique de l'Ancien Français''(citations). French eschec begot English "check". French esches begot English "chess". 12th-century French has mat with the same meaning as the 12th-century Italian mato, from the Arabic māt, and it begot the "-mate" in English checkmate.
33 cipher, decipher
صفر sifr, the zero digit in the Hindu-Arabic number system. The zero digit was a key innovation for the positional notation of the Hindu-Arabic numbers. Outside of the realm of arithmetic, and before the Hindu numbers arrived into medieval Arabic, the Arabic word sifr meant "empty" – صفر SIFR @ Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon, at bottom of column 2 on page 1697, in Volume 4, year 1872. Sifr meaning ''empty'' is in all the main medieval Arabic dictionaries. Sifr meaning ''zero'' is in only a minority of them. Lane cites sifr meaning zero in dictionary ''L'' = ''Lisan al-Arab'' by Ibn Manzur, completed in year 1290. Lane's Lexicon altlink :
. The word arrived in Latin Europe with the Hindu-Arabic numbers in the 12th century as Latin cifra, which begot English cipher. For the Latins, cifra originally meant numeral zero as a at Wikipedia : Positional notation for numberspositionholder, then it was used to mean any positional numeral, then numerically encoded message. The last meaning, and decipher, dates from the 1470s in Italian, 1490s in French,Note[3] and 1520s in English. But in English cipher also continued in use as a word for nought or zero from the late medieval period until the 19th century.Note[54]
34 civet (perfume), civet (mammal)
زباد zabād, civet perfume, a musky perfume excreted from a gland in the قطط الزباد qitat al-zabād = "civet cats". Al-Mas'udi (died 956) said the zabād perfume was taken from a cat-like animal in India. Shams al-Din Al-Dimashqi (died 1327) said the African civet produced better zabād than the Indies' civets.Note[55] In Italian since the 15th century zibetto = "civet" (Text ''Navigazioni di Alvise da Ca' da Mosto'' by Alvise Cadamosto, dated about year 1465, is a report about the author's expeditions in West Africa. It mentions ''zibetto e pelle di gatti che fanno il zibetto'' as commercial products in West Africa. It is included in Volume 1 of Ramusio's navigations & voyages collection in year 1550. It is reprinted from Ramusio's collection in later centuries.e.g., Poem ''Il Morgante maggiore'' by Luigi Pulci (died 1484) has ''moscado, e zibbetto'', where ''moscado'' means musk perfumee.g., Book ''Notandissimi secreti de l'arte profumatoria'' [Notable secrets of the art of perfumery], year 1560. Has dozens of instances of word ''zibetto''. The book's author's name is stated as Giovanni Ventura Roseto Veneto at the bottom of page 73+1.e.g.). Wordform civet__ starts in Catalan 1372 & French 1401Note[3] (phonetically parallelwise, e.g. Arabic al-qobba –> Spanish alcoba –> French alcove; e.g. classical Latin liber –> French livre). Today the civet smell is manufactured synthetically and the chemical is called Definition at Wikipedia : Civetonecivetone.
﴾۝﴿ Incidentally, Arabic حبّ المسك habb el-misk = "Definition at Wikipedia : Musk seedmusk seed", a seed with a musky perfume, is the source of the Latin botany genus name Abelmoschus and the English name Definition at Dictionary.com : Abelmoskabelmosk.Note[56]
35 coffee, café, caffeine
قهوة qahwa, coffee. Coffee drinking originated in Yemen in the 15th century.Note[57] Arabic qahwa begot Turkish kahve. Turkish speech does not use a /w/ sound in any words. The sound change from /w/ to /v/ in going from Arabic qahwa to Turkish kahve can be seen in many other words going from Arabic into Turkish (e.g. Arabic fatwa –> Turkish fetva, Arabic helwa –> Turkish helva). The Turkish kahve begot Italian caffè in the early 17th century. Caffè became the dominant word-form in European languages during the 17th century. European languages in and around the early 17th century also have numerous records where the word-form was being taken directly from the Arabic; e.g. cahoa in 1610, cahue in 1615, cowha in 1619 (French quaoué in 1646).Note[57]
﴾۝﴿ Incidentally, Definition at Dictionary.com : mochacafe mocha, a type of coffee, is named after the port city of Mocha, Yemen, which was an early coffee exporter.
36 cotton
قطن qutn | qutun, cotton. This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic.Note[2] The word entered Latinate languages in the mid 12th century,Note[3] British Latin early 13th century (coto, cotonus, cotum @ ''Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources'' (''DMLBS''), year 2013. The dictionary uses abbreviated identifiers which are defined in ''DMLBS Bibliography''.ref), and English 14th century. Cotton fabric was produced in ancient India and was known to the ancient Romans as an import, and the cotton plant was grown as a crop in late antiquity in Greco-Roman Egypt. But cotton fabric and cotton fluff were rare in the Latinate-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the later-medieval era at much lower prices.Note[58]
37 crimson
قرمزي qirmizī, color of a class of red dyes used in the medieval era for dyeing silk and wool. The dyes of this class were made from the bodies of certain scale-insects. Their dye colors are crimsons and near-crimsons. Such dyes are sometimes called cochineal dyes in English today. In ancient & early medieval Latin the cochineal dyes were called coccinus, vermiculus, and grana. The Arabic name qirmizī | qirmiz enters the records of the Latinate languages about year 1300, starting in Italy. Initially in Italian it referred to only one of the dyes of this class, the one called Armenian cochineal today. Italian from about 1300 onward has carmesi | chermisi | cremesi meaning this cochineal-type dye and its color. From about 1350 onward it is also in Italian and Italian-Latin in the wordforms carmisino | chermisino | cremesinus, where -ino | Definition at Wikipedia's wiktionary : -inus, a suffix in Latin. Derivatively -ino is a suffix in Italian.-inus is a suffix of Italian and Latin. Overwhelmingly this dye's main use was to dye silks. The word in Italian came from Arabic, and the word in all other European languages came from Italian via exports of silk cloths from Italy.Note[59] In English, the word started in the English wordform crimesin (e.g. cremesin @ Middle English Dictionaryyear 1416) then contracted to crimsin (e.g. cremesin @ Middle English Dictionaryyear 1436) and then altered to crimson (e.g. Search for ''crimson'' and ''crymson'' at ''Early English Books Online'' (''EEBO'')year 1565). Crossref English kermes, which is a scale-insect species producing one of the cochineal dyes.
38 curcuma (plant genus), curcumin (yellow dye)
كركم kurkum, medievally meaning turmeric aka Curcuma Longa root, also medievally meaning certain other yellow dyes, and also saffron. The dyes give colours near saffron yellow. Curcuma plant roots were products of the Indies exclusively. Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) said kurkum is (among other things) a ginger-like root imported from the Indies and it produces a saffron-like dye.Note[60] In medieval Arabic dictionaries kurkum is (among other things) a yellow root and used as a medicine.Note[2] In Latin Europe the early records of curcuma are in 12th & 13th century medicines books that were translated from Arabic.Note[60]
39 damask (textile fabric), Definition at Wikipedia : Damask rosedamask rose (flower)
دمشق dimashq, city of Damascus. The city name Damascus is very ancient and not Arabic. The Definition at Wikipedia : Damson plumdamson plum – earlier called in English 15th century English damasyn = damacene plum = damson plum @ Middle English Dictionarydamasyn and damascene plum and Book, ''The Herball Or Generall Historie of Plantes'', by John Gerarde, year 1597, on page 1314damaske prune – has a word-history in Latin and Greek that goes back to the era when Damascus was part of the Roman empire and so it is not from Arabic. On the other hand, the damask fabric and the damask rose emerged in the European languages when Damascus was an Arabic-speaking city and at emergence they referred to goods originally made in or sold from Arabic Damascus. In 14th century Europe, the damask fabrics had decoration designs that were borrowed from Middle Eastern design models, and the name damask reflected this, and in practice some large percentage of the damask fabrics were made in Italy. The 14th-century Italian damasco is comparable with the 16th-century Italian arabesco = "Definition at Dictionary.com : Arabesquearabesque design style done in Italy and elsewhere".Note[61]
40 elixir
الإكسير al-iksīr, alchemical "Definition at Wikipedia : Philosopher's stonephilosopher's stone", i.e. a pulverized mineral agent by which you could supposedly make gold (also silver) out of copper or tin or other metals. Al-iksīr has lots of records in medieval Arabic in the alchemy sense, for supposedly making gold.Note[62] From Arabic alchemy, it entered Latin as elixir in the 12th century meaning an elixir for supposedly making gold. The 12th century instances in Latin are in texts translated from Arabic. Elixir has many records in Latin in the 13th & 14th centuries. From the Latin, it entered English in the late 14th meaning an elixir for supposedly making gold (elixir @ Middle English Dictionaryexamples). The "elixir of life" magic medication is in 14th and/or 15th century Latin derivatively from the elixir for supposedly making gold. The word elixir is in all European languages today.
41 Definition at Encyclopedia (Wikipedia) : Erg (landform)erg (desert landform), 42 Definition at Encyclopedia (Wikipedia) : Hamadahamada (desert landform), 43 Definition at Encyclopedia (Wikipedia) : Sabkhasabkha (desert landform), 44 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Wadiwadi (desert landform)
In English, erg and hamada are technical words in geomorphology and sedimentology. Their entrypoint was mid-19th-century travel writers in North Africa, followed by late-19th-century studies of the Sahara Desert. Erg means sandy desert landscape, and hamada means rocky desert landscape with very little sand. The words come from Maghrebi Arabic عرق ʿerq = "erg" and Maghrebi Arabic حمادة hamāda = "hamada".Note[63]
سبخة sabkha, salt marsh. This Arabic word is in French and English in the 19th century in geography and geomorphology writers as Search at Google Books with search restricted to publications before year 1900sebka | Search at Google Books with search restricted to publications before year 1900sebkha | Search at Google Books with search restricted to publications before year 1900sabkha. Sabkha with a technical meaning as salt-flat terrain came into general use in sedimentology in the 20th century through numerous studies of the coastal salt flats on the eastern side of the Arabian peninsula.Note[64]
وادي wādī, river valley or gully. In English, a wadi is a non-small gully that is dry, or dry for most of the year, in the desert. 19th century start in English.
45 fennec (desert fox)
فنك fenek, fennec fox. European naturalists borrowed this name in the late 18th century.Note[3] In older Arabic writings, fenek also meant various other mammals.Note[65]
46 garble
غربل gharbal, to sift. Commonplace in Arabic before year 1000.Note[2] Early records in European languages are at seaports in Italy and Catalonia. They include: Latin garbellare = "to sift" in 1191 sifting mastic resin; Latin garbellus = "a sieve for sifting spices" in 1227; Latin garbellare sifting dyestuffs in 1269; Catalan garbellar = "to sift" is sifting spices and dyestuffs in 1315; Italian gherbellare in 1321 sifts spices, drugs and resins.Note[66] Those begot late medieval English garbele = "to sift spices". In Europe at that time, pepper and cinnamon and other Indies spices were imports from the Arabic-speaking Eastern Mediterranean, and the same goes for many botanical drugs, and a few expensive colorants. The spices, drugs and colorants had variable amounts of natural chaff residuals and occasionally had unnatural added chaff. In England among the merchants of these products in the late medieval and early post-medieval centuries, garbel | garble was a frequent word.Note[67] Sifting was the usual meaning in English until the 19th century, and today's meaning grew out from it History of English verb GARBLE @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'', year 1901(Ref).  ﴾۝﴿ In this etymology, the Medieval Latin garbellare = "to sift" is not descended from the Ancient Latin cribellare = "to sift".Note[68]
47 gazelle
غزال ghazāl, gazelle. Two species of gazelle are native in the Middle East. The word's earliest known record in Latin is in the early 12th century as gazela in a book about the Definition at Wikipedia : First CrusadeFirst Crusade. French has a record in the late 12th century as gacele in a book about the Definition at Wikipedia : Third CrusadeThird Crusade, and another early one in French is in the later 13th century as gazel in a book about the Definition at Wikipedia : Seventh CrusadeSeventh Crusade.Note[69] The change of vowel from ā to e in going from ghazāl to gazel is an example of a medieval Arabic vowel shift behavior called "imala".Note[70]
48 ghoul
غول ghūl, ghoul. Ghouls are a well-known part of Arabic folklore. The word's first known appearance in the European languages is French goule in an Arabic-to-French translation of the Definition at Wikipedia : 1001 Arabian Nights stories1001 Arabian Nights tales in 1712.Note[3] The 1712 French was put in English in 1738 or earlier, with English spelling goule Book ''Arabian Nights Entertainments, consisting of One Thousand and One Stories'', VOLUME X, year 1738, where ''Goule'' is on page 123(Ref). Another early appearance in English is in a popular novel, Definition and summary at Wikipedia : ''Vathek, an Arabian Tale''Vathek, an Arabian Tale by William Beckford, in 1786 ghoul @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'' (''NED''), year 1901, gives quotations for selected old instances in English(Ref). Ghouls are in other English translations of the 1001 Arabian Nights tales in the 19th century.
49 giraffe
زرافة zarāfa, giraffe. The giraffe and its distinctiveness was discussed by medieval Arabic writers including Al-Jahiz (died 868) and Al-Mas'udi (died 956).Note[72] The word's earliest records in European languages are in Italian as giraffa in the second half of the 13th century, a time at which a few giraffes were brought to the Kingdom of Sicily and Naples from a zoo in Cairo, Egypt.Note[73] The animal has a few records in classical Latin under a completely different name.
50 harem
حريم harīm, women's quarters in a large household. The Arabic rootword means "forbidden" and thus the word had a connotation of a place where men were forbidden. (Crossref Persian & Urdu Definition at Wikipedia : Zenanazenana for semantics.) In Arabic today harīm means womenkind in general حريم harīm @ AlMaany.com Modern Arabic-to-English Dictionary. Translates harīm as : women, women in general, female members of the family, plural of woman; and also harem.(ref). 17th-century English entered English from Turkish حرم HAREM @ Turkish-to-Latin dictionary by Mesgnien Meninski, year 1680, page 1749. Mesgnien Meninski lived in Istanbul for 9 years. His dictionary has also integrated coverage of Arabic and Persian. The dictionary's title is ''Thesaurus Linguarum Orientalium: Turcicae, Arabicae, Persicae''.harem | حريم HARĪM @ Turkish-to-Latin dictionary by Mesgnien Meninski, year 1680, page 1753harīm, where the meaning was closer to what the English is.
51 hashish
حشيش hashīsh, hashish. In Arabic hashīsh has the literal meaning "dry herb", "rough grass" and "weed". It also means hemp grown for textile fiber. Its earliest record as a nickname for cannabis drug is in 13th century Arabic.Note[74] Its earliest in English is in a traveller's report from Egypt in 1598. It is rare in English until the 19th century. The wordform in English today dates from the late 18th century.Note[75] The word entered all the bigger Western European languages in the early to mid 19th century if you don't count scarce mentions in travellers' reports before then.
52 henna, Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Alkanetalkanet (plant), Definition at Wikipedia : AlkannaAlkanna (plant), Definition at Wikipedia : Alkanninalkannin (organic chemical)
الحنّاء al-hinnāʾ, henna. Henna is a reddish natural dye made from the leaves of a plant that is native in a climate that has high temperatures all year. Henna dye has been used in the Red Sea region from time immemorial. The English word "henna" dates from about 1600 and came directly from Arabic through English-language travellers' reports from the Middle East.Note[76] Alkanet dye is a reddish natural dye made from the roots of a Mediterranean-region plant (namely the plant Alkanna Tinctoria). The word alkanet is found in late medieval English and French. It has a Latinate diminutive suffix -et. Its stem came from medieval Italian-Latin alcanna meaning "henna", which was from Arabic al-hinnāʾ meaning henna.Note[77]
53 hookah (water pipe for smoking)
حقّة huqqa, a pot, jar or round container. The word arrived in English from India in the 2nd half of the 18th century meaning hookah hookah @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'', year 1901(ref). The word in India was from Persian, and the Persian was from Arabic. The Arabic source-word did not mean hookah, although it re-entered Arabic later meaning hookah.
54 hummus (food recipe)
حمّص himmas, chickpea(s). Chickpeas were consumed in the Mediterranean region in the ancient era. For the medieval Arabs, chickpeas were frequently eaten Medieval Arabic cookery book in English translation : ''Ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq's Tenth-Century Baghdadi Cookbook'', translated by Nawal Nasrallah, year 2007. Book has 110 instances of ''chickpea''.(e.g.) and were called himmas.Note[2] In the 19th century in Syria & Lebanon & Egypt the word was pronounced HOMMOS.Note[78] This was borrowed into Turkish as humus. The Turkish entered English in the mid-20th century. The Turkish and English hummus means mashed chickpeas mixed with tahini and certain flavourings. In Arabic that is called himmas bil tahina and hommos bit-tahina. The hummus recipe in today's most common form seems to have started in Syria & Lebanon in the 2nd half of the 19th century. But in the Middle East in the medieval centuries people ate mashed chickpeas with various flavour enhancers, and in at least one medieval case tahini was mixed in with the chickpeas (Book, ''Medieval Arab Cookery: Essays and Translations'', by M. Rodinson, A.J. Arberry and C. Perry, year 2001. On page 383 it has one medieval recipe that mixes mashed chickpeas, vinegar, oil, tahineh [read: tahini], and spices and herbs.ref, Book, ''Delights from the Garden of Eden: A Cookbook and History of the Iraqi Cuisine'', by Nawal Nasrallah, year 2003, year 2013. On page 125 it says a 14th-century Egyptian cookbook titled ''Kanz al-Fawa’id'' has recipes for a food named ''himmas kisa'' and at least one of these recipes is : Boiled chickpeas are mashed, then tahini with vinegar is added to the mash, and then other edibles are mixed into the mash.ref, Book, ''Medieval Cuisine of the Islamic World: A Concise History With 174 Recipes'', by Lilia Zaouali, year 2007. On page 65 it has a medieval recipe for adding flavourings to puree of chickpeas. The recipe does not use tahini.ref). See also Addendum for Middle Eastern cuisine words below.
55 Definition at Dictionary.com : Afreetifrit or afreet (mythology)
عفريت ʿifrīt, an ancient demon popularized by the 1001 Arabian Nights tales.
56 intarsia (decorative wood inlay work)
ترصيع tarsīʿa, decorative inlay work. Medieval Arabic has plenty of records of tarsīʿa with this meaning.Note[2] It contains Arabic root verb رصع @ variety collection of Arabic dictionaries. One of the dictionaries is ''Arabic-English Lexicon'' by Edward William Lane (died 1876). The meaning of the verb is to put together, to join and attach together.رصع rasaʿa and Arabic verbal noun prefix Book, ''All The Arabic You Never Learned The First Time Around'', by James M. Price, year 1997, on page 139, in section headed ''Verbal Nouns''. Says the vast majority of Form II verbal nouns are constructed this way : ''A prefix of ت is added to the word while a sukuun is placed over the first radical. Then a ي, acting as a long vowel, is placed between the second and third radicals.''تَـ ta. The root verb means "to join together" and hence the noun rootwise means "joinery". Late-medieval and modern Italian has tarsia | tarsie = "decorative wood inlay work". An Italian dictionary in year 1681 defined tarsia as "a sort of mosaic made of wood... of diverse pieces of colored wood" tarsia @ ''Vocabolario toscano dell' arte del disegno'', by Filippo Baldinucci, year 1681, on page 161. ''Intarsiare'' is defined as doing inlay work of the ''tarsia'' kind, on page 77.(ref). With same meaning, late-medieval and modern Italian has intarsio, intarsiare, intarsiato dated 1370s @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Originiintarsiata, in which an intensifying Italian-Latin Definition at Wikipedia's wiktionary : in-, a prefixin- = "in" has been inlaid in the word. In 19th-century English it was commonly spelled tarsia (Search for the phrase ''Tarsia Work'' in a search of text contents at ARCHIVE.ORG, doing this search through ARCHIVE.ORG's own text indexing facility.examples, Search for a word ''tarsia'' somewhat near a word ''work'' using SEARCH.GOOGLE.COM, with search results restricted to texts at the site archive.org.examples).
57 jar (food or drink container)
جرّة jarra, a large earthenware jar, an upright container made of pottery. Among the later-medieval Latins, a jarra was a large jar for the commercial transport of olive oil especially, and of other products to a lesser degree. Commercial documents in Italian-Latin at seaport of Genoa have jarra | iarra in years 1223, 1240, 1252, 1279, etc; records at Catalan seaports have gerra starting in 1249; Sicilian Italian iarra starts in the 1280s; coastal Occitan jarra starts early 14th century.Note[79] The Arabic jarra is commonplace centuries earlier.Note[2] The word was adopted from Arabic by Italian & Catalan sea-merchants, and then it was transferred from Italian & Catalan into Spanish.Note[79] In England the first records are in 1418 and 1421 as a container of imported olive oil. In its early centuries of use in English a "jar" was most often a container of vegetable oil for use as fuel for oil-lamps, it was earthenware, and it was considerably bigger than the typical jar in English today.Note[80]
58 jasmine
ياسمين yāsimīn, jasmine. For the medieval Arabs, jasmine was well-known and they had more than one species. The Arabic word was from Persian.Note[81] Jasmine plants were unknown to the ancient Greeks & Latins. Among the Latins, the word's earliest or near-earliest record is in a mid-13th-century Arabic-to-Latin translation of a medicine book, in which oil containing extracts of jasmin flowers is mentioned as a medicine. The word's records in the vernacular Latinate languages start in the 14th century. The plant was grown in southern Latin Europe in the 14th century, which is the earliest recorded for the plant growing in Latin Europe under any name Note[82].  Definition at Wikipedia : Jasmone, an organic chemicalJasmone and Definition at Wikipedia : Jasmonate, an organic chemicaljasmonate are 20th-century organic chemistry words derived from jasmin.
59 Definition at Wikipedia : Jerboajerboa, Definition at Wikipedia : Gerbillinae, a taxonomic family of gerbil-type animalsGerbillinae + Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Gerbilgerbil, 60 Definition at Wikipedia : Gundigundi, 61 Definition at Wikipedia : Jirdjird
These are four classes of rodents that are native in desert or semi-desert environments in North Africa and Asia, and not found natively in Europe. Arabic يربوع yarbūʿa = "jerboa" entered Latin in the 17th century as aljarbuo | jarboa | jerboa Year 1692 book about the animals in the Bible : ''Hierozoïcon, sive Bipertitum opus de animalibus Sacrae Scripturae'', by Samuel Bochart (died 1667), edited by Johann Leusden (died 1699). Bochart and Leusden were able to read Hebrew and Arabic. The book's spellings are mostly Aljarbuo and Jarbuo. The book has spellings Jarboa and Jerboa also. The rodent called يربوع is the subject of column pages 1010-1016.(e.g.). The pronunciation of jerboa was YERBOA in Latin and in German etc, but not so in French etc. In the 18th century, the wordform jerboa continued in use, and additionally the wordforms jerbo | gerboa | gerbo came into use in books by European naturalists and travellers Search at GOOGLE BOOKS, with restriction to books published in the 18th century(ref). In the early 19th century a European naturalist created "gerbil" as a Introductory summary at Wikipedia : Diminutive forms in LatinLatin diminutive of gerbo Book ''Addenda au FEW XIX (Orientalia)'', by Raymond Arveiller, year 1999 on pages 132-134. Naturalist was Anselme Desmarest (died 1838).(ref). North African Arabic قندي qundī = "gundi" was 18th century European borrowing. North African Arabic colloquial جرد jird = "jird", being a variant of standard Arabic جرذ jeredh/juradh = "rodent", was 18th-century European borrowing.Note[83]
62 Definition at Dictionary.com : Jinnjinn (mythology)
الجنّ al-jinn, the jinn. The roles of jinns and ghouls in Arabic folklore are discussed by e.g. Al-Mas'udi (died 956). Jinns are in the 1001 Arabian Nights tales.
63 Definition at Dictionary.com : Julepjulep (type of drink)
جلاب julāb, rose-water Note[2] and a syrupy drink جلاب Julāb in Arabic has been used for all sorts of syrups and sugary things diluted in water, although what it denotes in its narrow sense is rose-water. This is mentioned in translator's annotations in an Arabic-to-French translation of a book by Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (died 1231), translated by Silvestre de Sacy in year 1810, where the annotation on page 317 is annotating the translation on page 312.(ref), including a sweet base for a drinkable medicine. The Arabic-to-Latin medical translators Constantinus Africanus (died c. 1087) and Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187) are the early users of the word in Latin. They spelled it iulep in Latin (In Latin : Arabic-to-Latin translations of translator Constantinus Africanus, volume 1, edition of Basel year 1536ref, In Latin : Arabic-to-Latin translation of medicine works of Al-Razi (died c. 930) in translation by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187). Link is year 1544 edition at Basel.ref). From the Latin medicines books, it arrived in English meaning a sugary drink. Like the word syrup, julep's early records in English and Latin are primarily in medicines writers (julep @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, year 1901English examples). Like candy, sugar, and syrup, the word "julep" arrived in medieval European languages in conjunction with imports of cane sugar from Arabic-speaking lands.
64 jumper #1 @ Concise Oxford English Dictionary. The word's meaning in British English is different from the meaning in North American English.jumper  (meaning a pullover sweater or a sleeveless dress)
جبّة jubba, an outer garment ''Dictionnaire détaillé des noms des vêtements chez les Arabes'', by Reinhart Dozy, year 1845, medieval 'jubba' on pages 107 - 109(ref), Note[2]. In medieval Arabic, jubba was a common word for an outer garment. It did not have a narrow definition. In European languages the word is first seen in southern Italy in Latin in 1053 and 1101 as iuppa, meaning an expensive garment and made of silk, not otherwise described, and the same is in northern Italy in 1157. Approximately the first record in French is at about 1180 in a poem in which a Christian princess wears "a purple-ish jupe well-made of Muslim workmanship". Another French poet about 1190 depicts Muslims wearing brocaded jupes. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Latin iuppum | juppum, French jupe, Italian giub(b)a, Spanish aliuba | aljuba, all meant a luxury jacket garment.Note[84] In English there is 14th-century ioupe | joupe, 15th-century iowpe | jowpe, 17th-century jup, juppe, and jump, 18th jupo and jump, 19th jump and jumper, all of them meaning a jacket.Note[85]
65 Definition at Dictionary.com : Kermeskermes : Definition at Wikipedia : Kermes insect genuskermes insects, Definition at Wikipedia : Kermes dyekermes red dye
قرمز qirmiz, red dye from the crushed bodies of certain scale-insects. Arabic dictionaries written medievally say al-qirmiz is "Armenian red dye"Note[2], which means the red dye from the Armenian cochineal scale-insects of today's English, and this is not the same thing as the red dye from the Kermes scale-insects of today's English. The word was in use in the Middle East for centuries before it started to be used in the Western European languages. In the West it started about year 1300, initially in Italy, and initially meaning exclusively the Armenian cochineal dye.Note[59] In the Western languages the meaning changed to today's Kermes insect species beginning about year 1550.Note[59] The mineral Definition at Wikipedia : Kermesite, a type of mineralKermesite was so named simply because of the red color the mineral typically has 'Kermes mineral' (18th century start in English) and 'kermesite' (19th century start in English) @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'', year 1901(ref). Crossref crimson, which descends from the same rootword as Kermes.
66 Definition at Dictionary.com : Khatkhat | Qat and khat are two English spellings of the same wordqat, Definition at Wikipedia : Catha (plant)Catha (plant)
قات qāt, the leaves of the plant Catha edulis and the stimulant they contain. English khat came directly from Arabic qāt in the mid 19th century. The technical botany name Catha came from the same Arabic word in the 18th century (the originating botanist was Peter Forskal, who visited Yemen in 1762-63). The organic chemistry names Definition at Wikipedia : Cathinonecathinone, Definition at Wikipedia : Methcathinonemethcathinone and Definition at Wikipedia : Cathinecathine are 20th century from Catha.
67 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Kohlkohl (cosmetics)
كحل kuhl | kohl, finely powdered galena (PbS), stibnite (Sb2S3), and similar sooty-colored powder used for eye-shadow, eye-liner, and mascara. The word with that meaning was in many travellers' reports in English, from travellers in Arabic lands, for centuries before it was adopted natively in English.Note[86] Crossref alcohol which was transferred from the same Arabic word at an earlier time by a different pathway.
68 Definition at Dictionary.com : Laclac, Definition at Dictionary.com : Lacquerlacquer, Definition at Dictionary.com : Lake #2. It is a class of pigments.lake #2, Definition at Dictionary.com : Shellac (''shell lac'')shellac
لكّ lakk | lukk | likk, lac.Note[87] Lac is a particular kind of pigmented resin, native in the Indies, used to make a varnish and also used as a red colorant. In the medieval era, lac was valued foremostly as a red colorant. The medieval Arabs imported the lac from India. The medieval Arabic word lakk and Persian lāk came from Sanskritic lākh | lakkha = "lac". The word commences in Latin as lacca in a physical manuscript dated about year 800 AD, although the word is very scarce in Latin until after year 1150. Late medievally it is quite common in Latin. The word is in Spanish, Catalan, Italian and French in the 13th-14th centuries. It is not correct that English "lac" came directly from India in the 16th century. The English "lac" has its ancestry in the medieval Latinate lacca, and the same is true for the -lac part of "shellac" and "lacquer" and "lake (a pigment)".Note[87] However, there is a historical question over deriving the early medieval Latin lacca from the Arabic lakk. Early medieval Greek has λαχά[ς] lacha[s] meaning a red colorant, with records likely before the 8th century. The early records in Greek create the possibility that the word arrived in Mediterranean commerce from India without Arabic intermediation. The Latin lacca documented about year 800 possibly arrived in Latin through early medieval sea-commerce in the lac product with no Arabic intermediation involved.Note[88]
﴾۝﴿ Incidentally, two lesser-seen varnishing resins with Arabic word-descent are Definition at Wikipedia : Sandaracsandarac from Arabic سندروس sandarūs Note[89] and Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Elemielemi from Arabic اللامي al-lāmī Note[90].
69 lemon
ليمون līmūn, lemon. The cultivation of lemons, limes, and bitter oranges was introduced to the Mediterranean region by the Arabs in the mid-medieval era. The ancient Greeks & Romans knew the Definition at Wikipedia : Citroncitron, but not the lemon, lime, or orange. In Arabic, a single rootword underlies the names for the two fruits lemon and lime. Human use and cultivation of the lime fruit started in northern India. Less certainly, the same is probably true for the lemon. There is no evidence of human cultivation of the lemon anywhere in the world before the medieval era.Note[91] Ibn al-Awwam (died circa 1200) distinguished ten varieties of citrus fruits grown in Andalusia and spelled the lemon as اللامون al-lāmūn and الليمون al-līmūn. Abdallatif al-Baghdadi (died 1231) distinguished almost as many different citrus varieties in Egypt and spelled the lemon as الليمون al-līmūn. The Arabic word came from Persian.Note[92] At least three Latin authors of the 13th century said lemon juice is suitable as a condiment on food and they spelled it limon in Latin (Text, ''Thietmari Peregrinatio'', by Thietmar, dated shortly after 1218. Thietmar was a German Christian pilgrim who visited Jerusalem and Damascus in 1217-1218. He says in Latin : ''They have there [in the Levant] LIMONES trees, whose fruit is acid and is valued as a seasoning.'' Text reprinted as an appendix in book ''Peregrinatores Medii Aevi'', curated by Laurent, edition year 1873.ref, Jacobus de Vitriaco (died 1240) lived in the Crusader-controlled Levant in the 1220s. His book ''Orientalis'', aka ''Historia Hierosolymitana'', says LIMONES are acidic fruits whose juice is good for flavouring meat and fish. In the paragraph where he says it, much of what he says has much in common with Thietmar's report, and presumably was adapted from Thietmar. Link goes to year 1596 Latin edition page 170.ref, limon @ ''Clavis Sanationis sive Synonyma Medicinae'' by Simon of Genoa aka Simon Januensis, dated about 1292, a medicines dictionary. It says : LIMON is a fruit with a lovely smell, has plenty of juice, but very acidic, suitable for seasonings, and it is consumed in salt condiments.ref). Records in Latinate start in the late 12th but are scarce until the later 14th ( illustration )Agriculture book of Petrus de Crescentiis in Italy in Latin around year 1309 has a two-page chapter about the citron tree and its fruit, but it has no mention of lemon, lime or orange (Book in Latin : ''Ruralia Commoda'' by Petrus de Crescentiis, aka Piero Crescientio, aka Pietro de Crescenzi, written around 1305-1309. The linked copy was published in 1538. It has an index of plants at the front pages.ref). The non-mention of lemon in Petrus de Crescentiis is a symptom and illustration that the lemon tree was uncommon in Italy up to that time. Another illustration is the set of six early records of Italian limone quoted at the ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini'' (limone #1 @ TLIOTLIO) : approximately none of the six is earlier than 14th century, and three of the six are within travelers' reports from the Middle East. As reported by TLIO, the word lemon is in an Italian language version of the medieval Latin medicines text Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum, a text which has multiple versions in Latin. Contrary to TLIO, this Salernitan medicines item in Italian is almost surely 14th century, not 13th, because the lemon is absent in the Salernitan writings in Latin in the 13th century. In particular, there is no lemon in the five-volume Salernitan medicine collection In five volumes : ''Collectio Salernitana'', medieval Latin medical texts of the Salernitan School, published in the 1850s. The medieval date is the 150 years 1175-1325 for the bulk of the five volumes of texts. Volume 1 includes a version of the ''Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum''. That version does not have lemon. The ''Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum'' has many versions. Most versions cannot be well dated.Collectio Salernitana. During the course of the 14th century the lemon becomes increasingly mentioned in Italy (in Latin and Italian). In medieval documents in Spanish, there is not a known lemon until the 14th century with one exception in an Arabic-to-Spanish translation of a book about astrology & magic whose date is 13th century – ref: search @ ''Corpus Diacrónico del Español'' (''CORDE''). The corpus has ''limones o oliuas o maçanas'' in a document dated 1256. Lemons are not in the Arabic book titled the ''Ghāya'', and are not in the Latin book titled the ''Picatrix'', but the 1256 Spanish document and its date is discussed in the article ''Between the Ghāya and Picatrix. I: The Spanish Version'', by David Pingree, year 1981.CORDE. Likewise in Catalan the records start in the 14th century..  A derived word in modern organic chemistry in English is Definition at Wikipedia : Limonene is an organic chemicallimonene.
70 lime (fruit)
ليم līm, meaning sometimes any citrus fruit, sometimes lemon and lime fruit, and sometimes a lime fruit. Medieval Arabic writers who used līm with the meaning of a lime fruit include Al-Qalqashandi (died 1418) Al-Qalqashandi's encyclopedia القلقشندي - صبح الأعشى has four instances of والليمون والليم = ''and the lemon and the lime''. One instance is المحمضات الأترج والليمون والليم والنارنج = ''the citruses citron & lemon & lime & orange''. Link downloads complete encyclopedia as one big searchable PDF file.(Ref) and Ibn Batuta (died 1369) In Arabic : Ibn Batuta's ''Voyages'', in year 1877 edition in volume III on page 126 line 4, where Ibn Batuta speaks of ''al-līm wa al-līmūn'', which implies that for him the ''līm'' and the ''līmūn'' were two distinct fruits.(Ref) and Ibn Khaldoun (died 1406) In Arabic : Ibn Khaldoun's مقدمة Muqaddima, in the edition of year 1858 in Tome 1st, Part 2nd, on page 259. Ibn Khaldoun's الليم ''al-līm'' is read as meaning ''lime fruit''.(Ref).Note[4] Arabic wordform līm historically arrived later than Arabic wordform līmūn; see lemon. Arabic līm was a Back-formation is defined as new word formation by deleting part of an existing word back-formation from Arabic līmūn. Spanish and Italian lima means lime fruit today. In bygone centuries Spanish and Italian lima | lumia meant also lemon-lime varieties distinct from today's lime. A Spanish-to-Arabic dictionary in year 1505 translated Spanish lima as Arabic lim lima @ Spanish-to-Arabic dictionary of Pedro de Alcala, aka Petrus Hispanus aka Petri Hispani, dated 1505, republished in year 1883, having ''lima arbol'' and ''lima fruta'' on page 293(Ref). Today in English, "lime" has become a color-name as well as a fruit. The color-name originated by reference to the fruit. It can be noted in passing that all the following English color-names are descended from Arabic words (not necessarily Arabic color-words): at Wikipedia : Apricot (color)apricot (color), at Wikipedia : Aubergine (color)aubergine (color), at Wikipedia : Coffee (color)coffee (color), at Wikipedia : Crimson (color)crimson (color), at Wikipedia : Lemon (color)lemon (color), at Wikipedia : Lime (color)lime (color), at Wikipedia : Orange (color)orange (color), at Wikipedia : Saffron (color)saffron (color), spinach green (color), at Wikipedia : Tangerine (color)tangerine (color).
71 Definition at Dictionary.com : Loofah (also spelled luffa)luffa or loofah
لوف lūf Note[93], luffa. Luffa is a tropical plant, native in Indochina. It was under cultivation with irrigation in Egypt in the early 17th century. The name was transferred into European botany nomenclature from Egypt in 1638.Note[93] The name has been in English botany books since the mid 18th century as "Luffa". In the later 19th century it re-entered English in non-botanical discourse in the wordform loofah @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, year 1908Loofah referring to the at Wikipedia : Luffa aegyptiaca, a plant fiber used as a household scrubbing spongeluffa scrubbing sponge.
72 lute (musical instrument)
العود al-ʿaūd, the oud, i.e. the lute. Al-ʿaūd was one of the chief musical instruments of the Arabs throughout the medieval era.Note[95] The word lute is in all European languages today. It has its early records in European languages as Spanish alod about 1256 ( ref )An astrology book, "El Libro Conplido en los Iudizios de las Estrellas" is an Arabic-to-Spanish translation dated about 1256. It has text: "E si Mercurio fuere, e Venus e Mars amos le cataren, di que es estrumente de ioglerias, assi como alod o rota o trompas o atamores." The three words rota, trompas, atamores are names of musical instruments. ''Libro complido en los judizios de las estrellas'', curated by Sánchez-Prieto et al., year 2006Ref for full text , Article, ''Libro Conplido en los Juizios de las Estrellas'', by A.R. Nykl, year 1954 in journal ''Speculum'', on page 91. Altlink @ search @ https://booksc.orgref for date. But this usage in Spanish, in translating an Arabic astrology book, should not be taken to establish that the word was in use in Spanish as a musical instrument at the time. To show that the word was actually in use in Spanish in the timeframe as a musical instrument you would need to show that the word was present in some other Spanish documents. Other Spanish documents do not start to show up until about 80 years later and then they use a different wordform., Italian-Latin lauto | liuto 1265 Lautum #2 @ Du Cange's glossary of medieval Latin, quoting legislation of the city of Bologna, with date 1250-67, that prohibited people from playing lutes and violins and other instruments at nighttime(ref), Italian-Latin liuto 1271 ''Liuto'' is a musical instrument in text ''Practica Artis Music[a]e'', by Amerus, dated 1271, written in Latin in Italy. Text has : ''viella, symphonia, liuto et huiusmodi instrumentis patet''. Text was printed in a booklet with English introduction and curation by Cesarino Ruini, year 1977, and it has been online at the anthology ''Thesaurus Musicarum Latinarum''.(ref), Catalan laut 1274 llaüt @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'' by Alcover & Moll, year 1962, cites ''laüt'' meaning lute in book ''de Contemplació en Deu'' by Ramon Llull dated 1274(ref), French leut about 1285 ( ref )Adenet le Roi, aka Adenes li Rois, is the author of poetry dated 1275-1290 (Adenet le Roi @ Arlima.net : Archives de littérature du Moyen Âgeref for date). He has: ''harperes... leuteres'' = "harp players... lute players" ‒ ''Berte aus grans piés'', by Adenés li Rois (aka Adenet le Roi), curated by Scheler, year 1874, on page 12, on line 296ref. He has: ''leuteurs... flauteurs... gigueours'' = "lute players... flute players... fiddle players" ‒ ''Li roumans de Cléomadès par Adenès li Rois'', curated by Van Hasselt, year 1865, Volume 1 on page 91 on line 2886ref. He has also: ''harpes... leus, rubebes et kitaires'' = ''harps... lutes, rababs and guitars'' ‒ ''Li roumans de Cléomadès par Adenès li Rois'', curated by Van Hasselt, year 1865, Volume 2 on page 251 on line 17275ref. Adenet le Roi writes leus as the grammatical plural of leut. Thereby he deletes the letter 't' in the spelling of the plural. Likewise he has the spellings "tel torment... grant damage... grans tormens" = "such torment... big damage... big torments"., Spanish alaút 1343 Long poem date-assessed 1330-1343 : ''Libro de Buen Amor'' by Juan Ruiz, in edition curated by Julio Cejador y Frauca, year 1913, in two volumes. The relevant word is in Volume 2 only. But Volume 1 has the curator's description of the manuscripts. Some manuscripts have spelling ''laúd''. Oldest manuscript is dated 1389 and has spelling ''alaút''.(ref). Laúd has been the usual wordform in Spanish since about 1400. In Portuguese the usual modern wordform for lute is alaúde which is notable for good phonetic fit to al-ʿaūd. Medievally the al-ʿaūd of the Arabs and the lute of the Latins were essentially the same instrument. The indications are good that the Latins borrowed the instrument design from the Arabs, as well as the word.Note[95] The word's earliest unambiguous record in English is in the 2nd half of the 14th century (per search @ Middle English DictionaryMiddle English Dictionary).
73 Definition at Dictionary.com : Macramemacramé
The textile fabric word "macrame" or "macrama" was not used in Western European languages before the 19th century. Macrame fabric was made by Western Europeans long before they started using the word macrame. The way the word entered 19th century Western Europe is not well reported and specially the way it took on the specific meaning of "macrame" is not well reported. Nevertheless everybody airing an opinion today says the European word was probably or definitely from an Arabic rootword, usually saying it came to Europe through Turkish. Medieval and early modern Arabic Headword قرم @ medieval dictionary ''Al-Sihāh'' by Al-Jawhari (died c. 1002) has:
.القِرامُ: سِترٌ فيه رقمٌ ونقوشٌ. وكذلك المِقْرَمُ والمِقْرَمَةُ = ''Al-qirām is a curtain with figures and design patterns. And it also occurs in the wordforms al-miqram and al-miqrama.''
مقرمة miqrama
was an embroidered covering cloth used as curtaining.Note[2] This word miqrama is rootwise formally related to the Arabic words Johnson's Richardson's Arabic-to-English dictionary year 1852قرام qirām = "embroidered curtain or veil", Johnson's Richardson's Arabic-to-English dictionary year 1852مقرم miqram = "tapestry", AlMaany.com modern Arabic-English dictionaryقرم qaram = "to nibble persistently", and Johnson's Richardson's Arabic-to-English dictionary year 1852مقرم maqram = "nibbling". Those words got transferred into Turkish. Mesgnien Meninski's dictionary of Turkish in year 1680 has those words as Turkish & Arabic words, and additionally has Turkish مقرمه maqramah @ ''Thesaurus Linguarum Orientalium: Turcicae, Arabicae, Persicae'' by F. Mesgnien Meninski, year 1680, Volume 4, page-column 4839. In this dictionary the notation ''t.'' means Turkish, it means ''this word is not used in Arabic'', ''this word is specifically Turkish''. When a word is not labelled ''t.'' nor ''a.'' nor ''p.'', it means the word is used in Turkish & Arabic & Persian.مقرمه maqramah = "napkin, handkerchief", which is an additional meaning in Turkish arising out of the Turkish & Arabic مقرمة miqrama = "embroidered covering cloth". Miqrama | Maqrama fits good phonetically for macrame, but a gap in semantics remains unexplained.
74 magazine
مخازن makhāzin, storehouses, storerooms.Note[2] Makhāzin is somewhat frequent in medieval Arabic texts. It is composed of Arabic khazan = "to store" and the Arabic noun prefix Book, ''A Grammar of the Arabic Language'', by Caspari, Wright, Smith, Goeje, year 1898, prefix م 'm-' discussed under the section heading ''Nouns of Place and Time'', in volume 1, pages 124-130ma-. In the European languages the early records are in 13th century Latin as magazenum meaning "storeroom". The locations of writing of the 13th century Latin records are Mediterranean seaports, particularly Marseille, Pisa, Venice, Genoa, Palermo, and Acre. In at least half a dozen of these 13th century records the Latin magazenum is referring to commercial storage at North African seaports, including Tunis and Alexandria.Note[96] The word with meaning "storeroom" is still used today in Italian, Catalan, French, and Russian. Sometimes used with that meaning in English in the 16th to 18th centuries. But more commonly in English in those centuries a magazine was an ammunitions storage place, or a store of gunpowder, and later a receptacle for storing bullets. A magazine in the publishing sense of the word started in the English language and its start was in the 17th century meaning a store of information about military or navigation subjects (magazine @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'' (''NED''), year 1908, gives quotations for early and old usages of "magazine" in English.ref, The lexicon at ''Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales'' has a page for French word ''magazine'' and a separate page for French word ''magasin''. The lexicon summarizes the early and old usages of these two words in France. French ''magasin'' begot English ''magazine'' and afterwards the English ''magazine'' begot French ''magazine''.ref).
75 marcasite (an iron sulfide mineral)
مرقشيثا marqashīthā, iron sulfide.Note[98] Marqashīthā is in a 9th century Arabic minerals book. In the 10th and 11th centuries it is in minerals books by Al-Razi (died circa 930) and Al-Biruni (died circa 1050), and others. In European languages the earliest records are Latin marchasita | marcasita | marcacida in Arabic-to-Latin translations of minerals and medicines books dated late 12th & early 13th century in Latin, including the translations ''Liber de Aluminibus et Salibus'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation. Latin dated about 1200. Arabic author influenced by a minerals book by Al-Razi (died c. 930). Surviving Arabic & Latin texts are published in ''Das Buch der Alaune und Salze'', curated by Julius Ruska, year 1935. In section AG §39, Arabic مرقشيثا marqashīthā (page 43) is translated as Latin markasita (page 68). Section G §71 has Latin marchasita.ref , The alchemy book ''Liber de Septuaginta'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation. Text has not survived in Arabic. The date of the Latin is estimated around 1200. The Latin is published in ''Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de l'Institut de France'', volume 49, year 1906, pages 310-363. It has almarchasita on page 346, marchasita on pages 341 & 352, marchasite on pages 335, 351 & 354.ref , ''De Anima in Arte Alchimiae'' is Arabic-to-Latin translation dated early 13th century Latin. The Latin is in the volume ''Artis Chemicae Principes'', year 1572, from page 1 to page 471 (whereas pages 473 - 767 is unrelated later alchemy). It has two dozen instances of marchasita or marcasita. Page 77 has ''armarcasita'' which represents al-marqashīthā.ref , ''Liber Secretorum Bubacaris'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation, translating كتاب الاسرار ''Kitāb al-Asrār'' of Abu Bakr Al-Razi (died c. 930). It survives in Latin in more than one version. Extracts from Latin versions are in ''Ubersetzung und Bearbeitungen von Al-Razi's Buch Geheimnis der Geheimnisse'', year 1935, where Latin MARCHASITA is on page 37.ref , ''Liber Sacerdotum'' is a Latin compilation about minerals, colorants, and metallurgy. Date assessed about 1200 as a compilation. Some parts of it are from an Arabic-to-Latin translation, and other parts are not. It has 15 instances of ''marcacida'' or ''almarcacida'' meaning the Arabic marqashīthā. Published in Latin in ''La Chimie au Moyen Âge, Tome 1'', curated by Berthelot, year 1893 on pages 187-228.ref , Book in Latin : ''Liber Canonis Medicinae'' of Ibn Sina (died 1037) translated from Arabic to Latin by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187). Has Latin marchasita (which is OCR'd as marchafita) translating Ibn Sina's Arabic مارقشيتا mārqashītā | مارقشيثا mārqashīthā.ref. The word is easy to find in later medieval Latin writers who were influenced by Arabic mineralogy (Article, ''The Texts of Michael Scot's Ars Alchemie'', curated by Harrison Thomson, year 1938 in journal ''Osiris''. Publishes 13th-century texts associated with the name of Michael Scot (died 1230s). Guessed as written late 13th and thus not written by Michael Scot. The texts have marcasite in the wordforms: markasida, margassita, marthasita. And also in the wordforms: markacida, margassite, marghassita, martasita.e.g.). From the Latin, it is in English from early 15th century onward. Today's English marcasite is defined scientifically as orthorhombic iron sulfide, but at Google Image Search : photographs of marcasite jewelrymarcasite jewelry is jewelry made from isometric iron sulfide.Note[99]
76 massicot (a Lead oxide mineral)
مسحقونيا masḥaqūniyā | مسحوقونيا masḥūqūniyā, a glazing material applied in the manufacture of pottery. In today's English, massicot is defined as orthorhombic Lead monoxide. In late medieval and early modern Europe, the most common use of Lead monoxide (including massicot) was in Lead-based pottery glazes. The history of the word massicot in the European languages begins with later-medieval Latin massacumia which was a pottery glazing material in Italy in the late 13th century, sometimes involving Lead monoxide and sometimes not, and it came from Arabic masḥaqūniyā (pronounced mas-ha-qun-iya) meaning approximately the same.Note[100]
77 mattress, Definition at TheFreeDictionary : matelasse is a type of cloth having a quilted and padded appearancematelasse
مطرح matrah, a large cushion or rug for lying on.Note[101] In Arabic the sense evolved out of the sense "something thrown down" from Arabic rootword tarah = "to throw", and Arabic noun prefix ma-. Classical Latin matta = "mat" is no relation. The Arabic 'h' in matrah is strongly aspirated in the throat and it is quite different from a Latin 'h'. The word is in Catalan-Latin in the 12th century as almatrac. It is in Italian-Latin in the 13th century as almatracium, materacum, matratium, matarazium, and similar. It spread into French and English in the 14th century. The mattress word at that time in Europe usually meant a padded under-blanket, "a quilt to lie upon", not a mattress in today's most often used sense.Note[101]
78 mohair
مخيّر mukhayyar, high-quality cloth made from fine goat-hair. The word has Arabic root khayar = "choosing, preferring" and Arabic noun prefix mu-. The original mohair was a cloth made from the fine goat-hair of Angora goats in Ankara province in Turkey. This mohair was made in Turkey in the late medieval period, although the name mukhayyar = "mohair" is not seen until the early post-medieval period.Note[102] In the name's early records in European languages, mohair is a cloth made in Turkey and imported from Turkey. In Italian commerce documents in the mid 16th century it is in the wordforms Book, ''Relazione di Persia'', by Michele Membré, written in year 1542. In this book an Italian traveler in Turkey at Çankırı City near Ankara [''città chiamata Cancria''] buys ''zambellotti e mocajari'' in year 1542. Edition published in year 1969.mocajari 1542 (where the Italian j is pronounced like English y), Book, ''Dello Specchio di Scientia Universale'' by Leonardo Fioravanti, year 1564, re-issued year 1567. On page 32 it names Moccaiari as an import to Italy from Beirut : ''Da Barutti si caricano... Zambelotti, Moccaiari, & altre simil cose.'' Pages 21+1 and 31+1 also have Moccaiari.moccaiari 1564, and Book, ''Monumenta Historica Slavorum Meridionalium Vicinorumque Populorum :: Tomus I, Tabularia minora et nonnullae bibliothecae : Volumen 1'', curated by Vincentio Makuscev, year 1874. Publishes 14th-16th centuries commerce documents involving the Adriatic seaports of Ragusa and Ancona. Page 507 has ''ciambellotti et mucaiarri''.mucaiarri 1570. It is in English in 1570 in wordform "Text : ''A discourse of the trade to Chio, in the yeere 1569''. Chio[s] is beside Çeşme on west coast of Turkey. The text says : ''The wares and commodities that are in the countreyes neere about Chio... [include] chamlets, mocayares, grogerams, silke of diuers countreyes.'' Text printed in Hakluyt's collection.mocayare" and in English in 1584 in wordform "Text written in year 1584 with the title ''Money and measures of Babylon, Balsara, and the Indies, with the customes, written from Aleppo in Syria'', by William Barret. The text says: ''cloth of Wooll, Karsies, Mockaires, Chamlets, and all sortes of Silke.... Kersies, Mockairs, Chamblets, Silks, Ueluets, Damasks, Sattins & such like.''mockaire". The mutation in English to wordform "mohaire" is first seen in 1619.Note[103] Sometimes in making mohair, the cloth was put through a finishing step that gave a shimmering look. A shimmering on a cloth is sometimes nowadays called Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Moirémoiré, where moiré was a French wordform derived from English word mohair.Note[3]
79 monsoon, 80 typhoon
These two words referred to wind and storm events off the coasts of India and China in their earliest usages in European languages and are seen first in Portuguese in the early 16th century. Muslim sea-merchants, Arabs included, were active in the Indies long before the Portuguese arrived – see e.g. history of Islam in the Philippines, and camphor and benzoin in this list. Portuguese sailors adopted the two words from Muslim sailors in the Indies. موسم mawsim, season, used in Arabic for anything that comes round once a year, and used by late medieval Arab sailors for the annual season of favourable sailing winds for going to the Indies (and another sailing season to return from the Indies).Note[104] طوفان tūfān, a very big rainstorm, a deluge, and used in the Koran for Noah's Flood.Note[105] The histories for the two words are in the two footnotes.
81 Definition at Dictionary.com : morocco (leather)morocco (type of leather)
مراكش‎ marākesh, country of Morocco. This Arabic word has not been used in Arabic with the meaning of a leather, it seems. As name of leather, the English wordform "morocco" is a 17th-century refreshed spelling of the 16th-century English wordform maroquin ''maroquin'' @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, year 1908(ref) from 15th-century French maroquin maroquin @ Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (1330-1500)(ref) meaning a type of flexible leather of goat-skin made in the country of Morocco or similar leather made anywhere, with maroquin literally meaning "Moroccan, from Morocco" ''Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch'', Volume XIX page 121, year 1967(ref). Country of Morocco was Marroch in 12th century Catalan-Latin Search for Marroc* (with asterisk) at ''Corpus Documentale Latinum Cataloniae''(ref), Mar(r)oc in late medieval French, Marrok in late medieval English Search for medieval ''Marrok'' in The Middle English Dictionary. There are a dozen instances of it in the dictionary's medieval quotations where its meaning is Morocco. In a half dozen of these instances, the Straits of Gibraltar is called the Straits of Marrok. The dictionary does not have a headword for it.(ref). Marroc was a truncation of مراكش‎ Marākesh = "Marrakesh city". Marrakesh city was the capital city of Morocco from its founding as a city in 1070 until 1269. Marākesh was the most-often-used name for the country of Morocco in Arabic in the later-medieval centuries (Search for مراكش in the collection of medieval Arabic texts at AlWaraq.net. Compare its frequency to the frequency of the alternative name المغرب الأقصى in the same collection.see a large set of medieval Arabic examples) and remained so in Arabic for many centuries after the city was no longer the capital city. The deletion of the -esh of Marākesh to get Marrok has two steps: The first step is Latinate conversion of "sh" to "s" because discussed in a paragraph elsewhere on the current pagethe sound /sh/ was not used in Latin and some other Latinate, and the second step is the deletion of the "s" because "Marrakes" would sound like a plural and plural was uncalled for. Retention of the "s" is in Spanish in the 13th & 14th centuries as marruecos = "country of Morocco" marruecos @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español(ref). Today, in Spanish Marruecos = "Morocco" and Portuguese Marrocos = "Morocco" and this is grammatical singular in Spanish and Portuguese.
82 Definition at Dictionary.com : Muftimufti (clothing style)
مفتي muftī, mufti, an expert in Islamic law. The phrase 'mufti day' is sometimes used instead of 'own clothes day' in some English-speaking schools to mean a day when students and teachers can wear casual clothes and clothes in their own style rather than the institution's uniform or semi-uniform clothes. The term originated in the British Army in the early 19th century. It seems the term originated just because the clothing style of a mufti was much different from the army's uniform clothing at the time.
83 mummy (semi-preserved corpse)
موميا mūmiyā, a bituminous substance used in medieval medicine and in embalming, and secondarily sometimes it meant a corpse embalmed with the substance. The medieval Arabic word was transferred into medieval Latin medicine as mumia with the same meanings.Note[106] The meaning was extended to a corpse preserved by drying (desiccation), starting in the 15th century, in western European documents.Note[107]
84 muslin
موصلي mūsilī, fine lightweight fabric made in Mosul city in Iraq, usually cotton, sometimes linen.Note[108] The word entered Western Europe with the same meaning in the 16th and 17th century. The fabric was imported to Europe from Aleppo city by Italians at the time. The earliest record in English is muslina in a traveller's report from Aleppo in 1609. The ending -ina was an Italian addition. In Italian, a suffix -ina acts as a diminutive (communicates lightweight).Note[108]
85 nadir
نظير naẓīr, a point in outer space diametrically opposite some other point; or a direction to outer space diametrically opposite some other direction. That meaning for the word was used by, e.g., the astronomer Al-Battani (died 929).Note[109] Naẓīr in medieval Arabic more broadly meant "counterpart".Note[2] The Arabic '' here used is the 17th letter of the Arabic alphabet, ظ , one of the alphabet's least-used letters, not the usual z. This letter has pronunciations in today's Arabic including the sounds of z, d, dh and zh, such as pronouncing Abu Dhabi as "Abu Zabi" or "Abu Dzabi". Nadir's early records in European languages are in 11th and 12th century Latin astronomy texts as nadair, nadahir and nadir, with the same meaning as the Arabic, and the early records are in Arabic-to-Latin translations.Note[109] Crossref zenith, which was transferred on the same pathway from Arabic astronomy to Latin astronomy.
86 natron (a mineral), English chemical name ''sodium'' has the scientific abbreviation ''Na'' in English. ''Na'' abbreviates ''Natrium'', which is the name for sodium in Modern Latin and Modern German. ''Natrium'' is a modern word created in derivation from ''natron''. natrium (Na)
نطرون natrūn, natron, i.e. naturally-occurring sodium carbonate. The ancient Greeks had the word nitron meaning naturally-occurring sodium carbonate (and similar salts). The medieval Arabs had this spelled natrūn. In the medieval and early modern centuries, Europe's biggest supply of natron came from northern Egypt. Today's Western European word natron, meaning hydrated sodium carbonate, came from the Arabic word.Note[110] In Europe shortly after sodium was isolated as an element for the first time, in the early 19th century, sodium was given the scientific abbreviation Na from a newly created Latin name, initially natronium, then natrium, which goes back etymologically to the Arabic natrūn.Note[110] Note[111] Also in the early 19th century, elemental potassium was isolated for the first time and was soon afterwards given the scientific abbreviation K representing a newly created Latin name kalium, which was derived from 18th century scientific Latin kali meaning potassium carbonate. Which goes back etymologically to medieval Latin alkali and Arabic al-qalī, whose main constituents were potash and soda ash (potassium carbonate and sodium carbonate) (crossref alkali).Note[22] Note[111]
87 orange
نارنج nāranj, orange (a citrus fruit). Arabic came from Sanskritic nāraṅga = "orange" (a citrus fruit). The orange tree came from India and it was introduced to the Mediterranean region by the Arabs in the early 10th century, at which time all oranges were bitter oranges.Note[91] The word is in all the Latin languages and Greek from the later medieval centuries. Today it is nerantzi in Greek meaning "bitter orange". Today it is naranja in Spanish. Today it is arancia in Italian, and orange in French, and this wordform with the loss of the leading 'n', occurring early as Latin arangia (late 12th century Sicily – George Gallesio's history of citrus fruits (year 1811) quotes ''arangias acetoso'' used in the Latin document ''Epistola Ad Petrum Panormitanae Ecclesiae Thesaurarium'', dated slightly after 1189, written in Sicily, authorship attributed to a writer named Hugo Falcandus.ref, arangium @ ''Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia'', by Girolamo Caracausi, year 1983, on pages 106-109, has quotations from 12th-14th century Sicilian sourcesref), has been the subject of several speculative explanations.
88 popinjay (parrot bird)
ببغاء babaghāʾ | babbaghāʾ, parrot bird. The change from medieval Arabic sound /b/ to medieval Latinate sound /p/ also occurs in the loanwords Julep, Jumper, Spinach, and Syrup elsewhere on this page. The French papegai = "parrot" has a late 12th century start dateNote[3] and the English starts a century later. The wordform was affected by the pre-existing (from classical Latin) at Wikipedia, French edition : GeaiFrench gai = Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia EspañolaSpanish gayo = at Wikipedia : Jay (bird)English "jay" (bird). Parrots were imported to medieval Europe via Arabic speakers.Note[112]
89 realgar (a mineral)
رهج الغار rahj al-ghār, realgar, arsenic sulfide.Note[113] In medieval times, realgar was used as a rodent poison, as a corrosive cleaner, and as a red paint pigment. The ancient Greeks and Romans knew the substance. Other names for it in medieval Arabic writings include "red arsenic" and "rodent poison". Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) wrote: "Among the people of the Maghreb it is called rahj al-ghār " (literally: "cavern powder"). In European languages the name's earliest records are in 13th-century Italian-Latin medicine spelled realgar Text ''Glosulae quatuor Magistrorum super Chirurgiam Rogerii et Rolandi'' is a lengthy 13th-century commentary upon the late-12th-century surgery book of Roger Frugard. It uses realgar powder medicinally for surgical wounds. It mentions REALGAR six times. It is published in ''Collectio Salernitana'', Volume 2, year 1853.(e.g.) also Italian-Latin regalgar anno 1275 Book ''Chirurgie de Guillaume de Salicet, achevée en 1275'' is the Latin surgery book of Guglielmo da Saliceto (died 1277) published in French translation in 1898, with translator's notes and a glossary of Latin terms used by Saliceto. Search for REGALGAR.(ref) also Spanish rejalgar | reialgar | reyalgar 1275-1295 search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE) de la Real Academia Española(ref). In English some records in the 15th century spelled it resalgar resalgar @ Middle English Dictionary. Wordform ''realgar'' is elsewhere in same dictionary.(ref). As a factor in answering why the Latins adopted the Arabic word, there was a realgar mine in operation in medieval Andalusia.Note[113]
90 ream (quantity of sheets of paper)
رزمة rizma, a bale, a bundle.Note[2] Note[4] Paper itself was introduced to the Latins via the Arabs in and around the 12th and 13th centuries – the adoption by the Latins went slowly; at Wikipedia : History of paperhistory of paper. The Arabic word for a bundle spread to most European languages along with paper itself, with the early records in southern Europe. Medieval & modern Italian risma = "ream of paper" risma @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini''. Quotes from 14th century Italian.(ref). Spanish resma search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español, a database of old Spanish texts. Includes year 1462 ''resma del papel'' = ''ream of paper''.(ref). Catalan raima, first record year 1284 raima @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by Alcover & Moll, year 1962. Quotes year 1284 Catalan ''Caxa de paper en que ha XVI raymes'' = ''box of paper in which there are 16 reams''. Medieval Catalan document @ pages 80 & 111 @ archive.org/details/documentssurlal00alargoog (ref), looks the forerunner of the English word-form. First record in English is 1356 Rem | Reme, with meaning ream of paper, in the Middle English Dictionary(ref).
91 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Rook #2 (Rook in chess game)rook (in chess), 92 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Roc (in mythology)roc (mythological bird)
رخّ rukhkh, (1) the rook piece in the game of chess, (2) a mythological bird in the 1001 Arabian Nights tales. The Arabic dictionary Lisan al-Arab completed in 1290 said the chess-piece name rukhkh came from Persian; crossref check. The bird meaning for Arabic rukhkh may have come from Persian too. But not from the same word. All available evidence supports the view that the two meanings of Arabic rukhkh sprang from two independent and different rootwords, while at the same time some uncertainty exists about what the rootwords were Article, ''Of Rukhs and Rooks, Camels and Castles'', by Remke Kruk, year 2001 in ''ORIENS: Journal of the International Society for Oriental Research'', volume 36 pages 288-298(ref). The chess rook is in French from about 1150 onward as roc roc #2 @ CNRTL.fr(ref).
93 safari
سفر safar, journey. Safari entered English in the late 19th century from Swahili language safari = "journey" which is from Arabic safar = "journey".
94 safflower
عصفر ʿusfur, safflower. The flower of this plant was commercially cultivated for use as a dye in the Mediterranean region in medieval times. From the Arabic word plus Arabic al-, medieval Catalan had alasfor = "safflower"; and medieval Catalan had also alazflor = "safflower" where Catalan flor = "flower". In medieval Italian, the Arabic word's -fur mutated into Italian -flore | -fiore which is Italian for "flower". Medieval Italian spellings included asflore, asfiore, asfrole, affiore, zaflore, zafflore, zaffiore, all meaning safflower. In medieval Arabic dictionaries the spelling is ʿusfur, but oral variants ʿasfar and ʿasfur would be unexceptional in Arabic speech and would be a little better fit to the Catalan and Italian wordforms.Note[114]
95 saffron
زعفران zaʿfarān, saffron. Zaʿfarān meaning saffron is commonplace from the outset of writings in Arabic.Note[2] It was common in medieval Arab cookery.Note[115] The ancient Latins used saffron and they called it crocus | crocinum and it has lots of records in ancient Latin texts. The earliest known for the name saffron in European languages is year 1156 Latin safranum = "saffron" at the seaport of Genoa in Italy in a commercial contract.Note[116] The name saffron became predominant in western European languages in the late medieval centuries, in wordforms that led to today's Italian zafferano, Spanish azafrán, French safran, German safran, and the organic chemical at Wikipedia : Safraninsafranin. The old name crocus | croco | croceus | croceo has plenty of records in medieval Latin and medieval Italian. It is not clear what drove the Latins to adopt the new name.
96 sandalwood
صندل sandal, sandalwood. A scent-emitting wood imported from India, popular among the medieval Arabs for its scent, often an ingredient in medieval Arabic medicines recipes. It was unknown to the ancient Greeks & Romans. Earliest record in Latin is in the late 11th century in an Arabic-to-Latin translation of a medicine book.Note[46]
97 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Saphena : The larger saphena and the smaller saphena are two major blood vessels in the human leg.saphena | Schematic pictures of Saphenous Vein at Images.Google.comsaphenous vein
الصافن al-sāfin, saphena vein, aka saphenous vein. The saphenous vein is in the human leg. It was one of the veins used in medieval medical at Wikipedia : The practice of bloodletting in medieval medicinebloodletting (phlebotomy). Bloodletting was the word's context of use medievally. Medical writers who used the word in Arabic include Al-Razi (died c. 930), Haly Abbas (died c. 990), Albucasis (died c. 1013) and Avicenna (died 1037).Note[117] In Latin the earliest known record is in an Arabic-to-Latin translation by translator Constantinus Africanus (died c. 1087) translating Haly Abbas. Bloodletting, which was practiced in ancient Greek and Latin medicine, was revamped in medieval Latin medicine under influence from Arabic medicine.Note[118]
98 sash (a kind of ribbon)
شاش shāsh, a ribbon of fine cloth wrapped to form a turban around the head and usually made of fine muslin.Note[119] In European languages the word's early records are in travellers' reports from Muslim countries. Among the earliest is this comment from an English traveller in the Middle East in 1615: "All of them wear on their heads white shashes.... Shashes are long towels of Calico wound about their heads." In the later 17th century in English, "shash" still had that original meaning, and additionally it took on the meaning of a ribbon of fine cloth wrapped around the waist. In the early 18th century in English the dominant wordform changed from "shash" to "sash".Note[121] Note[120]. Crossref word muslin which entered European languages from Arabic in the same timeframe. In Arabic today شاش shāsh @ AlMaany.com Modern Arabic-English Dictionaryshāsh means gauze or muslin.
99 sequin (shiney clothing ornament)
سكّة sikka, tool for coin minting, and by extension also meaning coined money and money coinage in general.Note[2] Medieval Italian zecca | cecha came directly from the Arabic sikka and meant about the same. Its first record in Italian is in year 1207-1208 in a trade treaty between the republic of Venice and the sultanate of Aleppo Quotation for year 1207-8 Venice Italian ''çeca'' (ç = z) is under dictionary headword ''zecca'' in ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini'' (TLIO)(ref). The first known where zecca means the coin mint at Venice is in 1285 Book, ''Zecca: The Mint of Venice in the Middle Ages'', by Alan M. Stahl, year 2000, on page 33(ref). The Venice Italian zecca was the parent of Italian zecchino meaning a gold coin minted by the Republic of Venice. Zecchino was Frenchified as sequin, meaning the Venice gold coin. Production of the Venice Introduction at Wikipedia : Sequin (coin)sequin gold coin ended in 1797. The word might well have followed the coin into oblivion, but in the 19th century it managed to get itself applied to the small round shiny pieces of metal applied to clothing.Note[122]
100 serendipity
سرنديب Serendīb, the island of Sri Lanka. "Serendipity" was created in English in 1754 from "Serendip", an old fairy-tale place. The fairy-tale with the serendipitous happenings was Tale summarized at Wikipedia : ''The Three Princes of Serendip''The Three Princes of Serendip. "Serendip" was from the old Arabic name for Sri Lanka.Note[123] Note[124] Serendipity is fortified in English by its resemblance to the etymologically unrelated "serenity".
101 sheikh
شيخ shaīkh, sheikh. It has been in English since the 17th century meaning an Arab sheikh sheikh @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'', year 1914(ref). In English in the 20th century it took on a slangy additional meaning of "strong, romantic man". This is attributed to a hit movie, at Wikipedia : The Sheik (film)The Sheik (film), 1921, starring Rudolph Valentino. After the movie was a hit, the book it was based on became a hit, and spawned imitators.
102 sofa
صفّة soffa, a low platform or dais.Note[125] The Arabic word was adopted into Turkish, and from Turkish it entered Italian and French in the 16th century meaning a Middle-Eastern-style dais with rugs and cushions. The European-style meaning —a sofa with legs— started at the end of the 17th century.Note[125]
﴾۝﴿ Another European word for sofa that entered European languages from Turkish is Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Divandivan. The Turkish word divan descends from a Persian rootword. Divan was probably transferred into Turkish directly from Persian, even though the same word was in circulation in Arabic from the same Persian. A furniture piece sometimes found in conjunction with a sofa is an ottoman, meaning an upholstered footstool or a backless upholstered seat. Originally in Europe, in 18th century French, an ottoman was synonymous with a sofa.Note[3] The conventional etymology for "ottoman" is it came from Arabic عثماني ʿothmānī = "Ottoman Turks", which was from Turkish sultan Osman I (died 1326) and Turkish Osmanlı = "relating to the dynasty founded by Osman I" For word ''ottoman'' meaning a padded seat or padded footstool, the conventional etymology is in several dictionaries at TheFreeDictionary.com(ref).
103 spinach
إِسبناخ isbinākh in Andalusian Arabic, and اسفاناخ isfānākh in medieval Arabic more generally, from Persian aspanākh | isfānāj, spinach. The spinach plant was unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans. It was the Arabs who introduced the spinach into Iberia, whence it spread to the rest of Europe, and the same is true of the name as well.Note[126] The first records in English are around year 1400 spinache @ Middle English Dictionary(ref).
104 sugar
سكّر sukkar, sugar. The word is ultimately from Sanskritic sharkara = "sugar". Cane sugar was developed in India around 2000 years ago. The medieval Arabs grew the sugarcane plant on irrigated land. They made sugar on a somewhat extensive scale, although sugar was costly throughout the medieval era (very roughly on the order of 6 or 8 times costlier than wheat flour by weight in Arabic countries). Early records in Latin are at around year 1100 spelled zucharum and zucrum, which came from the Arabic sukkar.Note[127] Early records in England include the following in the account books of an Anglo-Norman abbey in Durham: year 1302 "Zuker Marok", 1309 "succre marrokes", 1310 "Couker de Marrok", 1316 "Zucar de Cypr[us]".Note[128] The Latin wordform sucrum or the French form sucre = "sugar" generated the modern chemistry words sucrose and sucrase.
105 sultan, Images of sultanas at Images.Google.comsultana
سلطان sultān, authority, ruler. The first ruler to use sultan as a formal title was an Islamic Turkic-speaking ruler in Central Asia, Tughril Beg (died 1063), founder of the Seljuq empire. He got the word from Arabic.Note[129] In Arabic grammar سلطانة sultāna is the feminine of sultān.
﴾۝﴿ Definition at Dictionary.com : CaliphCaliph, Definition at Dictionary.com : Emiremir, Definition at Dictionary.com : Qadiqadi, and Definition at Dictionary.com : Viziervizier are other Arabic-sourced words connected with governmental rulers. Their use in English is mostly confined to discussions of Middle Eastern history.
106 sumac
سمّاق summāq, the common sumac bush that grows natively in the Mediterranean region, especially the berries of this bush. Anciently and medievally, different components of the sumac were used in tanning leather, in dyeing, in medicine, and in cuisine. The sumac was a cultivated plant among the medieval Arabs, especially in Levant. They primarily cultivated it for its berries. Among the Latins the sumac was anciently called rhus (whence taxonomic Modern Latin at Wikipedia : Rhus coriaria, the technical botany name for the Mediterranean sumac bushRhus Coriaria). Late medievally in Latin and the Latinate languages the usual name became sumac. This Arabic name is found in Iberian-Latin in the 10th century and as such it is one of the earliest loanwords from Arabic. Sumac is in Italian-Latin in the 11th century in Arabic-to-Latin medical translations. The Latin entered 15th century English medicines books as sumac = "sumac berries". Note[130] Note[131] Note[132]
107 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : SwahiliSwahili (a language)
سواحل sawāhil, coasts (plural of sāhil, coast). Historically Swahili was the language used in commerce along the east coast of Africa, along at Wikipedia : Swahili coast2000 kilometers of coast: the Swahili coast. Swahili is grammatically a Bantu language, with about one-third of its vocabulary taken from Arabic.Note[133] The first known record of the word Swahili in English is in year 1814, says swahili @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (''NED''), year 1919NED.
108 syrup, 109 sherbet @ ''American Heritage Dictionary'', 5th edition, year 2011sherbet, sorbet
شراب shirāb | sharāb, a word with two meanings in Arabic, "a drink" and "syrup". Medieval Arabic medical writers used shirāb | sharāb meaning a medicinal syrup. It passed into Latin medicine as siropus | siruppus | syrupus with the same meaning. In Latin the earliest records are in the Arabic-to-Latin medical translations by Constantinus Africanus (died c. 1087). The sound change from /sh/ to /s/ in going from shirāb to siropus reflects that Latin pronunciation did not use the sound /sh/ in any words. The -us of siropus is a carrier of Latin grammar and nothing more. In late medieval Europe a sirup was usually medicinal.Note[134] Separately from syrup, the same Arabic rootword re-entered Western Europe through Turkish in the 16th and 17th centuries. Turkish شربت sherbet | shurbet = "a sweet lemonade drink" شربت & شربة @ ''Thesaurus linguarum orientalium: Turcicae, Arabicae, Persicae'', by Franciscus Mesgnien Meninski, year 1680, at columns 2794-2795. Has شربة ''sherbet'' as Turkish & Arabic & Persian, with same meaning in the three languages.(ref) entered with that meaning directly into English as "sherbet" sherbet @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles(ref). During the same time, directly from Turkish, the word entered Italian as sorbetto with the same meaning, and this entered English from Italian and/or French (Italian Book ''Relazioni degli ambasciatori veneti al Senato'', Serie 3 Volume 2, year 1844, publishes 16th-century Italian writers located in Turkey. Page 229 has year 1581 Italian in Turkey saying ''sorbetto'' is a drink made of water, sugar, and aromatic flavorings.

More early records for Italian ''sorbetto'' are quoted at :
1581 sorbetto
, English sorbet @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles1585 sorbet). The Turkish was from the Arabic wordform شربة shirba(t) | sharba(t).
110 tabla (percussion instrument in music of India)
طبل tabl, drum. English tabla is from Hindi/Urdu tabla which is from Persian tabla = "small drum" and Persian tabl = "drum" and Arabic tabl. The Persian is from the Arabic. In Arabic, tabl has been the usual word for drum (noun and verb) since the beginning of written records.Note[135]
111 tahini
طحينة tahīna, tahini. Derives from the Arabic verb for "grind" and is related to Arabic tahīn = "flour". The written Arabic tahīna is pronounced "taheeny" in Levantine Arabic speech. The word entered English directly from Levantine Arabic around year 1900, but tahini was very rarely eaten in the English-speaking countries until around year 1970. It is ancient in the Middle East.
112 talc
طلق talq, mica and talc. Common in medieval Arabic. Documented in Latin minerals books from around 1200 onward meaning mica and talc, spelled talc | talk in Latin, with the early records being in Arabic-to-Latin translations. Uncommon in the Latinate languages until the later 16th century. In all European languages today.Note[136]
113 talisman
طلسم tilsam | tilasm, talisman. Medievally in Syriac and Arabic this word was sometimes used with the meaning "incantation" and "magic spell". In Arabic medievally it was mainly used with the meaning of an astrology-based inscribed amulet. That is, an inscription of characters and images, created through the guidance of astrology, was supposed to forfend against a specific bad fortune or vitalize a good fortune. A classic Arabic text using the word with this meaning is Ghāyat al-Hakīm, a 400-page book about occult magic, astrology and talismans, dated 10th or 11th century. In Europe the word entered astrology with this meaning in the early 17th century, begining in French. The word's early users in French were able to read Arabic and they said the word with this meaning came from Arabic.Note[137]
114 tamarind
تمر هندي tamr hindī (literally: "date fruit of India"), tamarind. Tamarinds were in use in ancient India. They were not known to the ancient Greeks & Latins. They entered medieval Latin medicine practice from Arabic medicine. The Arabic-to-Latin translator Constantinus Africanus (died c. 1087) was the first writer to use this word in Latin. His translations have tamarindi in a dozen medicines recipes. Tamarind's medieval medical uses were various.Note[138] In the English language the records start late medievally in translations of Latin medical books tamarinde @ Middle English Dictionary. Has quotations for ''tamarinde'' in late medieval English.(ref).
115 tambourine (music percussion instrument), Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Tambour is a structural frame with an aspect of similarity to a frame of a drumtambour (a drum or drum-like frame)
طبول tabūl, drums. English tambourine is from French tambourin = "small drum" (15th century), which is from French tambour = "drum" (14th century), which is from French tabour = "drum" (13th century), which is from northern French tabor | tabur = "military drum used by Arab armies" (12th century), which is from Arabic taboul = "military drums, and any drums". Military drums were not in use in French armies at the time when the word emerged in French in the 12th century as a military drum. Most of the early records in French are in a genre of military-legend ballads known as chansons de geste in which war-drums are pounded by the enemy side only, and the enemy is non-Christian, usually Muslim. War-drums were in normal use in Arab armies from the 10th century onward, during actual battles and when marching. The Arabic tabūl | taboul has been the usual word for "drums" in Arabic since the beginning of written records of Arabic. In evaluating this etymology, different people have expressed different views about the prior probability of the phonetic change involved in the step from taboul to tabour.Note[140]
116 Photographs of tanbur or tanbourtanbur / tanbour, Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Tambouratamboura, at Wikipedia : Tambur in traditional music in Turkey. The tambur is plucked, but the name is also attached to a less-used variant that is bowed. The bowed one is called ''yaylı tambur'' where Turkish ''yayla'' means highland.tambur, at Wikipedia : Tamburica, a music instrument in Serbia and adjacent countriestamburica, at Wikipedia : Tanpura (instrument) in traditional music in Indiatanpura, at Wikipedia : Tambouras, a tanbur in traditional music in Greecetambouras, at Wikipedia : Tembûr, the Kurdish musical tradition for the tanburtembûr, at Wikipedia : Dombyra = домбыра = the tanbur in Kazakhstan, having pronunciation dombeura and dombueradombẙra
These are all long-necked guitar-type plucked-string musical instruments. The word occurs early and often in medieval Arabic as طنبور tunbūr | tanbūr meaning a long-necked guitar-type plucked-string instrument. The word is also documented in late-ancient Aramaic & Persian, pre-Islam. In English the name is modern and comes from all the languages of the modern Middle East.Note[139] Meanwhile, the English tambourine, a percussive instrument, is without any documentary evidence that would etymologically relate it to the string instrument name. Likewise, the Western European tambour = "drum" is not related to the Middle East's tambour = "string instrument" and claims to the contrary are errors induced by superficial info.Note[140]
117 tangerine
طنجة Tanja, city and port of Tangier in Morocco. Tangerine oranges are the same thing as mandarin oranges. They were not introduced to the Mediterranean region until the early 19th century.Note[91] The English word "tangerine" arose in the UK from shipments of tangerine oranges from the port of Tangier in the early 19th century. "Tangerine" means "of Tangier", but the word formation also had allusion to pre-existing English "tang"/"tangy". Word formation was in the UK.Note[141] The Arabic name for a tangerine is unrelated. The city existed in pre-Arabic times named "Tingi".
118 tare (weight)
طرح tarh | tirh and طرحة tarha, a discard, something discarded (from Arabic root tarah, to throw).Note[2] The Arabic tarh | tarha was also used meaning "a deduction, a subtraction" طرح @ ''Supplement aux Dictionnaires Arabes'', by Reinhart Dozy, Volume 2, year 1881. The book's abbreviations are explained in Volume 1 available at same website.(ref). In today's English the tare weight is defined as the weight of a package that is empty. To get the net weight of goods in a package, you weigh the goods in their package, which is the gross weight, and then discard the tare weight. Italian-Latin commerce records have tara = "tare" starting in the late 13th century.Note[142] The word is in England as tare starting late 14th century.Note[143] There is one record in Spanish in early 15th century where the wordform is atara, which helps to affirm Arabic ancestry because the leading 'a' in atara represents the Arabic definite article.Note[4] Note[5] Note[142] The tare weight is spelled tara in today's Italian, Catalan, Spanish, German, and Russian.
119 tariff
تعريف taʿrīf, notification, specification (from Arabic عرّف ʿarraf, to notify). In medieval Arabic the word was widely used and meant any kind of notification or specification.Note[2] Among the Latins the word starts in Italian merchants in the 2nd half of 14th century in sea-commerce on the Mediterranean meaning a tabular statement, such as an enumeration of products with selling prices; and the word is also in late medieval Italian meaning a single stated fee.Note[144] The Italian word was transferred into German, French and English in the 16th century meaning a tabular statement.Note[144] From the meaning of a tabular statement of different import tax liabilities on different goods, the meaning of an import tax grew out by metonymy.
120 tarragon (herb)
طرخون tarkhūn, tarragon. The word with that meaning was used by Ibn Al-Baitar (died 1248), who gives a description of the plant and mentions both culinary and medical uses. Tarkhūn comes up in medicine contexts in Al-Razi (died c. 930). It is mentioned in a culinary context in Ibn al-Awwam (died c. 1200). It is in a number of other medieval Arabic writers.Note[145] In later-medieval Latin, late 12th century onward, it comes up in medicine contexts spelled tarcon | tarchon and was acknowledged at the time to be from Arabic.Note[146] Up until then in Latin there is no record of the plant under any name, or at least no clear record. The records for Italian tarcone | targone, French targon | tragon, Spanish taragoncia | traguncia, English tarragon and German Tragon all start in the 16th century and all are in a culinary context.Note[146]
121 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Tazza is a drinking glass which is a shallow bowl placed on top of a long glass stemtazza, Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Demitasse is a small ceramic drinking cup, half the size of an ordinary tea-cupdemi-tasse (cup)
طسّ tass | طسّة tassa | طاسة tāsa, round shallow cup or bowl, which was made of metal, and was typically made of brass.Note[2] The word was common in Arabic for many centuries before it shows up in the Latinate languages.Note[2] In Latinate it starts 13th century. It has loads of records in 14th-century Spain & Italy. The medieval Latinate taza | taça (ç = z) | tacia | tacea | tassea | tassia | tassa | tazza | tazze | tasse was a drinking vessel in the luxury category and it was very often made of silver – In Spanish : Search for taça @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español. Taza is a lesser-used wordform. Note medieval Spanish ''plata'' meant silver.ref, In Latin : Entries for ''tacia'', ''tassia #1'', ''tassa #2'', ''taxea #2'', ''tacea'', in Du Cange's Glossary of medieval Latin. Note medieval Latin argent__ meant silver.ref, Book of documents written in Sicily in Latin : ''Inventaires de maisons, de boutiques, d’ateliers et de châteaux de Sicile (XIIIe-XVe siècles)'' Volume II, by Bresc-Bautier & Bresc, year 2014. It has dozens of instances of 14th century ''tacia'', ''tazia'', ''tazearum''. In most instances it is explicit that the tacia is made from silver.ref, 14th-century Italian documents with ''tazza'' & ''tazze'' are searchable at ''Corpus OVI dell'Italiano antico''. The OVI Corpus also has 14th-century Italian documents with the wordform ''taza'' & ''taze''. In medieval Italian, argento & ariento meant silver.ref, In French : tasse @ Dictionnaire du Moyen Français 1330-1500. Note medieval French argent meant silver.ref, tasse @ Dictionary of Anglo-Norman French. Quotes ''tasses d'argent'' (year 1396) and ''tassez d'argent'' (year 1399).ref, tassa @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by AM Alcover & FB Moll, year 1962. Quotes the word as ''taces d'argent'' (year 1410) and ''tassa daurada d'argent'' (year 1414), where Catalan ''argent'' meant silver. Also quotes ''taça del vi'' meaning ''goblet of wine'' in Saint Vincent Ferrer (died 1419).ref. English borrowed the word as Definition at Dictionary.com : Tasstass in the 16th century, which continued much later in colloquial use in Scotland, but today's English tazza and demi-tasse came from Italian and French in the 19th century.
80 typhoon duplicate of #80 above
طوفان tūfān, a very big rainstorm, a deluge. Like the word monsoon, typhoon in the European languages first occurs in Portuguese in the East Indies in the early 16th century. The Portuguese borrowed it from Muslim sailors in the Indies. The word's history is in note #105.Note[105]
122 Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Varanvaran (type of lizard), Definition at Wikipedia : Varanoideavaranoid (family of lizard types)
ورل waral and locally in North Africa ورن waran, varan lizard, especially the two species native in North Africa, namely Varanus griseus and Varanus niloticus. In Europe in the 16th to 18th centuries it was usually spelled with a letter L, e.g. "oûaral" (1725 French writer in Egypt – Book ''Nouveaux mémoires des missions de la Compagnie de Jésus dans le Levant'' Volume 5, year 1725, on page 194. The volume has a memo by a Jesuit missionary priest in Egypt, who writes of ''un Lézard nommé Oûaral''.ref), "warral" (1738 English writer in Algeria – Book ''Travels, or, Observations Relating to Several Parts of Barbary and the Levant'', by Thomas Shaw, year 1738 on page 250ref), "worral" (1828 English dictionary – worral @ Webster's Dictionary, year 1828 editionref). But certain influential European naturalists in the early 19th century adopted the North African wordform with the letter N – varan @ Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales. Outputs of influential naturalists include : François Marie Daudin in year 1802 has ''le varan d'Égypte''; Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in year 1802 has ''l'ouaran du désert''; and Blasius Merrem in year 1820 has taxonomic Latin VARANUS = German WARAN.ref. The V in place of W reflects Latinization. In Medieval Latin there was no letter W and no sound /W/, with some exceptions for some foreign names. The general non-use of W was continued in Modern Latin.
123 zenith
سمت samt, direction; سمت الرأس samt al-raʾs, direction highest upwards, zenithal direction, literally the "top direction". Samt al-raʾs is in the astronomy books of Al-Battani (died 929) and Al-Farghani (died c. 870), both of which were translated to Latin in the 12th century. From use in astronomy in Arabic, the term entered astronomy in Latin in the 12th century. The first record of the word zenith in European languages is in the Arabic-to-Latin translation of Al-Battani's book where the translation's Latin zenith meant "direction" (not "zenith") and the translation's Latin zenith capitis translated the Arabic phrase samt al-raʾs meaning the zenithal direction.Note[147] Details on how the Arabic wordform samt got mangled to the Latin wordform zenith are in note 148.Note[148]
124 zero
صفر sifr, zero. The use of zero as an elementary digit was a key innovation in the Hindu-Arabic numeral system. The word's path into English was: medieval Arabic sifr (two 9th-10th century examplesArticle, "The Transmission of Hindu-Arabic Numerals Reconsidered", by Paul Kunitzsch, year 2003, Book ''The Enterprise of Science in Islam: New Perspectives'', by various authors, year 2003, has a chapter ''The Transmission of Hindu-Arabic Numerals Reconsidered'' by Kaul Kunitzsch, where zero is four times on page 4.onlinealt-link ), cites ṣifr meaning zero in the book Tārīkh by Al-Ya'qubi (died 897-898) and in the book Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm by Al-Khuarizmi (lived c. 980). In both of those books the صفر ṣifr is in the context of talking about Hindu numerals, حساب الهند and الاحرف الهندية. Al-Khuarizmi's book twice uses the phrase الصفر في حساب الهند. Both books are online in Arabic: Book تاريخ اليعقوبي, written by بن واضح اليعقوبي, was published in Arabic in two volumes in year 1883 with a book jacket title ''Historiae'', text curated by MT Houtsma. The word صفر meaning zero is in volume 1 page ٩٣ at line 9. The same page mentions التسعة الاحرف الهندية meaning the Hindu numerals.Al-Ya'qubi's Tārīkh , In Arabic with footnotes in modern Latin : مفاتيح العلوم ''Mafâtîh al-olûm'', by Ahmed ibn Jûsof al-Kâtib al-Khowarezmi (flourished circa 975 AD), curated by G. van Vloten, year 1895. Has chapter on Hindu numerals starting on page ١٩٣. On page ١٩۴ it has الاصفار as the plural of الصفر meaning zero. On page ١٩٧ at line 5 it has the phrase الصفر في حساب الهند meaning zero.Al-Khuarizmi's Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm.) ➜ medieval Italian-Latin zephirum = "zero" (used in year 1202 by Leonardo Pisano, who was an early adopter of the Hindu-Arabic numbers in Latin) ➜ medieval Italian zefiro = "zero" (e.g., zefiro was used by mathematician Piero Borgi in the 1480s) ➜ contracted to zero in Italian in late 14th & early 15th centuryNote[149] ➜ French zéro starts 1485Note[3] ➜ English zero 1604; rare in English before 1800.Note[54] Crossref cipher.

Addendum for Botanical Names

The following plant names entered medieval Latin texts from Arabic. Today, in descent from the medieval Latin, they are international systematic classification names, commonly known as "Latin" names: Berberis, Cakile, Carthamus, Cuscuta, Doronicum, Musa, Nuphar, Senna, Taraxacum, Usnea, Physalis alkekengi, Melia azedarach + Azadirachta, Centaurea behen, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, Cheiranthus cheiri, Piper cubeba, Phyllanthus emblica, Alpinia galanga + Kaempferia galanga, Peganum harmala, Salsola kali, Prunus mahaleb, Datura metel, Daphne mezereum, Rheum ribes and derivatively the genus Ribes﴿, Jasminum sambac, Cordia sebestena, Operculina turpethum, Curcuma zedoaria, Alpinia zerumbet + Zingiber zerumbet. The Arabic parent names and further details for each of those names are in note 150.Note[150] In addition, already discussed earlier individually: Alkanna (alkanet), Curcuma (curcumin), Jasminum (jasmine), Spinacia (spinach), Santalum (sandalwood), Tamarindus (tamarind), Cinnamomum camphora (camphor), Carum carvi (caraway). Altogether that is 38+ botany names that descend from medieval Arabic via medieval Latin and are in active use today. The list is incomplete, but not by much.

Over ninety percent of those botanical names were introduced to medieval Latin in a herbal medicine context. About a third of them are names of medicinal plants from Tropical Asia for which there had been no classical Latin nor ancient Greek name. Those names include azedarach, bellirica, camphora, curcuma, cubeba, emblica, galanga, metel, tamarindus, turpethum, zedoaria, and zerumbet. Another portion are ultimately from Iranian names of Iranian plants used in Iranian medicine, including at a minimum alkekengi, behen, doronicum, jasminum, mezereum, ribes, sebestena, taraxacum, and usnea, some of which were known as plants under other names in classical Latin and Greek. A substantial portion of the names were introduced into Latin by the Arabic-to-Latin medical translator Constantinus Africanus (died late 11th century). Another substantial portion were introduced by the Arabic-to-Latin translator Gerard of Cremona (died late 12th century). The medical translations of those two translators were widely circulated books in Latin medical circles late medievally. They were key for establishing most of the Arabic plant names in Latin.Note[150] A 13th-century Arabic-to-Latin translation of a book about medicating agents by Serapion the Younger had hundreds of Arabic botanical names in the Latin translation and was a widely circulated book among apothecaries in late medieval Latin Europe.Note[151]

Medieval Arabic botany was primarily concerned with the use of plants for medicines. In a modern etymology assessment of one medieval Arabic list of medicines, the Arabic names of the medicines —being primarily plant names— were assessed to be 31% from ancient Mesopotamian names, 23% from Greek names, 18% Persian, 13% Indian (often via Persian), 5% uniquely Arabic, and 3% Coptic (Egyptian), with the remaining 7% of unassessable origin.Note[152]

In the 1580s the Latin botanist Prospero Alpini stayed in Egypt for several years. He introduced to Latin botany from Arabic the names Abrus, Abelmoschus, Lablab, Melochia, naming plants that were unknown to Latin botanists before Alpini, plants native to Tropical Asia that were grown with artificial irrigation in Egypt at the time.Note[153]

In the early 1760s Peter Forskål systematically cataloged plants and fishes in the Red Sea region. For genera and species that did not already have Latin names, Forskål adopted the local Arabic names as the technical Latin taxonomic names. This became the international standard for most of what he cataloged. Forskål's Latinized Arabic plant genus names include AervaToday's Aerva is a genus of low shrubs occurring in warm arid places. The two species Aerva Lanata and Aerva Tomentosa are frequent, and Aerva Javanica is synonymous with Aerva Tomentosa. Aerva = Ærva. Forskål in his year 1775 book on Book ''Flora Ægyptiaco-Arabica'' by Petrus Forskålpage 171 and Book ''Flora Ægyptiaco-Arabica'' by Petrus Forskålpage CXXII says the plant he is calling Ærva and ''Ærva Tomentosa'' is called in Arabic in Yemen إروا Ærua and را Ra. Transcription of إروا Ærua can also be done as Ærwa. The long 'u' or 'w' in the Arabic Ærua/Ærwa was converted by Forskål into the Latin 'v' in Latin Ærva. That conversion was done by numerous other people in and around the 18th century (e.g. you can see on current page the Latin lizard-name VARAN was from Arabic ورن waran). Forskål says the Ærva plant is a high-frequency occurrence in sandy soil in Yemen. The plantnames dictionary by Abu Hanifa Al-Dinawari (died c. 895) has this plant spelled راء Rāʾ and says the plant is useful for stuffing cushions Downloadable, ''Abu Hanifah Al-Dinawari's Book of Plants: An Annotated English Translation of the Extant Alphabetical Portion'', by Catherine Alice Yff Breslin, year 1986, on page 246(ref). In today's Arabic, the name is also spelled الآرى al-ārā., at Wikipedia : Arnebia. Peter Forskal in his book ''Flora Ægyptiaco-Arabica'' in year 1775 on page 63 says the plant he is calling Arnebia is called in Arabic شجرة الارنب ''shajarat al-arneb''.Arnebia, Cadaba, Ceruana, Maerua, Maesa, Oncoba, Themeda, and others, and he borrowed further other names as species names (e.g.: oerfotaAcacia oerfota, a.k.a. Vachellia oerfota, a.k.a. Mimosa oerfota, is a species of Acacia tree that grows in Egypt and Yemen and nearby. Peter Forskål spells the name Örfota in Latin. Forskål explicitly declares he took the name from Arabic عرفطة ʿorfota | عرفط ʿorfot. The place where he declares this is section "Mimosa örfota" in Book says on its front cover that the book is written by ''Petrus Forskål''.Flora Ægyptiaco-Arabica on page 177, year 1775.).Note[154]

Additional miscellaneous botanical names with Arabic ancestry include at Wikipedia : Crataegus azarolusazarolus + at Wikipedia : Acerola cherryacerola and at Wikipedia : RetamaRetama Note[155]; at Wikipedia : Solenostemma argelargel & at Wikipedia : Acacia seyalseyal Note[156]; at Wikipedia : AlchemillaAlchemilla Note[157]; at Wikipedia : AbutilonAbutilon, at Wikipedia : AlhagiAlhagi, at Wikipedia : ArganiaArgania, at Wikipedia : AverrhoaAverrhoa, at Wikipedia : AvicenniaAvicennia, at Wikipedia : Caesalpinia bonducbonduc,  fagaraFagara was a synonym of the entire genus Zanthoxylum in the botanist Linnaeus (died 1778). Zanthoxylum is a genus of many species of Sichuan pepper seeds. Today's Zanthoxylum Fagara is a tree whose native range is Mexico and nearby. Today's technical botany name ''fagara'' is a modern resurrection of medieval Latin fagara, which had been created in translation of medieval Arabic فاغرة fāghara | fāghira. The meaning of the Arabic fāghara was and is at Wikipedia : Sichuan pepperZanthoxylum Piperitum, aka Sichuan pepper. The Arabic book The Canon of Medicine by Ibn Sina (died 1037) has Arabic فاغرة fāghara | fāghira and it was translated as Latin fagara when this book was translated to Latin by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1087). The word is scarce in old botany writers. Writers that provide it with description include : Arabic فاغرة fāghara in Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) and Latin fagara in Johann Bauhin (died 1613).,  lebbeckName Lebbeck was introduced into Latin from Arabic plantname لبخ labakh in mid-18th century. The introducer was Fredrik Hasselquist (died 1752), author of Travels in the Levant... containing Observations in Natural History. Hasselquist says "Mimosa Lebbeck" is a large Acacia-type tree species that he saw growing in gardens in Cairo city in Egypt, and he says "the Arabs call it Lebbeck". The botanist Carl Linnaeus (died 1778) carried Hasselquist's species name ''Lebbeck'' into Linnaeus's own botany book. Peter Forskål (died 1763) in his Latin botany book Flora Ægyptiaco-Arabica, on page 177, says "Mimosa Lebbek" is grown in gardens in Cairo city and he says the Arabs call it "Lœbach" and on page CXXIII he says it is synonymous with Serisch Indis = "Indian siris". Today's tree named Albizia lebbeck is identical to trees named Mimosa lebbeck and Acacia lebbeck in the 18th-19th centuries. The tree will not grow in Egypt without artificial irrigation. Note[158]; Mesua is a botanical genus whose native range is restricted to Tropical Asia. The genus was unknown to Latin botany until about late 17th or early 18th century. The botany name is an 18th century creation. It was created in commemoration of the late 13th century Latin medicinal botany author ''Mesue'', pronounced ''me-su-eh'', whose name was a pseudonym (pseudepigraph) from medicinal botany author Ibn Masawayh ماسويه (died c. 857).Mesua. List incomplete.

Addendum for Names of Stars in Night Sky

The top 100 brightest stars are relatively well known among sky watchers. These stars have traditional names in English. The majority of the names are descended from medieval Arabic. They arrived in Latin in the late 12th and the 13th century. An example is the 5th brightest star in the night sky, called Definition at Dictionary.com : VegaVega in English and Latin, from Arabic واقع wāqaʿ. More fully this star's name was النسر الواقع‬‎ al-nasr al-wāqaʿ in medieval Arabic (the full name is in medieval Latin at least once spelled annaceralwakaLatin star name ''annaceralwaka'' (an-naser al-waqa) is in a Latin treatise on the Astrolabe by Rudolf of Bruges, who lived mid 12th century in the Languedoc area and had read Arabic astronomy in Latin translations. Rudolf was born in Germanic-speaking Bruges. His Germanic background helps explain why he used the letter W in annaceralwaka. Latin writers of Italy and France used the letter V.ref). The 7th brightest star, Definition at Dictionary.com : RigelRigel, is from Arabic رجل rijl and more fully this star's Arabic name was رجل الجوزاء rijl al-jawzāʾ. Definition at Dictionary.com : FomalhautFomalhaut, the 18th brightest star, is from Arabic فم الحوت fom al-hūt. During recent centuries in English many of the traditional star names have been getting slowly displaced by a more systematic naming convention involving other names. But this has really not been happening for the top 30 or so best-known, brightest stars. For example, Vega is now also known as Alpha Lyrae, Rigel is also known as Beta Orionis, and Fomalhaut is also known as α PsA, but Vega, Rigel and Fomalhaut remain by far the most commonly used names for these three stars.

AldebaranDefinition at Dictionary.com : Aldebaran, DenebDefinition at Dictionary.com : Deneb, Definition at Dictionary.com : AltairAltair, Definition at Dictionary.com : BetelgeuseBetelgeuse and Definition at Dictionary.com : AchernarAchernar are others among the top 20 brightest stars. Their name ancestry path is: medieval Arabic star names medieval Latin star names English star names. A full list is at at Wikipedia : List of English star-names of Arabic ancestryref and alternatively organized lists are at Article ''The pronunciations, derivations, and meanings of a selected list of star names'', by George A. Davis Jr., in journal ''Popular Astronomy'', Vol. 52 pages 8 - 30, year 1944ref and ''(Un)Common Star Names'', a list by David Harper and L.M. Stockman. This list is derived from seven sources. The seven sources are named at the bottom of the list.ref. Related info can be gleaned from descriptions of the sky's brightest stars at Online resource : THE 170 BRIGHTEST STARS, by astronomer Jim Kalerref. Further history on star-names can be gleaned from Book ''Star-Names And Their Meanings'', by Richard Hinckley Allen, year 1899ref and Article ''A Note on Star Names - Especially Arabic - and Their Literature'', by Paul Kunitzsch, year 1979, 3 pages, with literature references for further readingref.

In Arabic The Book of Fixed Stars of Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (died c. 986) has descriptions and drawings of the positions of the stars and quantifies their brightnesses. This book was well-circulated among astronomers in the medieval Arabic world. It seems it was the number one most widely circulated book of its kind. It is one of the best sources for the star-names in medieval Arabic. It was translated to Latin in southern Italy with date late 12th century, and this Latin survives in nine medieval manuscripts – The linked page has a list of medieval manuscripts of al-Ṣūfī's ''Star Atlas'' aka ''Book of the Images of the Fixed Stars''. List compiled by Robert Harry van Gent. Van Gent says Al-Ṣūfī's Arabic book was ''translated into Latin by an unknown scribe for William II of Sicily (1155-1189)'' and the earliest surviving Latin manuscript is dated ''c. 1270'' as manuscript.ref, Digitized Latin manuscript : Ms-1036 ''Sufi latinus''. Physical manuscript dated 1250-1275.ref. The book was published in Arabic-to-French translation in year 1874 and this publication gives all of al-Sufi's star-names in Arabic and also gives some selected other portions in Arabic – Book ''Description des étoiles fixes par Abd-al-Rahman al-Sûfi'', translation to French by Schjellerup, year 1874. It has a page index for the Arabic star-names starting on print page 259, which is PDF page 268. The Table of Contents is at back of book.ref.

Addendum for Middle Eastern Cuisine Words

Part of the vocabulary of Middle Eastern cuisine is from Turkish, not Arabic. The following words are from Arabic, although some of them have entered the Western European languages via Turkish. Baba ghanoush, Couscous, Falafel, Fattoush, Halva, Hummus, Kibbeh, Kebab, Moussaka note on moussaka[159], Shawarma, Tabouli | Tabbouleh, Tahini, Za'atar ... and some cuisine words of lesser circulation include Ful medames, Kabsa, Kushari, Labneh, Lahmacun, Mahlab, Mulukhiyah, Ma'amoul, Mansaf, Shanklish, at Wikipedia : Tepsi Baytinijan. It is spelled Tabsi Betinjan in ''A Cookbook and History of the Iraqi Cuisine'', by Nawal Nasrallah, year 2003. It is a baked aubergine recipe which is comparable to moussaka.Tabsi Betinjan.... Middle Eastern cuisine words were uncommon and rare in English before 1970, being confined for the most part to travellers' reports. The same was true in all Western European languages, except for a longstanding Spanish alcuzcuz = "couscous" and 19th century French couscous. In the early 1970s the usage increased rapidly for some of the words.

Addendum for Arabic Music Words

Some Arabic words used in English in talking about Arabic music: Ataba, Baladi, Dabke, Darbouka, Khaleeji, Maqam, Mawal, Mizmar, Oud, Qanun, Raï, Raqs sharqi, Takht, Taqsim.

Addendum for Textile Words

The textile industry was the largest manufacturing industry in the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval and early modern centuries. The list above included the six fabric names Cotton, Damask, Macrame, Mohair, Morocco, and Muslin, and the three textile dye names Anil, Crimson/Kermes, and Safflower, and the two garment names Jumper and Sash. The following are two near-obsolete textile fabric names not listed earlier.

In addition to the above, several now fully obsolete textile names were transferred during the medieval centuries from Arabic into Latinate and then from Latinate into English -- details omitted. The following are seven English textile names still in use today, whose ancestries are not established and not adequately in evidence, except it is established that six of the seven have medieval start dates in the Western European languages and the seventh started in the 16th century. An Arabic source may be one of the possibilities for each:
buckramDefinition at Dictionary.com : buckram, Definition at Dictionary.com : chiffonchiffon, Definition at Dictionary.com : gaberdinegaberdine, Definition at Dictionary.com : gauzegauze, Definition at Dictionary.com : satinsatin, Definition at Dictionary.com : taffetataffeta, Definition at Dictionary.com : waddingwadding.

English color-name scarlet descends from medieval Latin cloth-name scarlata meaning a high-quality woolen cloth. For word-origin of medieval Latin scarlata, an Arabic source has been sometimes asserted, but in fact an Arabic source is practically impossible.Note[196] English cordovan is a type of leather. Contrary to some reports, the word cordovan does not have Arabic ancestry.Note[161].

FusticDefinition at Dictionary.com : fustic is a near-obsolete textile dye whose word-history in European languages begins in Languedoc and Catalonia in the 13th century. It is often asserted that it came from an Arabic word, but the assertion is surely wrong.Note[163] A dye word that conceivably might have come from Arabic is Definition at Dictionary.com : Alizarinalizarin, a foreign-looking word whose rootword is uncertain and whose first appearance in Western European languages is in the late 18th century.Note[164].


Words some people claim are from Arabic, but the evidence is deficient and defective

almanac, antimony, azure, bazaar, borage, caliber, carafe, carrack (ship), cork, drub, fanfare, garbage, gauze, genetta, guitar, hazard, lilac, macabre, mask, massage, racquet, risk, scarlet, soda, tartar, tobacco, traffic, zircon/zirconium, tuna (fish), albacore (fish).

Probably a few of the 30 words in this section are of Arabic ancestry. Most of them are probably not, or definitely not. More than a few are clearly not from Arabic. For most of them, a convincing root in a European language was missing, and so researchers turned to the possibility of an Arabic source for the word. And a specific Arabic source was proposed for the word. And this Arabic-source proposal is nowadays reported by many English dictionaries with a greater or lesser degree of confidence. But the evidence for the Arabic source is poor, defective and unconvincing. The 30 words also include cases where, in addition to lousy evidence from Arabic, a good non-Arabic-source proposal exists -- including the cases borage, caliber, cork, guitar, lilac, scarlet, tartar, tuna, and zircon (for good non-Arabic propositions for those words, see the footnotes for the words).

1 almanac
This word's earliest securely dated record in Europe is in Latin in the 1260s. A tiny number of possibly earlier records exist but come with insecure dates. In its early records in Latin it was spelled almanach and it meant a set of tables detailing movements of astronomical bodies for multiple upcoming years. Namely the movements of the five then-known planets and the Moon and the Sun. A lot of medieval Arabic writings on astronomy exist, and they do not use a word that can be matched to the Latin almanac. In medieval Arabic, the astronomy motion tables were called al-zīj | al-taqwīm | al-jadāwil. The 19th-century Arabic-word-origin experts Engelmann & Dozy said about almanac: "To have the right to argue that it is of Arabic origin, one must first find a candidate word in Arabic" and they found none.Note[4] There is a medieval Arabic المناخ al-munākh, which would be a good fit phonetically, but it has no semantic connection to the Latin almanac. The origin of the Latin remains obscure.Note[165]
2 antimony
This word occurs earliest in Constantinus Africanus (died circa 1087), who was a translator of Arabic medical books into Latin. His translations were widely circulated in Latin. His spelling was antimonium and he has the word in three separate translations. The Constantinus-influenced Matthaeus Platearius (died c. 1160) spelled it antimonium as well Book, ''Liber de Simplici Medicina'' aka ''Circa Instans'', by Matthaeus Platearius. The link goes to images of a manuscript dated perhaps early 13th century. Manuscript owned by Mertz Library. ''Antimonium'' is on the bottom righthand side on page 19-20, which is image number 11. Platearius has a page about antimonium powder used in medicine.(ref). The meaning in medieval Latin was antimony sulfide and closely similar rocks (such as lead sulfide). Antimony sulfide was well-known to the medieval Arabs under the names إثمد ithmid and كحل kohl and it was well-known to the ancient & medieval Latins under the names stibium | stibi | stimmi. The Arabic-to-Latin translator Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187) used the Latin antimonium to translate the Arabic ithmid (In Latin : Canon of Medicine of Ibn Sina (died 1037) translated from Arabic by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187), edition annotated by Andreas Alpagus Bellunensis (died 1521). Paragraph for ''antimonium'' in Book II.ref, In Arabic : Ibn Sina's ''Canon of Medicine''. Search it for إثمدref). The medieval Latin name antimonium is of obscure origin. In the western European languages other than Latin, in the late medieval period, antimony is a "bookish" name arriving from the medieval Latin. It is found primarily in medicines books. Secondarily it is found in minerals books. Conceivably the Latin might have come from something in Arabic, but no precedent in Arabic has been found.Note[166]
3 azure (color), lazurite (mineral), azurite (mineral), lazulite (mineral)
These names are ultimately from an Iranian name connected to a large deposit of azure-blue rock in northeastern Afghanistan. Northeastern Afghanistan was the chief and maybe the only source-place for the most-desired type of azure-blue rock in the medieval era — the type called Lazurite today. The medieval name was also in use for other types of azure-blue rocks — especially the type called Azurite today. Medievally the rocks were usually crushed to a powder for use as a blue colorant in paints and inks (and less often were used as polished stone). From the powdered rocks used as paint colorants, "lazure | azure" was a color-name in many medieval languages. From the Iranian name, medieval Arabic had لازورد lāzward | lāzūard meaning particularly Lazurite and sometimes meaning the other rocks with a similar azure color.Note[181] Late-ancient and early-medieval Greek had the synonymous lazourion. This has a handful of records in Greek in the 4th-7th centuries AD.Note[182] The records in Latin start in the early 9th century as Latin lazurin, lazuri and lazur.Note[182] Later medieval Latin had wordforms lazurium, azurium, azurum, etc, synonymous with the Greek and Arabic. The period 4th-7th centuries was before the spread of the Arabic language with the onset of Islam. The territory of the Byzantine Empire in the 4th-7th centuries included the bulk of today's Turkey. There are good grounds to take it as true and correct that the 4th-7th centuries Greek word lazourion | lazour_, meaning Lazurite, went into Greek by an overland route from the Persian empire to the Greek empire, and did not go into Greek overland through Arabic-speaking territory. If the Lazurite product also arrived in Mediterranean Europe by transport across the Indian Ocean and up the Red Sea in the 4th-7th centuries, this route would not necessarily involve Arabic intermediation either. The numerous attestations of the Greek lazour_ in the 4th-9th centuries demonstrate that Lazurite was an item in Mediterranean commerce in the 4th-9th centuries. There are good grounds for judging that the Greek lazourion | lazour_ was the parent of the 9th-century Latin lazurin | lazuri | lazur. This means that the Latin word did not come directly nor indirectly from the Arabic lāzward.Note[182]
4 bazaar
This word is in nearly all European languages today. In Europe before 1800 it was mostly confined to traveller's reports from various Eastern lands and it was taken afresh from various Eastern languages at various times. It is ultimately from Persian bāzār = "bazaar". It is in late medieval Italian and Italian-Latin as Lexicon : ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, quotes medieval Latin ''bazale'', ''bazalium'', ''bazarium'', on pages 137-138, in Genoese authors. The meaning of a bazal__ is a bazaar.bazarium | bazale | bazar @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini. Quotes the word in travel writer Lionardo Frescobaldi (died c. 1409), who was talking about a bazaar in Cairo city.bazar | Book, ''La Pratica della Mercatura'', by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, dated around year 1340. Pegolotti was a Florentine Italian. He says a market is called a ''bazarra'' by the Genoese Italians.bazarra | Giosafat Barbaro travelled in Iran in the 1470s and wrote a travel narrative. His wordforms are bazaro, bazari, bazarri in original Italian text. Downloadable in PDF format. Another Italian edition is titled ''Viaggio di Iosafa Barbaro alla Tana e nella Persia''.bazaro | ''Viaggio di Ambrosio Contarini'' is a narrative by Ambrogio Contarini describing his visit to Iran in 1474-1476. It has bazzarro & bazzarri & bazarro & bazarri. Text is in Ramusio's collection ''Navigazioni e Viaggi'' volume 2 year 1559, starting on page 112+1. An English translation is at archive.org/details/travelstotanaper00barbrich (year 1873) and uses English word bazaar.bazzarro = "bazaar". Medieval Italian-Latin has additionally a few instances of Downloadable book, ''Vocabolario Ligure'' by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001. ''Ligure'' is Liguria Province, whose main city is Genoa. The book has separate vocabularies for medieval Latin and medieval Italian. ''Bazariot_'' is in the two of them.bazarioto | bazariotus = "person who works in a bazaar". There is also French Article, ''Les emprunts arabes et grecs dans le lexique français d’Orient (XIIIe-XIVe siècles)'', by Laura Minervini, year 2012, on page 109, quotes French ''basar de Famaguste'' dated 1362 at Cyprus in appendage to ''Assises de Jérusalem''. Famaguste is Famagusta city in Cyprus.basar (year 1362) , Book ''Le Voyage d'Outremer'' by Bertrandon de la Bro(c)quière is about the author's travels in Levant in 1432-1433. He has ''bathzar'' for bazaar on pages 60, 77, 131 & 135 of year 1892 edition. On page 77 the ''bathzar'' is at ''Hamant'' meaning Hama city in Syria. On page 134 he is at Bursa city in Turkey and spelling is ''bathsar''.bathzar (year 1432) = "bazaar". Those medieval records involve the Eastern Mediterranean lands, and do not involve contact with Iranian-speaking lands excepting two Italian travellers in Iran in the 1470s which are later than the other records. The word is in medieval Arabic as بازار bāzār = "bazaar" although not with high frequency. Medieval Arabic البحث عن البازار @ AlWaraq.netexamples and البحث عن بازار @ AlWaraq.netmore examples. In French in the 16th & 17th centuries the word is in various travelers talking about bazaars in overseas cities, being Arabic-speaking cities more often than not – bazar @ ''Addenda au FEW XIX (Orientalia)'', by Raymond Arveiller, year 1999, on pages 52-53ref: Arveiller. The word is in Italian in 16th-century travel narratives including bazzarro & bazzarri & bazarro in ''Viaggio d'un mercante che fu nella Persia'', a narrative by an unnamed Italian merchant. Published in Ramusio's collection ''Navigazioni e Viaggi'', volume 2 year 1559, on pages 78-91. In first & last sections, the unnamed author gives the dates of his voyage. English translation year 1873 @ archive.org/details/narrativeofitali00greyrich circa 1513, bazzarri & bazzariotti are in text ''Vita e fatti del Signor Ussuncassano'' by GM Angiolello (died circa 1525). The bazaars are located in Iran. Italian text is in Ramusio's collection ''Navigazioni e Viaggi'' Volume 2 year 1559 on pages 66-78. English translation @ archive.org/details/narrativeofitali00greyrich before 1525, bazarro & bazarri in book ''Viaggio di m. Cesare de i Fedrici, nell'India orientale''. The author Fedrici -- aka Federici -- travelled in the oriental Indies in 1560s and 1570s. His book was first published in 1587.before 1587. A German traveler in Syria & Iraq in 1573-1575 has about 25 instances in German for Batzar = "bazaar" and one of his instances is that in Aleppo city "they have a great shoping center called Batzar by the inhabitants" – Book, ''Der Raiß inn die Morgenländer'', by Leonhart Rauwolf, year 1582. Page 98 has ''ein grosses Kauffhauß , BATZAR von innwohnern genennet''.ref-1, Leonhart Rauwolf's travel book is in English translation in ''A Collection of Curious Travels and Voyages. Volume II. Containing Dr. Leonhart Rauwolf's Journey into the Eastern Countries...'', Collection compiled by John Ray, year 1693, republished 1738. Search book for Batzar, including page 65.ref-2. A decent argument can be made that today's European word was borrowed late medievally from Arabic, starting in Italian, and that, despite later borrowings afresh, today's European word is in unbroken continuity with the late medieval start.
5 borage (plant), Boraginaceae (botanical family)
Borage is a native plant in the Mediterranean area. It was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans under another name. The name borage starts in medieval Latin as bor(r)ago | bor(r)agine and it is first seen in Constantinus Africanus, who was an 11th-century Latin medical writer and translator who grew up in Africa (Tunisia), he was fluent in Arabic, and all his writings were derived and translated from Arabic medical sources. Many of today's etymology dictionaries suppose the name to be from Arabic and report the proposition that Constantinus took it from أبو عرق abū ʿaraq = "sweat inducer", pronounced like "buʿaraq | buʿarag" in oral Arabic. But in medieval Arabic no such name is on record for borage, and Constantinus makes no mention of sweat in connection with borage, and moreover a good and convincing non-Arabic origin proposition exists for borrago.Note[167]
6 caliber, calipers, calibrate
Excluding an isolated and semantically unclear record in northern France in 1478, the early records are in French in the early and mid 16th century spelled calibre and equally often spelled qualibre, with two concurrent meanings: (1) "the interior diameter of a gun-barrel" and (2) "the quality, character, or degree of anything". A popular old idea is that the French word was borrowed from Arabic قالب qālib = "physical model, mold, template". But that idea comes with no evidence and it has no background historical context to support it. It is far more likely that the word was formed in French from medieval Latin qua libra = "what balance, what weight".Note[168]
7 carafe
It is acceptable enough to say that records for the word carafe in the European languages begin in the 14th & 15th century in Sicily in the wordform carraba, meaning a glass carafe, a glass vase for holding wine. Records in the wordform carrafa begin in southern Italy in the last 3rd of the 15th century.Note[169] Northern Italian records begin in the early 16th century with their wordform being caraffa = "carafe". Mid 16th century Spanish garrafa = "carafe" was from the Italian word.Note[169] The 16th century carafe was usually made of glass. The most popular source hypothesis for the Italian word is based upon the medieval Arabic rootword غرف gharaf = "to scoop water", which produced medieval Arabic غرفة gharfa = "large spoon or ladle to scoop water" and medieval Arabic غروف gharūf | غريفة gharīfa = "large bucket for water". Those are a little off-target semantically and may be without specifically supporting transfer context for transfer into Italian. Gharaf = "to scoop water" was a rootword with an ability to generate further derivative words. It is quite possible that one of its derivatives was transferred locally in Arabic-ruled Sicily (10th & 11th century) and thereafter the semantics evolved somehow in Sicily & southern Italy. Some of today's Arabic dictionaries have غرّافة gharrāfa = "carafe", but this is only found in relatively recent Arabic, so it is a borrowing from Europe.Note[170]
8 carrack
Carrack is an old type of large sailing ship. It was always a cargo transport ship. It normally had armaments to defend itself against hostile foreigners at sea but was not a warship in the strict sense. Its earliest European records are in the century from 1150 to 1250 at Genoa & Liguria in Latin spelled carraca | caraca Book, ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, quotations for Latin ''carraca | caraca'' on page 222. Abbreviations are defined on pages 25-48.(examples in years 1157, 1213, 1225, 1238). Genoa & Liguria was one of the Mediterranean's biggest ship-building places in that century and the following century Article, ''Les chantiers navals en Ligurie du Moyen Âge à l’époque moderne (xii- xvi siècles)'', by Furio Ciciliot, year 2012, in journal ''Cahiers de la Méditerranée'' volume 84 pages 259-271. Article is based on 230-page monograph, ''Le superbe navi. Cantieri e tipologie navali liguri medievali'', by Furio Ciciliot, year 2005 in volume XLI of ''Atti e Memorie della Società Savonese di Storia Patria''.(ref). The Genoa & Liguria word went into Spanish in the late 13th century as carraca (search for ''carraca'' @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español. First record is dated between 1270 and 1284.ref , carraca @ ''Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española''. Says the carrack sailing ship originated among the Italians. Also says the source of the name is uncertain; i.e. the source of the Italian name is uncertain.ref). In England, where the start is late 14th century in Latin and English, the carracks in numerous early records are big merchant ships that sail to English ports from the Mediterranean Sea and are under the management of Genoa merchants (carik | carek | carak @ Middle English Dictionary. The quotations include year 1383 in Latin: ''a certain big ship, called CARRAK of Genoa''.ref, carraca @ ''Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources'' (''DMLBS''), year 2013. It quotes : year 1386 carricis, 1388 carraka, 1405 caracas, c.1416 karricarum, 1418 carrakarum. In the quotations, the British Latin proper name ''Janu__'' means Genoa. The dictionary's sources are identified by abbreviations which are defined at http://www.dmlbs.ox.ac.uk/web/dmlbs%20bibliography.html ref). There is a good possibility that the Italian-Latin word was derived from early medieval Latin ''carricare'' @ Niermeyer's Lexicon of Medieval Latin, year 1976. Niermeyer's lexicon also has entries for ''carricamentum'', ''carricatio'', ''carricator'', and ''carricatura''. Altlink :
| ''carrigare'' in Du Cange's Glossary of Medieval Latin. See also ''#1. carricare'', ''#2. carricare'', ''caricatum'', ''caricatorium'', ''carica'', ''caraca'', and ''carraca'' in Du Cange's glossary.car(r)igare = "to carry, to transport", which came from classical Latin carrus = "a cart" plus the Latin verb ending at Wikipedia's wiktionary : -icare, a Latin suffix-icare which incorporates the Latin suffix at Wikipedia's wiktionary : -icus, a Latin suffix-ic_. Classical and early medieval Latin was clearly and uncontestedly the parent of medieval Italian Book, ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001. Has 12th century Italian-Latin ''carrica'' in Part 1 on page 228 (abbreviations defined on pages 25-48).carrica | carica #1 @ TLIOcarica | carico #2 @ TLIOcarico = "a cargo, a load"; carico #1 @ TLIOnave di carico = "cargo ship"; caricato @ TLIOnave caricata = "cargo ship"; caricare @ TLIOcar(r)icare = "to load a vehicle, to place a burden on anything"; carrata @ TLIOcarrata = "cargo"; carratura @ TLIOcarratura = "carting"; carroccio @ TLIOcarroccio | carrozza @ TLIOcarroz(z)a | carriaggio @ TLIOcarriaggio | carreggio @ TLIOcarreggio (having suffix at Wikipedia's wiktionary : -aggio, a suffix in Italian-aggio) = "carriage". Native words for cargo and cargo-bearing can plausibly generate a word for cargo ship. The 2nd letter 'a' in carraca = "cargo ship" is slightly irregular if derived from the above native Italian and Latin. Only slightly. The following Italian wordforms are in late medieval Italian and are standard in modern Italian: Italian tonaca = classical Latin tunica = English "tunic"; Italian cronaca = classical Latin chronica = English "chronicle"; Italian indaco = classical Latin Indicum dye = English "indigo"; Italian sindaco = late classical Latin syndicus = English "syndic" (whence "syndicate"). Thus it is phonetically okay to take the Italian car(r)aca from the Italian noun car(r)ica and the Italian verb car(r)icare. However, the more popular belief is car(r)aca was somehow taken from Arabic. The most popular speculation is car(r)aca came from Arabic قراقير qarāqīr which was the grammatical plural of Arabic القرقور qurqūr = "cargo ship". An alternative speculation is car(r)aca was from Arabic حرّاقة harrāqa = "kind of warship", but the evidence for it is very poor (Book, ''Classic Ships of Islam: From Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean'', by Dionisius Agius, year 2008. Discusses the meaning of medieval Arabic ḥarrāqa on pages 299-301 and pages 343-347. Semantically, as a seagoing vessel, ḥarrāqa was bigly different from carraca. On page 346-347 the author says he has not met evidence to support the speculated etymological connection between ḥarrāqa and carraca.ref, At the linked download page, search for the book title ''Ships of Islam''. Then download the book. The book discusses ḥarrāqa on pages 299-301 and 343-347.alt-link). I have found nobody with an evidentiary basis or good historical reason for preferring any Arabic source whatsoever here, except for the merely negative reason that carraca does not have a definite source in the native Italian and Italian-Latin words cited above. By the way, a type of old sailing ship with possible Arabic word-origin is Definition at Dictionary.com : XebecXebec, another is Definition at Dictionary.com : FeluccaFelucca, and another is Definition at Dictionary.com : DhowDhow, but the histories of those words has no bearing on the historical context surrounding carraca.
9 cork
The earliest known records in England are 1303 as "cork" and 1342 as "cork", each meaning bulk cork bark imported from Iberia – cork @ Middle English Dictionaryref. The ancient Romans used cork and called it, among other names, cortex (literally: "bark"). From that Latin, medieval and modern Spanish has corcho = "cork". Corcho definitely did not come from Arabic.Note[171] Corcho is the most likely source for the English word. Many English dictionaries claim on the contrary that the English word came from Spanish alcorques = "slipper shoes made of cork" and they claim the Spanish alcorques is surely from Arabic because of its "al-". But this Spanish "al-" word cannot be found in writing in any medieval Arabic author with a clear and reliable meaning of "cork shoes" or "cork". Evidence in Spanish supports the contrary argument that the "al-" in alcorques was solely Spanish, and that the corque part of the Spanish word descended from classical Latin without Arabic intermediation.Note[171]
10 drub, drubbing
Drub is not in European languages other than English. There is good likelihood that the English verb "drub" and the noun "drubbing" came from the Arabic verb & noun ضرب @ E.W. Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon, year 1874, in Volume 5 on pages 1777-1782, discusses verb ḌARB and then noun ḌARB. For noun ضَرْبٌ ḌARB it says the plural is ضُرُوبٌ ḌURŪB and where it says it is at the top of column 3 on page 1781. The linked html page is for downloading the eight volumes of Lane's Lexicon. An alternative is :
ضرب ḍarb
= "whack, hit" and the Arabic noun plural ضرب ḍarb @ ''Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic'' by Hans Wehr, year 1976. It says : ḍarb has meaning ''beating, striking, hitting'' and for this meaning the plural of ḍarb is ḍurūb.ضروب ḍurūb = "whackings, hittings". Verb DRUB in volume covering words beginning with letter D, year 1897A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles says about English drub: Appears first after 1600; all the early instances, before 1663, are from travellers in the Orient [i.e. the Middle East], and refer to the Bastinado was a legal punishment in which the soles of a person's feet were heavily beaten with a wooden stick. It was imposed for misdemeanor crimes in the Ottoman-ruled Middle East. bastinado. Hence, in the absence of any other tenable suggestion, it may be conjectured to represent Arabic ضرب ḍaraba (also pronounced ḍuruba), to beat, to bastinado, and the verbal noun ḍarb (also pronounced ḍurb). You can see at At the link, the search for drub has been restricted to books before 1681. You can see drub in many more books between 1680 and 1700 at same website. You can see that the word was fashionable in England in the 1680s and 1690s.Early English Books Online that 17th-century English "drubbed" & "drubbing(s)" is primarily in travel writers in the Middle East. In the earliest case where the writer was not in the Middle East, the writer says the American Indians in New England are so able to tolerate pain that "a Turkish drubbing would not much molest them" Book ''New Englands prospect'' by William Wood, year 1634, online at ''Early English Books Online''(year 1634). A travel book in English in 1677 says bastinado... on the soles of their feet... is the punishment which is properly call'd Drubbing Book ''The six voyages of John Baptista Tavernier... through Turky, into Persia and the East-Indies'', year 1677. It is a translation of year 1676 French ''Les six voyages'' by Jean-Baptiste Tavernier. In the French text the only term used is ''coups de baton'' and the English translator puts it fourteen times as ''bastinado'' and eleven times as ''drub__''.(ref). A dictionary in English in 1706 has the definition: DRUB, to beat the Soles of the Feet with a Stick, a Punishment used in Turkey : Also simply, to cudgel or bang one soundly.Edward Phillips' late-17th-century English dictionary was greatly expanded by John Kersey in year 1706. Kersey added the word ''drub'' to the dictionary's 1706 edition.ref. The English word looks to be from Arabic, yet there is still a residual insecurity that the English could have somehow been a survival from drepen @ ''Middle English Dictionary'', year 2001. Gives quotations for the past-tense wordforms drop_ & drap_, as well as for drep_.Late Medieval English drepen from drepan @ Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon by Bosworth & Toller, year 1921Early Medieval English drepan "to hit, to strike, to kill".
11 fanfare
English fanfare is from French fanfare. Earliest known in French is year 1542. Around then in the Western European languages the word for "trumpeting" carried the meaning "boastful" as well as meaning "playing the musical trumpet wind instrument". One of fanfare's first records in French is year 1548 "the roaring of a bull would serve in lieu of a trumpet for incanting the fanfare of his victory" Novel ''L'histoire Aethiopique'' by Heliodorus, translated Greek-to-French by translator Jacques Amyot, first published in year 1548, republished 1549. Says: ''chanter la fanfare de sa victoire''.(ref). Another early French instance is un fanfare hautain = "a haughty fanfare" (''La Tragedie d'Agamemnon, avec deus livres de chants'', by Charles Toutain, year 15571557). The French fanfare was almost certainly from Spanish fanfarrón (earliest known in Spanish 1517), meaning bluster, a person grandstanding, a talker who is full of bravado. Spanish fanfarrón and its plural fanfarrones (earliest known 1532) has many records in 16th century Spanish, and it is also in 16th century Spanish in the lesser-used wordform panfarrón (earliest known 1514) – Search for fanfarr?n* (with asterisk) @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE). Search separately for panfarr?n*. The search for ?anfarr?n* finds both fanfarr?n* and panfarr?n*.ref: CORDE. Spanish fanfarria (earliest known 1577 – Book ''El pelegrino curioso y grandezas de España'', by Bartholomé de Villalba, was completed in year 1577. It was published in year 1886 in two volumes. Each volume has substring FANFARR__, and Volume 2 has fanfarrias.ref) was "ostentation" & "boastfulness" & "fanfare" in its early records, and its records are plentiful in the period from 1577 to 1650 – Cesar Oudin's Spanish-to-French dictionary, year 1607 edition, has the three Spanish words fanfarron + fanfarrear + fanfarria translated into French wordsref, Search for FANFARRIA at Books.Google.com with the search restricted to books printed before year 1650.ref. 16th & 17th century Spanish farfante (earliest year 1545 at CORDE) was semantically near fanfarrón and probably came out of the same rootword. Meanwhile, the French fanfaron (earliest known 1609 – fanfaron @ Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales. French ''fanfaronnade'' is under a separate heading in same dictionary. The earliest known for French ''fanfaronnade'' is 1598.ref) was certainly from Spanish fanfarrón. Cotgrave's French dictionary in year 1611 defined French fanfare and French fanfaronnades as synonymous. Cotgrave defined it as trumpeting and "bragging acclamation" Headwords FANFARE and FANFARER and FANFARONNADES in Randle Cotgrave's French-to-English dictionary, year 1611(ref). Today's English language has a scarcely-used word fanfaronade which is defined in English dictionaries the same as the early-16th-century Spanish fanfarrón. The rootword of the Spanish word is undetermined and inconclusive. A source in the Arabic of medieval Iberia is one possibility. One Arabic candidate is فرفار farfār | فرفرة farfara which is in the medieval Arabic dictionaries with meanings including "talkative", "shouting", "frivolity".Note[172]
12 garbage
This English word is not found in bygone centuries in French or other languages. The early meaning in English was the low-grade yet consumable parts of poultry such as the birds' heads, necks and gizzards, and the earliest known in English is 1422, and its earliest spelling is "garbage".Note[173] During the 16th-17th centuries the meaning evolved to the non-consumable entrails parts of butchered animals. Some nouns formed by suffixing '-age' to verbs in late medieval English and not found in French: cartage (1305), leakage (1444 lecage), steerage (1399 sterage), stoppage (1465), towage (1327).Note[173] Garbage possibly may have been formed from English verb garble = "to sift". The earliest known for garble in England is 1393.Note[173] Garble came to English through the Romance languages from Arabic gharbal = "to sift".Note[66] The wordforms "garbellage" and "garblage" meaning the garbage or inferior material removed by sifting, are recorded spottily in English from the 14th through 18th centuries and those are clearly from garble. The proposed idea is that garbage, meaning the low-grade parts of poultry, was formed from garble meaning "to sift". The idea has phonetic and semantic shortcomings. It gets an airing because there is not a better idea available for garbage.Note[67]
13 gauze
English "gauze" is from French gaze, pronounced ga:z | gazz in French. The earliest known French is 1461 as a man's robe made of gaze. French dictionaries in 1573, 1607 and 1611 defined gaze as transparent fabric used as a foundation for making embroidery pieces. The dictionary in 1611 also said gaze also means transparent lightweight silk fabric. 13th century Latin has two instances of gasu | gazzatum meaning some sort of luxury garment fabric, a rare word in medieval Latin, probably some sort of silk. It is possible that the 15th century French word is fully independent of the 13th century Latin word. The source of the French word is obscure. Arabic words for silks are speculated as the source for the French word. More than one Arabic candidate has been proposed without adequate evidence. All propositions suffer from thin documentation in French for the first 100+ years of the word's use in French, and secondly they suffer from not having a close fit to the particular semantics of the French word.Note[174]
14 genet | genetta (nocturnal mammal)
Genet pelts were used medievally to make an edge-band of fur on woolen coats, and less often to make complete fur coats. The word is in 13th-century Catalan (Book, ''La Terminologia Tèxtil a la Documentació Llatina de la Catalunya Altomedieval'', by Laura Trias Ferri, year 2012, on page 418, ''yaneta'' and ''janetes''ref, geneta @ Diccionari.cat says year 1284 is earliest in Catalanref), 13th-century French genete @ ''Dictionnaire Étymologique de l'Ancien Français''(ref) and 13th-century English genet #1 @ Middle English Dictionary(ref). There is no known generator word in Latin. Hence Arabic is a possibility, but there is no known generator word in medieval Arabic writings either. A 19th-century oral dialectical Maghrebi Arabic جرنيط jarnait = "genet" is on record ''Journal Asiatique'', 4th series volume XII, year 1849, volume I (of 2 volumes for 1849), article starting on page 537, in which Professor Cherbonneau reports a set of words found in use in vernacular North African Arabic. ''Jarnait'' on page 541.(ref) but the absence of a record for this in Arabic in any earlier century must disqualify it from being the parent of the European word (and the Maghrebi jarnait has not been connected to a meaningful root-word in Arabic or Berber, so it is liable to be from the European word).
15 guitar
Guitar is ultimately from ancient Greek kithara, which was a plectrum-plucked string musical instrument, described in ancient Greek as akin to a large lyre. Directly from the ancient Greek, there was cithara in ancient Latin. Guitar-type instruments are viewable on ancient Roman artworks (at Wikipedia : Pandura. Pandoura was an ancient Greek name for a guitar-type string instrument. The link has photographs from ancient Greek and ancient Roman artwork. The Romans did not use the Greek name pandoura.photo examples). The ancient Latin cithara meant a plucked musical instrument, including guitar-type instrument (Lewis & Short's Latin-to-English dictionary, year 1879, defines Latin ''cithara'' as English ''cithara, cithern, guitar, or lute'' (guitar and lute meant in the broad sense)ref, Search for stem string ''cithar__'' in the Classical Latin texts at Latin.PackHum.org. These texts have 163 instances of ''cithar__'' meaning cithara or meaning the musician who plays cithara. In these texts the cithara clearly means a string instrument played with a plectrum. But there is a lack of description of instrument design. More than one instrument design is probable.ref,  ref According to one ancient Greek text, a cithara was akin to a lyre (lyra) but bigger, and more difficult to play than a lyre, and the people who played it had more practice. Learning to use the fingerboard on a guitar takes longer than learning to use a lyre. The text saying the cithara demanded more practice than the lyre may have been talking about a guitar-type instrument. There is a lack of detailed description of the cithara in ancient texts. Some interpretation is necessary, and multiple instrument designs are probable. Ancient Latin cithara has been interpreted by numerous people as “an instrument somewhat like a guitar”. One of the grounds for agreeing with them is that we can see guitar-type instruments depicted in ancient Latin artworks and we cannot see another candidate name for these instruments in ancient Latin texts. In the Latin texts, the cithara occurs frequently enough that it could not mean guitar-type exclusively; it probably encompassed all instruments that were plucked with a plectrum and were more elaborate than the lyre.). Directly from the ancient Latin, cithara was in medieval Latin and Latinate languages meaning a guitar, and also meaning any plucked string instrument. As a specific example, a 9th-century Latin manuscript has colorful paintings of guitars on ten different pages and it has the word cythara in the adjacent text on eight of the pages (Stuttgarter Psalter pages 9th century ''Stuttgarter Psalter'' Latin manuscript at folio 108r (equals page 221) has colored painting of man playing guitar. The text immediately over the painting says ''cum cantico in cythara'' = ''with song on cithara''.108r, Stuttgarter Psalter at folio 125r (equals page 257) has colored painting of man playing guitar. The text immediately above the painting says ''exsurge psalterium & cythara'' = ''rise up psalterium and cithara''.125r, Stuttgarter Psalter at folio 83r (equals page 171) has colored painting of man playing guitar. Text three lines above the painting says ''psallam tibi in cythara'' = ''I play the psalms for you on the cithara''.83r, Stuttgarter Psalter at folio 112r (equals page 231) has colored painting of man playing guitar. Text four lines above the painting says ''psallite dño in cythara'' = ''psallite domino in cithara'' = ''play psalms for the lord [God] on cithara''.112r, Stuttgarter Psalter at folio 163v (equals page 334) has colored painting of man playing guitar, at the bottom of the page. Text following at the top of the next page (164r) says ''laudate eum in psalterio & cythara'' = ''praise him on psalterium and cithara''.163v-164r, Stuttgarter Psalter at folio 55r (equals page 113) has colored painting of man playing guitar. Text three lines above the painting says ''Confitebor tibi in cythara'' = ''I will acknowledge you [God] on cythara''.55r, Stuttgarter Psalter at folio 69r (equals page 141) has colored painting of man playing guitar. Text three lines below the painting says ''exsurge psalterium & cithara'' = ''rise up psalterium and cithara''.69r, Stuttgarter Psalter at folio 161r (equals page 329) has colored painting of man playing guitar. Text four lines below the painting has ''incythara'' = ''on cithara''. In this 9th-century manuscript, paintings of guitars are on folios numbered 55r, 69r, 83r, 97v, 108r, 112r, 125r, 155v, 161r, 163v.161r). As another specific example, a 10th-century Latin manuscript has a colorful painting in which 14 people are playing guitars and the word citharas is written at the center of the painting (''Morgan Beatus'' is an illustrated Latin manuscript dated mid 10th century. The manuscript at folio 174v has a painting of people playing guitars. The manuscript is kept at Pierpont Morgan Library with archive number MS 644. More info at Pierpont Morgan Library at :
Morgan Beatus page 174v
). Medieval Latin cithara | cythara was pronounced SITARA. The word guitar starts as French quitarre (first record circa 1275), French guiterne (circa 1280), French kitaire (circa 1285), Italian chitarre (circa 1300; pronounced KI-TAR-RE), Italian chitarra (circa 1305), and Spanish guitarra (1330-1343) Note[175], each meaning a guitar-type instrument, where "guitar-type" is not defined with high resolution. The wordforms whose spellings begin qui- | ki- | chi- | gui- are treatable as one word, because a change from sound /k/ to sound /g/ happened easily and often in medieval Latinate languages. But change from beginning ci- to any of qui- | ki- | chi- | gui- has very few or no parallels within the Latinate languages around that time; i.e., a change from sound /s/ to sound /k/ or /g/ would be irregular and abnormal at the begining of a word. Therefore in likelihood, the wordform with the /k/ or /g/ that arrives in the Latinate records in the late 13th century was introduced from an external source, and unlikely to have evolved out of the pre-existing Latinate cithara. A minority of dictionaries say, and they are probably correct, there was an external source and it was the medieval Greek kithára = "plucked string musical instrument", which is a very common word in medieval Greek. Kithara has thousands of records in medieval Greek. A majority of dictionaries erroneously say the source was an Arabic قيتارة qītāra | كيثرة kaīthara = "plucked string musical instrument". An Arabic word of around the form qītāra | kaīthār occurs about ten times in medieval Arabic records, and in the places where it occurs it names an instrument used by the medieval Greeks and the Greek Christian Arabs and some other Christian Arabs. It has no known medieval record where it is used by non-Christian Arabs.Note[176]
16 hazard
Medieval French hasart | hasard had the primary meaning of a game of dice and especially a game of dice where money was gambled. It was also used meaning one throw of the dice. The early records in European languages are in Norman French and northern French. The early wordform is hasart. The first is about year 1150 Note[3], another is in 1155 Text ''Roman de Brut'', by Wace, dated 1155, in Norman French, has ''juent a hasart'' meaning playing the dice game called ''hasart''(ref), and the next is in the 1170s The poem ''Erec et Enide'' by Chretien de Troyes, dated 1170s, has ''hasart'' as a dice game. The relevant line of the poem is quoted at hasart @ ''Dictionnaire Électronique de Chrétien de Troyes''.(ref). Hasart is in well more than a dozen texts in French in the period 1180-1230, which you can see from citations collected in hasart @ ''Altfranzösisches Wörterbuch'', Volume 4, by Tobler and Lommatzsch. To read this dictionary you need to know the meanings of the dictionary's abbreviated citations, which are defined at :
Tobler-Lommatzsch (year 1958)
, informed by Book, ''Würfel und Würfelspiel im alten Frankreich'', by Franz Semrau, year 1910. Downloadable as text-searchable PDF. Search it for wordform ''hasart'', which the book has one hundred instances of. The book gives citations for most of the late 12th & early 13th century French records of ''hasart'' although these are scattered through the book.Semrau (year 1910). Norman French hasart is in England before 1216 Anglo-Norman French poem ''Le Petit Plet'' by poet Chardri has the words ''est cheance, cum de hasart''. The poem is dated after 1189 and before 1216. Info on how it is dated is in the introduction to the edition curated by Brian S. Merrilees, year 1970. An earlier edition is in book ''Chardry's Josaphaz, Set dormanz und Petit plet'' curated by John Koch, year 1879. (ref). Occitan azar is in southern France with the same meaning about 1200-1215 azar @ ''Lexique roman ou dictionnaire de la langue des troubadours'', by Raynouard, volume II pages 160-161, year 1838. About year 1200-1215 the poet Gavaudan (le Vieux) has : ''azars, ab datz galiadors'', where ''azars'' means dice games, ''datz'' means dice, ''galiadors'' means things deceptive or cheating, and the whole phrase means dice games played with imbalanced dice.(ref). Medieval High German has hasehart | hashart = "hazard dice game" with starting date about 1230 hasehart @ ''Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch'' by Benecke, Müller & Zarncke, year 1866. It gives quotes of the word in medieval High German texts. The earliest is in the poem ''Die gute Frau'' by anonymous, for which the date is about 1230.(ref). With the same meaning, Italian açar | azar has its first record about roughly 1240 in poetry showing influence from Occitan azaro @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini'' quotes from poetry by Uguccione da Lodi. Uguccione da Lodi's Italian poetry contains ''gallicismi'' (i.e. loanwords from French) and shows influence from Occitan. Uguccione da Lodi composed earlier than the 1260s and has been date-estimated the 1240s, although some estimate early 13th century.(ref). Latin in Italy has azardum | açardum | azar(r)um in the 1260s and 1280s (azardum + azardus + azarrum @ Du Cange's Glossary of Medieval Latin. Du Cange's glossary also quotes Italian-Latin ''ludunt ad açardum aleas et taxillos'', dated around year 1288.ref, Downloadable book, ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, on page 104, quotes Latin ''ludum açardi seu tassillorum'' = ''game of hazard or dice'' dated 1262 in ''Il cartulario di Giovanni di Giona di Portovenere''ref). Spanish azar starts about 1250 search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE). It has ''azar'' dated approx 1260, 1276, 1283, and later. CORDE has also a record to which CORDE assigns a date of 1240-1250.(ref). As quoted in the Anglo-Norman Dictionary, Norman French in England before 1216 has hasardur = "person who plays the hasard dice game" and circa 1240 has hasardrie = "hazardry, gambling, hazarding money in the dice game called hazard", which underscores that the root-word was well-established in Norman French before the records start to show up in Italian or Spanish. There is no candidate in Latin to be the French word's parent. Everyone agrees it did not descend from Latin. According to its etymology summary in some of today's dictionaries, the French word was descended through Spanish from an unattested Arabic oral dialectical az-zār | az-zahr = "the dice". But that proposition is extremely improbable because that word has no record in Arabic with that meaning until the early 19th century.Note[177] An alternative proposition, having the advantage of attestation in medieval Arabic, is to derive the French word from medieval Arabic يسر yasar = "playing at dice". Conceivably this might have entered French through the Crusader States of the Levant, but zero evidence is on offer for this, and phonetically it is mismatching the French hasart.Note[177] It is conceivable with far better likelihood that French sourced hasart from something in Germanic.Note[178] The French word is of undetermined origin. Notwithstanding that the source of the French is undetermined, the chronology of records cited above makes it practically assured that the word in Italy and Iberia came from northern France.
17 lilac
It is well documented that the common lilac plant was originally brought to Western Europe directly from Istanbul in the early 1560s. The earliest records in the Western European languages include botany books in Latin in 1565 and 1576 which explicitly say the lilac plant and the name "Lilac " was recently brought to Western Europe from the Turks and from Istanbul.Note[179] "Lilac" is in a botanist writing in English in 1596 and 1597, a date which ranks among the first for lilac in any vernacular Western European language.Note[179] The early Western European word meant exclusively today's Common Lilac plant. The plant's native place of origin was the Balkans, where it blooms in the wild with abundant flowers in late springtime. The Balkans is definitely where the Turks in Istanbul got the plant from. The Turks probably got the plant's name from the Balkans too, from a language of the southern Balkans, particularly Bulgarian. Alternatively and less likely, the Turkish name leylak might have existed in Turkish as something before the Turks attached it to the lilac. In any case, there is no basis for a derivation of the word from Arabic.Note[180]
18 macabre
Records begin in late medieval French, first known year 1376. All the early records involve the very specific phrase danse macabre, which denoted a dance in which a figure representing death enticed people to dance with him until they dropped down dead The quote is from book ''Word Origins: The Hidden Histories of English Words'' by John Ayto, year 2005. You can see early instances of MACABRE in French at http://www.atilf.fr/dmf/ and at http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/macabre (ref). "Dance of death" = danse macabre. Non-Arabic candidates for the origin of the French word exist, but they have weaknesses (Etymologie de macabre @ Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicalesref, macabre @ Dictionnaire Étymologique Des Mots Français D'Origine Orientale, by L. Marcel Devic, year 1876ref). The meaning can be fitted to the Arabic مقابر maqābir = "graves", plural of maqbara = "grave", from قبر qabar = "to bury". Maqābir is frequent in medieval Arabic meaning a cemetery, as can be seen in the collection of texts at Link gives search results of search for المقابر. In AlWaraq's search results list, in the list's righthand column, the book titles and the page numbers are clickable for text. Search for المقابر is not same thing as search for مقابر.AlWaraq.net. Medieval Portuguese almocavar = "cemetery for Muslims or Jews" is certainly from Arabic al-maqābir.Note[183] But there is no known historical context for a transfer of the Arabic (via any pathway) into the French danse macabre. That is a major weakness.
19 mask, masquerade, mascara
In European languages the early records are in 14th century Italian as maschera = "mask put upon a person's face". Italian ch is pronounced /k/. The Italian is the source for the French, English and Spanish set of words.Note[184] The source for the Italian is undetermined. A weak speculative proposition for it is the medieval Latin precedent masca = "witch". Another weak speculative proposition is the medieval Arabic precedent مسخرة maskhara = "buffoon, jester".
20 massage
The English comes from French. The French is first recorded in 1779 as a verb masser = "to massage" which then produced the noun massage starting in 1808. The origin of the French has not been well explained. Most of the early records in French are in narratives of travels in the Middle East.Note[3] The practice of massage was common in the Middle East for centuries before it became common in West Europe in the mid-to-late 19th century (see Massage was practiced in the ''Turkish bath'' buildings. These buildings were called حمامات hamāmāt in Arabic.Turkish bath). Consequently there has been a proposal that the French word be from Arabic مسّ mass = "to touch". But the Arabic word for massaging was a different word, namely tamsīd | dallak | tadlīk. The fact that the early records in French did not use an Arabic word for massaging seems to preclude the hypothesis that the word they did use was borrowed from Arabic. Another proposal is the Portuguese amassar = "to knead" and the Spanish amasar | Spanish ''masar'' is a lesser-used variant of Spanish ''amasar''. Link goes to masar @ Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española.masar = "to knead", which are longstandingly commonplace in Spanish & Portuguese for kneading of bread dough.
21 racquet or racket (tennis)
The tennis racquet has a late-medieval start date in Europe. The tennis racquet is in late medieval French as raquette, synonymous with Italian racchetta and English racquet. It is nowadays widely reported as derived from a medieval Latin medical anatomy word rascete. The Latin rascete meant the at Wikipedia : Carpal bonescarpal bones of the wrist and the at Wikipedia : Tarsal bonestarsal bones of the foot. Rascete was a highly technical anatomy word in medieval Latin. The Latin rascete had its beginnings in Constantinus Africanus (died c. 1087) who took the bulk of his content from Arabic medical sources and he did indeed take the anatomy word from Arabic.Note[185] But there is no evidence to connect this anatomy word with the game word racquet. It would be a big leap in semantics to re-use the bones word as a word for a racquet. To warrant belief that this leap occurred, evidence would be necessary. Because no evidence is present, the idea has no merit. A smaller point is that to get raquette from rascete would be phonetically irregular and abnormal, because it calls for mutation to sound /k/ from sound /s/. Other etymology ideas try to connect racquet with other pre-existing words in late medieval Europe.Note[185]
22 risk
This word is nowadays in use with high frequency in almost every European language. It has been a business word in the Latin Mediterranean since the medieval era. It is seen earliest in the mid 12th century at the seaport of Genoa as Latin ad resicum = "at risk", and ad meum resicum = "at my risk", and ad tuum resicum = "at your risk" – Book, ''Genova Comune Medievale - Vita Usi E Costumi Dei Genovesi : Ricavati dal Cartulare di Giovanni Scriba, notaio Genovese dall' anno 1154 all' anno 1164'', by Fortunato Marchetto and Paolo Marchetto, year 2008. Book consists of extracts from commercial contracts in Latin at Genoa in years 1154-1164, plus modern Italian translation. The word ''resicum'' occurs dozens of times in these contracts.ref. The same phrasing is at the seaports of Pisa and Marseille at the end of the 12th century, with the spelling resegum. The great bulk of the surviving early records are in notarized commercial contracts and loan agreements, with most of them involving financing for sea-merchant ventures. The contracts say who is at risk for the loss from possible adverse events. The contracts are in Latin. The word's wordforms in 13th-century Latin include Book in Latin, ''Documents Inédits sur le Commerce de Marseille au Moyen-âge'', Tome 1, curated by Louis Blancard, year 1884. The book consists of notarized contracts and loan agreements at Marseille from 1200 to about 1260. It has dozens of instances of Latin resegum (first in year 1200). Also has resigum and risigum with same meaning. It has more than thirty instances of ''tuum resegum''.resegum | resigum | risigum | Book, ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001/2002. Under the Latin heading ''fortuna'' on page 399, it quotes Latin ''risicum'' in years 1239, 1242, 1253 and 1274. The book's abreviations are defined on pages 24-48. ''Ligure'' is Liguria province in Italy. Book is downloadable as several PDF files.risicum | rischium @ Du Cange's glossary of medieval Latin, quotes rischium & rischum in Italian-Latin in years 1267 and 1288rischium | rischum. The word's origin is undetermined and all proposals that have been aired about it are unsatisfactory. A proposal that it came from Arabic is at Article ''L'apparition du 'resicum' en méditerranée occidentale, XIIe-XIIIe siècles'', by Sylvain Piron, year 2004, 18 pages, in book ''Pour une histoire culturelle du risque'' by various authors.REF, in French, year 2004. The Arabic proposal is رزق rizq, which is a frequent word in medieval Arabic, but its meaning is too remote from "risk".Note[2]
23 scarlet
In European languages the records begin around year 1100 in Northwestern Europe in Latin spelled scarlata. The meaning was an expensive type of cloth made of wool. The scarlata cloth could be any color, including gray (Long ballad ''Chronique des ducs de Normandie'', by Benoit, dated about year 1174, has ''d'un mantel d'escarlate gris''. Same author, Benoit de Sainte-Maure, wrote a different long ballad, ''Roman de Troie'', about 1165, which has the same phrase ''un mantel d'escarlate gris'' @ archive.org/details/leromandetroie03benouoft e.g.), black (Account books of the king of England in year 1178 have ''pro j pallio de nigra escarlata'' = ''for 1 pallium cloak of black scarlata cloth''. This is cited under scarlatus @ Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources (''DMLBS''), year 2013.e.g.), white (Norman French poem ''Le Roman des Aventures de Fregus'', by Guillaume Le Clerc, is dated 1200-1240. An edition published in 1841 has ''une escarlate blanche''. An edition published in 1872 has ''une eskerlate blance''. The two editions copy from different medieval manuscripts. The 1872 edition is at ''Fergus Roman'' @ archive.org/details/fergusromanhrsgv00guiluoft e.g.), dark red-purple (Norman French poem ''Guillaume de Dole'', date assessed about year 1210, has ''escarlate noir come meure'' = ''scarlata cloth dark as dark mulberry''. The word ''meure'' is alternatively translatable as ''blackberry''. The same poem has also ''une escarlate violet[t]e'', meaning a scarlata cloth whose color is violet.e.g.), violet (Book, ''Documents et extraits divers concernant l'histoire de l'art dans la Flandre, l'Artois & le Hainaut avant le XVe siecle'', PREMIERE PARTIE, curated by Chanoine Dehaisnes, year 1886. Page 124 has year 1302 French ''une autre scarlate violete''. Page 185 has year 1308 ''une escarlate violete''.e.g.), brown (Year 1210 Latin at seaport of Genoa : ''scarlate brunete, quas porto negotiatum Ultramare'' = ''brownish scarlata, which I am bringing to the far side of the sea for resale''. Published in ''Notai Liguri del sec. XII e del XIII : Lanfranco (1202-1226)'' Volume #1, curated by Krueger & Reynolds, year 1951, on page 334.e.g. , High German ''brûn scharlachen'' meaning ''brown scarlata cloth'' is in three well-known poems of early 13th century. They are the poems ''Parzival'' and ''Willehalm'' by Wolfram von Eschenbach, and the poem ''Wigalois'' by Wirnt von Grafenberg. They are quoted in the book ''Historisches Lexikon deutscher Farbbezeichnungen'', year 2013, on pages 67 and 161.e.g.), green (Norman French tale ''Fulk Fitz Warine'' (or ''Fouke le Fitz Waryn'') has : ''se vestirent de un escarlet vert'' = ''they clothed themselves in green-colored scarlata''. The composition date is about year 1300. Print edition year 1855 gives the French plus a translation to modern English.e.g.). But red was the most popular color by far. Scarlata with the meaning "red color" is found in the later 13th century and increasingly in the 14th and 15th centuries, concurrently with the continued meaning as "dense and smooth woolen cloth". For the medieval word origin, no candidate parent-word in Latin is known of. An Arabic candidate is mentioned briefly in some dictionaries, but the evidence to support it is very poor. From the contexts where the word's early records are found, a Germanic source is much more likely, and a good specific Germanic candidate exists.Note[196]
24 soda, sodium
The chemical name sodium was created in the early 19th century as a derivative of "soda", where "soda" meant "soda ash", "washing soda", "sodium carbonate". The noun soda is in Italy & southeast France in the late 14th century as soda | souda meaning "soda ash" (two potentially early-14th-century records in Italy are unreliably dated). Catalan and Aragonese Spanish have the noun as sosa = "soda ash" reliably dated mid 13th century. The soda-ash product was made by burning plants that carry relatively high levels of sodium. When these plants are burned, their ashes have relatively high levels of sodium carbonate, a useful chemical. Besides meaning "soda ash", the medieval Latinate noun sosa | souda | soda had the meaning "saltwort plants", i.e. the sort of plants that were collected and burned to make the soda ash. The word is without a convincing derivation from a Latin or Greek antecedent word. Soda is often claimed to be from an oral Arabic suaed | suwad, which is a word found in oral Arabic begining in the 18th century meaning saltwort plant species whose ashes yielded soda ash. But that claim suffers from an absence of documentary evidence in Arabic before the 18th century. Also the Catalan wordform sosa was well established in Catalan for a century before the wordform soda is seen in Italy. A judgement that sosa and soda are "of unknown origin" remains defensible today. But soda is probably from sosa, and sosa is probably from a native Catalan rootword.Note[186]
25 Definition at Dictionary.com : Tartartartar (a chemical), Definition at Dictionary.com : Tartaric acidtartaric acid, Definition at Dictionary.com : Tartratetartrates (in chemistry)
Medieval Latin chemical name tartarum meant wine-dregs. Wine-dregs in today's terms are mainly composed of tartrates. The medieval name also meant the substance made by cremating the wine-dregs. The ancient Greeks & Romans made the same thing in the same way but did not use the name tartar. The Latin chemical name tartarum has a record securely dated 9th century. Other early records are 12th century Latin. An Arabic source for the Latin name was speculatively suggested in the 19th century but it has no support in Arabic nor in Latin. An Arabic source is certain to be wrong because of the 9th-century start date of the Latin and because of the absence of a corresponding word in medieval Arabic texts.Note[187]
26 tobacco
The English word came from 16th-century Spanish tabaco. Today many dictionaries say the Spanish word was derived from a word in the Amerindian language of Haiti in the Caribbean. But some Spanish dictionaries say the Spanish word was probably derived from a late medieval Spanish plantname that came from a medieval Arabic plantname.Note[188]
27 traffic
This word, which is in the great majority of European languages today, is seen earliest in Italian language about year 1300. It has loads of records in the Tuscany area of Italy in the 14th century as the verb trafficare and the noun traffico. The verb occurs at least as early as the noun. The early meanings are "any business dealings", "to interact with, usually commercially", "commerce, including long-distance commerce", "bringing and transferring merchandise", "negotiate with" and also "negotiate with intent to deceive".Note[189] For the Italian word's origin, propositions have been aired for various Latinate and Arabic sources, but none convincingly. The following are English words of Arabic ancestry that got established in later-medieval Latinate commerce on the Mediterranean Sea with start dates in Italy earlier than in Spanish or Portuguese: arsenal, average, carat, caravan, garble, jar, magazine, sequin, tare (weight), and tariff. In view of those borrowings, and because "traffic" lacks a convincing derivation from Latin, an Arabic source for "traffic" is one possibility. But the early contexts where this word occurs in Italy give no sign that its source was in Mediterranean sea-commerce, with or without Arabs. The early Italian contexts do not have signs that the word could have been introduced into Italian through any kind of communications with Arabs. Meanwhile, the medieval Arabic dictionaries do not have a word that matches to "traffic" in phonetics and sematics.Note[189]
28 tuna (fish)
The English fish-name tuna has an Arabic phase in its line of descent, according to a popular report. In today's English dictionaries, the popular report of descent for "tuna" is the pathway: Ancient Greek thunnos = "tunafish" –> ancient Latin thunnus/thynnus –> medieval Arabic التنّ al-tunn = "tunafish" –> later-medieval Spanish atún = "tunafish" –> colloquial California Spanish tuna = "tunafish" –> late 19th century California English tuna –> international English tuna. This pathway is unsupported by the known history; it stands in reliance on unknown history and it is probably wrong. The word was common in ancient Greek and Latin; and common in late medieval Spanish; but very rare in medieval Arabic, and is not listed in medieval Arabic dictionaries. In English from the 16th to the 20th century the word was in the wordform tunny, which was in descent from the ancient Latin thunnus without an Arabic intermediary. Modern Italian tonno, Occitan ton, French thon, each meaning tuna, are descended from the ancient Latin thunnus without any Arabic intermediation. The California wordform "tuna" is not clearly or necessarily descended from the Spanish atún; there is no substantiation that California tuna came from Spanish atún. Moreover the medieval Spanish atún did not clearly or necessarily come from Arabic.Note[190]

29 Moving to a related subject, the Definition at TheFreeDictionary : Albacorealbacore is a species of tuna fish. The history of this name is validly traced back as far as 16th century Portuguese & Spanish albacora meaning tuna species in the Tropical High Seas. Albacora lacks a good derivation from Latin. Albacora, because of its al-, conceivably might have come from an Arabic word. But there is no precedent word in medieval Arabic with meaning of fish. Medieval Arabic writings have very little content about any and all edible sea fishes, and this has a crippling effect on looking for Arabic parent-name possibilities. Moreover, in Portuguese and Spanish the known history of the fish-name albacora contains nothing to support an idea that albacora could have come from any Arabic word.Note[191]
30 zircon, zirconium
English and French zircon are from German zirkon. It starts in German in mineralogists and chemists about 1780 meaning zircon gemstone. In the period 1780s-1820s many mineralogy writers across western Europe said the corresponding name in French is jargon or "jargon from Ceylon". The French jargon and the synonymous Italian zargone | giargone in the 17th and 18th centuries meant zircon gemstones, and gemstones that are visually very similar to zircons, in various colors. The late 18th century German zirkon was a scientifically defined species of jargon | zargone | giargone. The newly arrived late 18th century German name zirkon came from the pre-existing French & Italian name jargon | zargone | giargone and the long Note #193 below is mostly about showing the truth of that. The French & Italian jargon | zargone | giargone gemstone came from medieval French Gem-stone ''jagonce | jargonce'' @ ''Dictionnaire Étymologique de l'Ancien Français''. Citations for the medieval wordform ''jargonce'' are given under the heading of the wordform ''jagonce''. The dictionary cites documents by abbreviated labels. The abbreviations are alphabetically listed and defined at http://www.deaf-page.de/bibl_neu.php jargonce, medieval Italian giarconsia @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Originigiarconsia, medieval Spanish search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Españoliargonça | jargonça | girgonça, medievally meaning zircon gemstones, and gemstones that are visually very similar to zircons, in various colors. This medieval Latinate name was descended ultimately from an ancient Mediterranean-wide name for a class of gemstones. There is no basis for deriving it from Arabic.Note[193]

The above 30 words were collected by searching English etymology dictionaries for the word 'Arabic'. The 30 words are summarily reported as of probable Arabic ancestry in at least some English dictionaries and usually in most. All of the dictionaries are mainly following tradition in their etymologies, even though any one of them occasionally steps away from tradition. It is not unusual for the dictionaries as a group to contain the same unsubstantiated traditional assertion. An uncounted number of words in English dictionaries possibly might descend from Arabic while the tradition in the English dictionaries is to report something else for them. Those words are not in the above list, because the list is merely words that the English dictionaries suggest Arabic ancestry for.


Notes about this collection of the English words of Arabic etymological ancestry

The words have been collected from the etymology dictionaries named in [note 1]Note. When a word is not in the collection, it almost always means that the word's ancestry is not traced to Arabic by any of the dictionaries that were used to collect the words. Although these dictionaries were convenient for collecting the words, they do not have enough evidence that the words came from Arabic. For some words, they claim the word came from Arabic when the claim is demonstrably false.

Obsolete words and rarely used non-technical words are not included in the collection, but some specialist technical words are included. For example the technical word "at Wikipedia : Alidadealidade" comes from the Arabic name for an ancient measuring device used to determine line-of-sight direction. Most English-speaking people have never heard of an "alidade", but the device's name is part of the vocabulary of English-speaking surveyors and civil engineers, and today's instrument uses modern technology, and is included in the collection.

About half of the words have their earliest record in a Western European language in the 12th or 13th century. About two-thirds have a medieval starting date in the West.

The translations of the medical translator Constantinus Africanus in the late 11th century have the earliest records of a good few of the Latin botany names that came from Arabic. If Constantinus's new words are excluded, then eleven or twelve words in the collection have a record in Latin before the 12th century. There is no word in the collection where the transfer into Latin occurred before the 9th century. The words that were transferred into Latin in the 9th century are restricted to the names of four exotic goods that the Arabs imported from across the Indian Ocean.Note[132] In the centuries before the 9th, some Semitic words were transferred into Latin —via Greek intermediation— including some that later propagated into English. For these Semitic-origin words, in most cases the Semitic source was not Arabic and in the rest of the cases it is impossible to know whether the Semitic source was Arabic or not. As an exception, the word "Arabic" was used by the ancient Greeks & Romans and surely came from Arabic عربي ʿarabī = "Arab".

An additional unquantified number of words or terms were brought into the European languages in and around the 12th and 13th centuries by Arabic-to-Latin translators who used loan-translations in preference to loan-words. The collection has been restricted to loan-words: It excludes loan-translations. The following is an example of a loan-translation. In Arabic, the words for father, mother and son were often used to denote relative properties of physical things. Surrounding the brain and spinal chord is a tough outer layer of membrane called in today's English the dura mater. The words dura = "hard" and mater = "mother" are each in Latin from antiquity. The medieval Latin anatomy term dura mater [cerebri ], literally "hard mother [of the brain]" is a loan-translation of Arabic الأمّ الجافية [الدماغ] al-umm al-jāfīa [al-dimāgh], literally "dry-husk mother [of the brain]" (a dry husk is a hard bark), and the translator in this case was Constantinus Africanus.Note[194] As another well-known example of a loan-translation, the mathematics word "sine" —as in sine, cosine and tangent— has its first record with that meaning in an Arabic-to-Latin translation in the 12th century, translating Arabic جيب jayb. Jayb had a second and quite unrelated meaning in Arabic that was translatable to Latin as sinus and the translator took up that connection to confer a new meaning to the pre-existing Latin sinus, in preference to borrowing the foreign word jayb, and the translator was probably Gerard of Cremona.Note[195]



  1. The etymology dictionaries used to collect the words were these:
      • CNRTL.fr online :: Etymologies of French wordsCentre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales :: Etymologies.
      • 400-page book about the German words of Arabic ancestry. Mostly the same words that are seen in English. German got the words mostly from French and Latin, and thirdly from other European languages.Arabismen im Deutschen: lexikalische Transferenzen vom Arabischen ins Deutsche, by Raja Tazi, year 1998.
      • Brief summary etymologies of English wordsAn Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, by Ernest Weekley, year 1921.
      • Previewable at Google Books, 345 pages. This dictionary has the virtue that it delivers a big list of rare and archaic words. It has the vice that it is an uncritical compilation from other dictionaries. It replicates the errors of the dictionaries it copies from.The Arabic Contributions to the English Language: An Historical Dictionary, by Garland Cannon, year 1994.
      • Dictionary.com includes the year 2001 Random House Dictionary of EnglishDictionary.com.
      • Dictionnaire Étymologique Des Mots Français D'Origine Orientale, by L. Marcel Devic, year 1876.
      • Arabic cusine and music words were collected from elsewhere.
      • A tiny number of other words came from elsewhere.
    While the above sources were used to collect the words, other sources were used to collect the evidence about the words, for the most part. The evidence sources are in the footnotes for the individual words. The final collection is in two classes: Words for which the evidence of Arabic ancestry is (1) satisfactory and (2) unsatisfactory.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x  A number of large dictionaries were written in Arabic during the medieval era. Searchable copies of practically all of the main medieval Arabic dictionaries are online at ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.com, and many are at AlWaraq.net. The website AlWaraq.net also has word-searchable copies of a large number of medieval Arabic texts on various subjects. AlWaraq's text collection is big enough that it can deliver a good indication of the commonness or scarcity of a word in medieval texts in general (but not for a technical word or technical meaning in some subject areas such as astronomy and mathematics), after you have experience with searching it and you have learned what the collection contains. Not everything in AlWaraq's collection is medieval. Of the medieval dictionaries, one of the most esteemed is Ismail ibn Hammad al-Jauhari's Al-Sihāh which is dated very shortly after year 1000. The biggest dictionary is Ibn Manzur's Lisan Al-Arab which was completed in year 1290 but the bulk of its contents came from a variety of earlier sources, including 9th- and 10th-century sources. Often Ibn Manzur names his source then quotes from it. A list giving the year of death of a number of the people who Ibn Manzur quotes from is in Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon volume 1 page xxx. Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon, in eight volumes, has much of the main contents of the medieval Arabic dictionaries in English translation, with omissions of several classes of words, as explained Introductory description at Wikipedia : Lane's Arabic-English Lexiconhere. The eight volumes of Lane's Lexicon are downloadable Download Lane’s Lexicon @ LaneLexicon.com. Originally published in years 1863-1893.here or alternatively ''An Arabic-English Lexicon'', by Edward William Lane, published in eight volumes between 1863 and 1893. The linked page has the eight volumes in the DJVU fileformat and in the PDF fileformat. The volumes are better downloaded in the DJVU format because the PDFs are very big and unwieldy.here. The abbreviations used by Lane's Lexicon are defined in Lane's Lexicon volume 1, preface page xxxi. Page xxx must be referred to as well.Volume 1 page xxxi. The sites البحث @ مكتبة المصطفىAl-Mostafa.com and IslamicBook.ws have medieval Arabic books on various subjects in PDF format in machine-searchable text (and some PDFs non-searchable); you query their catalogs by author or title. Additional medieval Arabic books in machine-searchable text are at ABLibrary.net and Books.Rafed.net.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m  Information sourced from the French etymology resource at Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales : EtymologiesCNRTL.fr Etymologie, which has citations on its own behalf for the information. Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales (CNRTL) is funded by the French government.
  4. ^ a b c d e f  Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe by R. Dozy and W.H. Engelmann. 430 pages. Published in 1869.
  5. ^ a  ^ b  ^ c  Arabic al- = "the". In Arabic, sumūt = "directions" and al-sumūt = "the directions". Universally in Arabic the written al-sumūt is always pronounced AS-SUMŪT. The written al-nīl ("the indigo") is always pronounced AN-NĪL; and the written al-tarh ("the discard") is always pronounced AT-TARH. This pronunciation applies to al- in front of about half of the Arabic consonants. In front of the other half, the al- is pronounced AL-. The difference is known as Defined at WikipediaSun and Moon letters of Arabic.
  6. ^ admiral

    An in-depth treatment of the origin and early history of the European word "admiral" is in the book Amiratus-Aμηρας: L'Emirat et les Origines de l'Amirauté, XIe-XIIIe Siècles, by Léon Robert Ménager, year 1960, including the chapter headed "La naissance du terme “amiral”". A 1963 book review of Ménager's book has some info about the subject of the book in English – Helene Wieruszowski in Journal ''Speculum'' Vol 38 pages 371-373, year 1963, reviews the book ''Amiratus-Aμηρας: L'Emirat et les Origines de l'Amirauté, XIe-XIIIe Siècles''ref. The article "Le point sur l'origine du mot amiral", by Omar Bencheikh, 5 pages, year 2003, Le point sur l'origine du mot amiral, by Omar Bencheikh (2003)online, has the finding that the Arabic amīr = "commander" is unattested as a sea-commander in Arabic around the period when the Latins started using the word as a sea-commander in the later 12th century. This is consistent with Ménager's finding that the Latin meaning sea-commander evolved out of a title of governance in Norman Sicily from an original meaning of a commander on land in Norman Sicily. More about the 12th century amiratus in Norman Sicily is in the book Written by Hiroshi Takayama, year 1993The Administration of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Quotations for the word in use in Latin Sicily in the 12th-13th centuries are in the book Aμήρ AMIR @ ''Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia'', by Girolamo Caracausi, year 1983 on pages 102-105Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia and in the book Urkunden... zur... Königreichs Sicilien in den Jahren 1198 bis 1273Book in medieval Latin, ''Urkunden und Briefe zur Geschichte des Kaiserreichs und des Königreichs Sicilien in den Jahren 1198 bis 1273'', curated by Eduard Winkelmann, year 1880. Search for AMMIRAT__ and AMIRAT__. in Latin wordforms ammirat_ | amirat_.
  7. ^ admiral

    Usage examples of medieval Latin amiræus, ammiratus, ammirandus, amirallus, amiraldus, admiralius, admiratus, amiragius, amiraudus, etc, are in ''Mittellateinisches Wörterbuch'', year 1967, is an unfinished dictionary of medieval Latin. It covers texts to the end of the 13th century. Its coverage of words that begin with the letters A or B or C got finished. The relevant headword is AMIRALDUS. Altlink :
    Mittellateinisches Wörterbuch
    and amir @ ''Glossarium mediæ et infimæ latinitatis'' by Du Cange et al.Du Cange. In medieval Latin the meaning as a specifically Muslim commander starts earlier than the meaning as a naval commander. The same is true in medieval French. The earliest in French is in a well-known long ballad about war-battles between Christians and Muslims, the Chanson de Roland, dated about 1100, which has about three dozen instances of amirail or amiralz (plural) meaning exclusively a Muslim military leader on land – La chanson de Roland: texte du XIe siècle (published 1890)ref. A Crusader narrative in French in the 1190s has the word around twenty times meaning Muslim military leader on land and this medieval text has it spelled both amira__ and admira__Book, ''L'Estoire de la Guerre Sainte'' by Ambroise of Normandy, written in the 1190s, a narrative of the Third Crusade war. Link has medieval French plus modern French translation, year 1897.ref. The meaning "Admiral of the Sea" in French has its first record about year 1209 in the chronicler Geoffrey de Villehardouin, whose spelling is amiraus and the admiral he is talking about is in the Byzantine navy – ''La Conquête de Constantinople'' by Geoffroi de Villehardouin (died c. 1212), original French text, plus translation to modern French by Emile Bouchet, year 1891, volume 1, with medieval ''amiraus'' on pages 346 & 344 and modern ''amiral'' on pages 347 & 345.ref. Later in medieval French it is commonly spelled both amiral and admiral, with both spellings having both meanings – amiral | admiral @ Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (DMF)ref. The French with meaning "Admiral of the Sea" had come from Italian. The word is in Italian-Latin at the seaports Palermo and Genoa in late 12th century meaning "Admiral of the Sea". Between 1191 and 1246 at Genoa it has wordforms ammiratus | admiratus | amiragius | amiraudus ref-1 Book in Latin, curated by L.T. Belgrano & C. Imperiale, year 1901Annali genovesi di Caffaro e de' suoi continuatori, Volume Two, year 1901, publishes annals of Genoa concerning events of late 12th and early 13th century, annals written nearly at the year of each event. On page 39-40 for an event in 1191/1192 there is in Latin: “Died in year 1197. Was Grand Admiral of Sicily.Margaritus of Brindisi the admiral [ammiratus] of King Tancred of Sicily”. On page 113-114 for an event in 1210: “they detained from these galleys of Pisa the better men, including one very high nobility Pisan who was the admiral [admiratus] of these galleys, Tegrimum by name”. On page 119 for an event in 1211: “the ship called Gorgie which had been armamented by the admiral [amiragius] His biography with Italian spelling ''PORCO, Guglielmo'' is at http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/. His name occurs in Latin chronicles starting in 1210 and ending in 1221.Willielmus Porcus”. ,  ref-2 Genoa city is located in Liguria province. Vocabolario Ligure, year 2001, is a lexicon of the voluminous Latin documents that survive from medieval Liguria. Lexicon compiled by Sergio AprosioVocabolario Ligure Volume One has quotations for year 1191 ammiratus, year 1234 admiratus, 1235 amiragius, 1246 amiraudus, 1257 armiragius, 1282 admiragius, all meaning ''Admiral of the Sea'', all in Genoa/Liguria authors. The book cites its sources by abbreviated labels that are defined in Volume 1 on pages 24-48.. Late medievally in Italian the commonest wordform was am(m)iraglioammiraglio @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)ref: TLIO. Meanwhile in medieval Italian the usual word for "to admire" was ammirare (ammirare @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)TLIO) which was from classical Latin admirare with deletion of 'd'. Because the Italians did not use the letter 'd' in their pronouncing and spelling of admire and admirable, the absence of the 'd' in the Italian-Latin ammiratus = "admiral" cannot be taken as good simple evidence of the Arabic origin of ammiratus, although it does in fact reflect the Arabic origin. From the Italian-Latin wordform amiragius, the kingdom of Castille in Spanish around year 1252 created an official title "almirage de la mar " = "Admiral of the Sea" – search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE), a big corpus of old Spanish texts. Restrict search to 13th century.ref-1, Article ''Alfonso X y el Almirantazgo castellano: Reflexiones en torno al nacimiento de una institución'', year 2000 in Volume 8-9 of ''Ius Fugit : Revista de Estudios Histórico-Jurídicos''. It says the terminology of admiral and admiralty was adopted by the Castillians from the Genoese (''el modelo genovés''). It has a 9-page section ''Sobre el origen y difusión de un término''.ref-2.
  8. ^ admiral

    A set of late medieval English examples of amiral | admiral, with both meanings, is in the Amiral | Admiral @ Middle English DictionaryMiddle English Dictionary. The English with both meanings had come from French; French examples at Amiral | Admiral @ Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (1330-1500)Ref.
  9. ^ albatross

    Several bird-names in Spanish are established as having entered Spanish from Arabic during the medieval era. They include today's Spanish alcaraván = "curlew-type bird" from medieval Arabic كروان al-karawān = "curlew-type bird" and today's Spanish zorzal = "thrush and similar bird" from medieval Arabic زرزور zurzūr = "starling bird". Late medieval & 16th century Spanish & Portuguese alcatraz meant "seafish-catching large bird", such as cormorant, pelican and gannet bird. The European word's earliest known record, which is in Spanish in year 1386, says "birds that maintain themselves on fish such as sea-eagles and alcatraces and other birds of the sea" – Book, ''Los Arabismos del Castellano en la Baja Edad Media'', by Felipe Maíllo Salgado, year 1998, alcatraz on page 230. Spanish in year 1386 has ''águila pescadora y alcatraces y otras aves de mar''. A book in Spanish circa 1440 says of the Habibas Islands: ''Hay en aquellas islas grand muchedumbre de aves que crian por el suelo de las islas, palomas, buldrejas, é alcatraces, é gaviotas, é falcones''.ref. In Spanish around year 1440, a group of very small islands in the Mediterranean Sea is described as breeding grounds for a multitude of birds including alcatrazes – same ref. The diary of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492 mentions several times that alcatraz | alcatraçes birds were sighted when the ship was far out on the ocean, far from any land – Search for alcatra* (with the asterisk) in ''Corpus Diacrónico del Español''. Christopher Columbus personally maintained a daily diary during the voyage, 1492-93. The diary came into the possession of Bartolomé de las Casas (died 1566), who reproduced it in a paraphrased form. Only this paraphrased form survives today.ref. A 19th-century translation of Christopher Columbus's diary into English has the Spanish alcatraz translated as English "booby | boobies" Book, ''The journal of Christopher Columbus (during his first voyage, 1492-93)'', translated to English by Clements R. Markham, year 1893(ref), where "boobies" are a class of diving seabirds related to gannets. Alcatraz is presumed by everybody to be from an Arabic word. But it is not very clear what the Arabic word was. On looking at candidate words, the leading candidate is the medieval Arabic الغطّاس al-ghattās = "the diver", from the verb غطس ghatas = "to dive in water". The verb is in many medieval texts and is in most medieval Arabic dictionaries, and the noun is easy enough to find in medieval Arabic sources in a generic sense of diver, but is scarce in the specific sense of the Spanish word. As one of the scarce instances, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi (died 1418), in a chapter on kinds of birds, wrote: "الغطاس al-ghatās, also called الغواص al-ghawās, is a black bird approaching near [the size of] the goose, it dives in the water to catch fish to eat." – Al-Qalqashandi says: ومنها الغطاس ويقال له الغواص وهو طائر أسود نحو الإوزة يغوص في الماء فيستخرج السمك فيأكله.

    The entirety of Al-Qalqashandi's encyclopedia صبح الأعشى – القلقشندي, in searchable PDF format, is at :
    , At AlWaraq.net : search for الغطاس in the book صبح الأعشى – القلقشنديalt-link. Which is interpretable as cormorant. Yaqut al-Hamawi (died 1229) and Zakariya al-Qazwini (died 1283) include الغطاسة al-ghatāsa in their lists of birds, but do not provide descriptions, except that al-Qazwini indicates it is a seabird – معجم البلدان – ياقوت الحموي. The geography book of Yaqut al-Hamawi in Wüstenfeld's year 1866 edition in Volume 1 on page ٨٨٥ on 17th line has الغطاس.ref-1, Book in Arabic : آثار البلاد وأخبار العباد – القزويني. This book by Al-Qazwini has a statement about a certain fish-eating seabird: وهو طائر أسود يشبه الطائر الذي يقال له الغطاسة = ''it is a black bird similar to the bird that is called AL-GHATĀSA''. This 13th-century book by Al-Qazwini is online in searchable format at ALWARAQ.NET and ABLIBRARY.NET and BOOKS.RAFED.NET and elsewhere. ref-2, غطّاس + غطّاسة @ ''Supplement Aux Dictionnaires Arabes'', by Reinhart Dozy, year 1881, volume 2, page 217, cites Yaqut al-Hamawi (''Yacout'') and Zakariya al-Qazwini (''Cazwini'') for ghattās + ghattāsa as a diving waterbird.alt-ref. In today's Arabic, al-ghattās is a grebe, which is a diving waterbird of a different class (at Wikipedia, Arabic edition : الغطاسيات هي رتبة من الطيوررتبة الغطاسيات). Al-ghattās also means a human skin-diver. Al-ghattās is the candidate word favored today by a majority of the English dictionaries. It has the weakness that the phonetic alterations involved in moving from Arabic al-ghattās to Iberian Latinate alcatraz are irregular and unusual: In loanwords going from Arabic into Iberian Latinate, a conversion of gh- to c- is rare, and insertion of -r- is rare. The medieval Arabic word قادوس al-qādūs = "bucket of a water wheel" was certainly the parent of the medieval Spanish word alcadus | alcaduz with the same meaning and this word has plenty of records in 16th-17th century Portuguese as alcatruz with the same meaning – Search for Portuguese alcatruz* (with the asterisk, which will deliver ''alcatruzes'') @ CORPUS DO PORTUGUÊS. The site's corpus has the word about twenty times in 16th & 17th century documents. Website's interface is unintuitive and awkward, but it works. Before starting search, click on the word ''Sections'', which will give you a pick list from which you pick time periods.ref. Because al-qādūs (the waterwheel bucket) is certainly the parent of alcatruz (the waterwheel bucket), we have a valid phonetic parallel that supports the view that al-ghattās (the diving seabird) is the parent of alcatraz (the diving seabird).
  10. ^ alchemy

    Medieval Arabic al-kīmīāʾ most often meant the effort to make gold out of non-gold metals. Using the word in this sense, some well-known medieval Arabic authors said al-kīmīāʾ is futile, occult, and spurious. In medieval Arabic the word can be found less often in the sense of other and more practical chemical and physical alterations of minerals, and any methods for doing so. A large number of medieval usage instances are in the texts at AlWaraq.net by searching for In AlWaraq's search results lists in the righthand column, the book titles and the page numbers are clickable. Clicking leads to a page of a book's text.الكيمياء and كيمياء and الكيميا. However, AlWaraq.net's medieval authors do not have hands-on experience in the subject; they only know its reputation.
  11. ^ alchemy  ^ alembic

    During the early centuries AD, the Greeks in Egypt developed new alchemical and distillation methods. These were not acquired by the Latins of Late Antiquity and they were unknown to the early-medieval Latins. The later-medieval Latins acquired the methods in the 12th century from the Arabs. The Arabs had acquired them in the early centuries after the onset of Islam (up to the 10th century) from ultimately Greek sources. The parent word of the Arabic al-kīmīāʾ was a Late Ancient Greek word chumeia | chemeia (χημεία) = "art of alloying metals, alchemy", which was used in Greek in Alexandria in Egypt in the writings of the alchemist Zosimos (4th century AD) and the Zosimos commentator Olympiodoros (at Encyclopedia.com: Olympiodorus of Alexandria5th or 6th century AD) – ref: χυμεία & χημεία @ Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Ancient Greek, translating Greek to English, year 1925. Altlink :
    . Zosimos's alchemy was translated to Arabic during the early centuries of Arabic literature – ref: Book, ''Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, Band IV: Alchimie-Chemie, Botanik-Agrikultur. Bis ca. 430 H.'', by Fuat Sezgin, year 1971. Zosimos on pages 73-76.Sezgin, volume IV pages 73-76. Distillation was the most important of the chemical techniques that were known to Late Ancient Greeks and medieval Arabs and unknown to early medieval Latins. A Short History of the Art of Distillation, by RJ Forbes, year 1948, "Chapter II: The Alexandrian chemists", "Chapter III: The Arabs", and "Chapter IV: The [Latin] Middle Ages".
    One medieval Arabic text that is a pretty good short introduction to alchemy is the chapter on alchemy in the book Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm by Ibn Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Al-Khuwarizmi (Biography of the 10th century author Ibn Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Al-Khuwarizmi in ''Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography'', year 2008, @ Encyclopedia.comlived about 980). It has definitions for most of the main alchemy words. It has five instances of الأنبيق al-anbīq = "alembic (distillation apparatus)". Book in Arabic plus footnotes in modern Latin : مفاتيح العلوم ''Mafâtîh al-olûm'', by author Abû Abdallah Mohammed Ahmed ibn Jûsof al-Kâtib al-Khowarezmi, curated & annotated by G. van Vloten, year 1895. The chapter on ''al-kīmīāʾ'' begins on page ٢٥٥ (255).Text in Arabic, أبو عبدالله محمد بن أحمد بن يوسف الخوارزمي - مفاتيح العلوم :: الباب التاسع - في الكيمياءalt-link.
  12. ^ alchemy

    It is longstandingly well-established that (#1) the Arabic al-kīmīāʾ entered Latin in the 12th century and (#2) a slew of Arabic texts in the domain of alchemy were translated to Latin in the late 12th & early 13th century. Note #11 above says the main thing about the historical context. One angle for a more detailed history is Written by Sébastien Moureau, year 2012, 113 pagesLes sources alchimiques de Vincent de Beauvais. Vincent de Beauvais, who died in 1264, compiled in Latin a general-purpose encyclopedia about all subjects. His encyclopedia has many instances of Latin alchimia | alchimista | alchimie | alchimiste | alchymiaThe website SOURCES DES ENCYCLOPÉDIES MÉDIÉVALES (SourcEncyMe) has a text-searchable copy of the Latin encyclopedia of Vincent de Beauvais aka Vincentius Belvacensis (died 1264)ref. For his encyclopedia he copied alchemy material from several Arabic texts that were available to him in Latin translation. One of the translations Vincent copied from has the not-often-found feature that the text in Arabic is available and securely dated 1020s and its Latin translation is available and securely dated about 1190s. This Arabic text has اصحاب الكيمياء āṣḥāb al-kīmīāʾ = "alchemy professionals" and the Latin translation has alkimie | alkimia = "alchemy" and alkimiste = "alchemist". The Arabic and Latin texts, and the info on how they are dated, are at ''Kitab Al-Shifa’ , Avicennae Congelatione et Conglutinatione Lapidum'', by Holmyard & Mandeville, year 1927, 90 pages. It was published as a short book. Downloadable as PDF file.Ref, DE CONGELATIONE ET CONGLUTINATIONE LAPIDUM. Being sections of the KITĀB AL-SHIFĀʾ. The Latin and Arabic texts, with an English Translation and English notes by EJ Holmyard and DC Mandeville, year 1927, 90 pages. Downloadable as PDF file.alt-link.
  13. ^ alchemy

    Regarding the formation of the word chemical from the word alchemical, the influential mineralogist Georg Agricola (died 1555) seems to be the earliest to have dropped the Arabic definite article al-, doing so in 1530. Agricola in his Latin works from 1530 onward wrote chymia (and chymista = "chemist"). Agricola had been instilled in the spirit of Renaissance Humanism and he wished to purify word-forms and return them to their supposed classical roots. He had no intent to make a semantic distinction between alchymia and chymia. Conrad Gesner (died 1565) used the word in Latin without the al- in the title of his medical book De remediis secretis: Liber physicus, medicus, et partim etiam chymicus, and this book was later also published in vernacular European translations without the al-. The semantic distinction between a rational and practical science of chimia and an occult alchimia did not begin until more than a century later, in the last quarter of the 17th century. Until about 1700, the word, as alchimia and chimia, covered the full range of what was then known about chemistry and metallurgy, even though at the same time the word was prominently attached to the effort to transmute cheaper metals into precious metals – Article, ''Alchemy vs. Chemistry'', by William R Newman and Lawrence M Principe, year 1998 in journal ''Early Science and Medicine'' Volume 3 pages 32-65. The article reviews the meanings of the words ''alchemy'' and ''chemistry'' in Europe up to the 18th century. Altlink : downloadable as PDF file at https://booksc.orgref-1, Article, ''From Alchemy to 'Chymistry' '', by William R Newman, a chapter in the book ''The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 3, Early Modern Science'', year 2006, on pages 497-517ref-2. For instance, Italian dictionaries published in 1612 and 1681 defined alchimia as "the art of refining and mixing metals" – alchimia @ ''Vocabolario degli accademici della Crusca'', year 1612 edition, defines alchimia as ''arte del raffinare, alterare, e mescolare i metalli''. The same definition is in the 1691 edition of this dictionary. The same definition plus a second and different definition is in the year 1729 edition of this dictionary.ref-1, alchimia @ ''Vocabolario toscano dell' arte del disegno'', by Filippo Baldinucci (died 1696), year 1681ref-2. An English dictionary in 1658 defined alchimy as "the art of dissolving metals, to separate the pure from the impure" – The dictionary is ''The New World of English Words'' by Edward Phillips, year 1658. The dictionary is text-searchable at the website ''Early English Books Online'' (EEBO).ref. An English dictionary in 1656 defined Chymistry as "see Alchimy" and defined Alchymy as the art of purifying substances – ref: chymistry @ ''Glossographia: or, A dictionary interpreting the hard words... now used in our refined English tongue'', by Thomas Blount. Link goes to year 1681 edition. Same definition is in year 1656 edition.page 129 & alchymy @ ''Glossographia'' by Thomas Blount (died 1679)page 16. In English in the 16th to early 18th centuries, the spelling was usually with a letter i|y as in chimic | chymic | alchimic | alchymic. In English during the late 18th & early 19th century the spelling with the letter e as in chemic took over. Examples in English over the centuries are at alchemy + alchemist @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), year 1888NED--1 and chemic + chemical + chemistry @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), year 1893NED--2. Chemistry is from chemist like masonry from mason, poetry from poet, and sophistry from sophist.
  14. ^ alcohol

    A dozen texts in Spanish in the 13th century have alcohol or alcofol meaning a fine powder. The most informative of them is the minerals book At HispanicSeminary.org : Full text of ''Lapidario de Alfonso X''. The book was commissioned by Spanish king Alfonso X (died 1284).Lapidario de Alfonso X (3rd quarter of 13th). Generally the alcohol powders were made from sulfide minerals; generally lead sulfide and antimony sulfide. Lead sulfide and antimony sulfide are sooty-colored rocks whose powders were used by women as eye-makeup. The Lapidario de Alfonso X, besides using the word as a noun, sometimes uses the word as a verb meaning "to apply a fine powder", as seen in the following two cases: "Si alcoholare con el fregamiento desta piedra los oios.... Las mugeres se alcofolaren con ella " = "They alcohol the eyes with the powder of this stone [as eye makeup].... The women alcofol themselves with it [as eye makeup]." The 13th century Spanish texts are online and searchable at search for alcohol* and alcofol* with the asteriskCorpus Diacrónico del Español. The mutation from letter H to letter F in wordform alcofol got its start in Spanish & Portuguese – ''Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe'', by R. Dozy and W.H. Engelmann, year 1869, on page 14ref. An alchemy book translated from Arabic to Latin, translation dated around 1200, has Latin "Plumbum de alchofol, et Plumbum de litargiro" = "lead sulfide (PbS) and lead monoxide (PbO)" – Alchemy book ''Liber de Septuaginta'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation. It is published in Latin in ''Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de l'Institut de France'', volume 49, year 1906, pages 310-363. ''Alchofol'' on page 352, ''alcofol'' on page 330.Liber de Septuaginta. Another Arabic-to-Latin alchemy translation done in Iberia in early 13th century has many instances of alcofol, including "plumbum alcofolis" = "lead sulfide" – ''De Anima in Arte Alchimiae'' is Arabic-to-Latin translation. It is published in Latin within the volume ''Artis Chemicae Principes'', year 1572, from page 1 to page 471 (content after page 471 is different, later, and unrelated alchemy material). A better edition was published in year 2016 but is not free.De Anima in Arte Alchimiae. A Latin alchemy compilation in early 13th century incorporates an Arabic-to-Latin translation in which the word is spelled in Latin alkool and alchool''Liber Sacerdotum'' is a compilation about minerals, colorants, and metallurgy. It is date-assessed as a little after year 1200 as a compilation. It has old Latin material many centuries older than 1200. Elsewhere some of its parts are from an Arabic-to-Latin translation, and other parts are not. The Latin is on pages 187-228 in ''La Chimie au Moyen Âge, Tome 1'', curated by Berthelot, year 1893.Liber Sacerdotum. A medicines book translated Arabic-to-Latin in late 13th century has Latin cohol on about 30 different pages, always meaning "an eyewash or a powder for an eyewash", involving powders of a variety of materials – Link is year 1531 printed editionDe Simplicibus Medicinis by Serapion the Younger. A Latin medicines dictionary in Italy in the 1290s defined alcohol solely as "a powder for an eyewash" – Author is also known as Simon JanuensisSynonyma Medicinae by Simon of Genoa. The main medical use of such alcohol | alcofol powders was in eye cleaning treatments for eye complaints; see at Wikipedia : Collyriumcollyrium. Alcohol is defined solely as an exceedingly fine powder in the year 1543 alcohol @ ''In Antidotarium Ioannis Filii Mesuae, censura. Cum declaratione simplicium medicinarum, & solutione multorum dubiorum ac difficilium terminorum.'' Written in year 1543. Authors were Franciscan monks named Angelus Palea and Bartholomaeus.In Antidotarium Mesuae, censura, a book which says on its front page that it intends to explain the meanings of ambiguous and difficult medicinal terms in Latin.
  15. ^ alcohol

    One of Paracelsus's followers was Martin Rulandus (died 1602). Martin Rulandus wrote a dictionary of Latin alchemy words in which he explained Paracelsus's viewpoint about the semantics of alcohol. Rulandus says the following five things: (1) alcohol is an exceedingly fine-grained powder; (2) alcohol vini is distilled wine; (3) it is an error to think of the fine powder as having been obtained by mechanical grinding; (4) Paracelsus's alcool powders, synonymous with alcohol powders, which are powders obtained from various minerals by Paracelsus, are prepared by first mechanically breaking up the mineral and then heating the mineral until it sublimates to a vapor, with "the sublimation performed by a carefully tempered fire, so that the powder of the mineral may be liquefied as little as possible, but at the same time may ascend until the essence of the powder is seen sticking to the walls of the enclosure" [like soot does]; and (5) the alcool | alcohol, be it a powder or a liquid, is a purified body [and in other words it is a distillate] – ref: Martin Ruland ''Lexicon alchemiae sive dictionarium alchemisticum'', by Martin Ruland, year 1612, on page 27. The meaning of Rulandus's ''flos'' is partly explained in his lexicon under the word ''flos'' and further explained under one of his definitions of ''bolus''.in Latin and ''A Lexicon of Alchemy'', by Martin Rulandus the Elder, translated from Latin to English by Arthur E. Waite, year 1893, on PDF page 21 in linked PDF filein English. Reference also RJ Forbes's A Short History of the Art of Distillation on Book, ''A Short History of the Art of Distillation'', edition year 1970, originally published in 1948page 107 regarding Paracelsus and on Book, ''A Short History of the Art of Distillation'', search for word ''sublimation''numerous pages regarding fine powders made medievally by sublimations and distillations. The same is covered by EJ Holmyard's Makers of Chemistry on ''Makers of Chemistry'', year 1931, at bottom of page 111page 111 regarding Paracelsus and on pages Book, ''Makers of Chemistry'' by EJ Holmyard, year 1931, bottom of page 58 and all of page 5958-59 regarding fine powders made medievally by sublimations and calcinations.
  16. ^ alcove

    Alcoba @ Iberoromanische Arabismen im Bereich Urbanismus und Wohnkultur, by Y. Kiegel-Keicher, year 2005, on pages 314-319; and alcoba @ search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español.
  17. ^ alfalfa

    The agriculture writer Ibn Al-Awwam (died c. 1200) talks about how to cultivate alfalfa and one of his names for alfalfa is الفصفصة al-fisfisaIbn Al-Awwam's Book of Agriculture, in Arabic, together with translation to Spanish by Josef Antonio Banqueri, year 1802, Volume 2, on page 129 (Chapter XXII, article viii)ref, Clement-Mullet's French translation of Ibn Al-Awwam's Book of Agriculture, Volume 2, translator's footnote on page 126-127 talks about Ibn al-Awwam's names for alfalfa and related fodderalt-ref. The 13th-century Arabic dictionary Lisan al-Arab says الفصفصة al-fisfisa | الفِصْفِصُ al-fisfis is cultivated as an animal feed and consumed in both fresh and dried form. The medieval Arabic فصفصة is handled in Lane's Arabic-to-English Lexicon فصفصة = ''species of trefoil, a food for horses'' is in Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon under rootword فص at page 2403 column 2, in Volume 6, year 1877. Lane reports the plural of al-fisfisa was الفصافص al-fasāfis.

    Altlink : Download all volumes of Lane's Lexicon in PDF fileformat at https://lanelexicon.com/updates/
    under headword فص
    . In medieval Arabic another name for alfalfa was القَتّ al-qatt القَتّ under the headword قتت in medieval Arabic dictionaries(ref: قتت).  ¶ In Spanish & Catalan, a few late medieval records have alfalfez meaning alfalfa. A good example in Spanish circa 1390 is in the next paragraph below (note #18). In another example, a veterinary book in 15th century Spanish has alfalfez as an animal fodder and presumably it means alfalfa – ''Diccionari del castellà del segle XV a la Corona d'Aragó'', dictionary compiled by ''Grup d'història i contacte de llengües'', year 2013. It quotes from the late 15th century Spanish book ''Libro de Albeyteria'', which has three horse fodder names ''alfalfez'', ''alfaça'' and ''mielga'' on three different pages, and it is not clear how they differ in meaning. The dictionary interprets all three as meaning alfalfa.ref. The phonetic change from the Arabic al-fisfisa to the Spanish alfalfez is irregular, i.e., the 2nd letter L in alfalfez is abnormally different when you derive alfalfez from al-fisfisa. The abnormality can be attributed to Definition at Wikipedia : Dissimilation (in phonology)phonetic dissimilation because in Spanish a doubled syllable (as in fisfis) can be perceived as clunky and unnatural.
  18. ^ alfalfa

    The ancient Greek and Latin name for alfalfa was medica. The name medica was derived from the name of a country in ancient northwest Iran, at Wikipedia : Media (region in ancient northern Iran)Media, homeland of the Medes people. The ancient Greeks and Romans believed, probably correctly, Media was the place of origin of cultivation of the plant. Ancient Latin writers on agriculture who have something to say about the medica fodder crop include Varro (died 27 BC), Columella (died 70 AD), Pliny (died 79 AD), and Palladius (lived about 400 AD; muchly copied from Columella). Historically the major reason for growing alfalfa was that it was noticeably better than grass as food for working horses. Horses had more working energy, mainly because they were intaking more calories. The ancient Roman medica fodder crop was alfalfa, because the encyclopedia of Pliny says the leaves are trifoliate like clover (true of alfalfa) and the agriculture book by Palladius says it causes serious bloating in cattle until the cattle become adjusted to it (true of alfalfa) and Paladius says one sow-down lasts for ten years (true of alfalfa). Palladius's agriculture book was translated to Spanish with date around 1390. In that translation, Paladius's medica was written down in Spanish as alfalfez – ref: Palladius Link has Spanish text ''Libro de Palladio'', whose date is assessed as somewhat soon after 1385. The 4th-century agriculture book of Palladius had been translated from Latin to Catalan by Ferrer Saiol with date 1385. The Spanish ''Libro de Palladio'' has some signs it was translated from the Catalan.in medieval Spanish , Palladius, ''De Re Rustica'', with ''medica'' in book V section 1in classical Latin , ''The Fourteen Books of Palladius'', translated by T. Owen, year 1807. Alfalfa in book V section 1, on pages 199-200. Translation uses English word ''lucerne'' for alfalfa.in modern English.
  19. ^ algebra

    A late-medieval Arabic copy of Al-Khwarizmi's algebra book is reproduced in Book in Arabic : ''The Algebra of Mohammed ben Musa'' [al-Khwarizmi], with annotations in English plus full translation to English by Frederic Rosen, year 1831. On page xiii Rosen says the transcription date of the Arabic manuscript is A.H. 743, which is A.D. 1342.The Algebra of Mohammed ben Musa [al-Khwarizmi], year 1831. The earliest Latin translation of Al-Khwarizmi's algebra treatise was by Robert of Chester and the year was 1145. Centuries later, some Latin manuscripts of this particular translation carried the Latin title Liber Algebrae et Almucabola. But the translation of 1145 did not carry that title originally, nor did it use the word algebrae in the body of the text. Instead it used the Latin word "restoration" as a translation of الجبر al-jabr, and the title it used was Liber Restaurationis et Oppositionis. It is published in Latin (plus English translation of the Latin) in Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of the Algebra of Al-Khowarizmi, curated by LC Karpinski, year 1915; Book at Archive.orgdownloadable. There is a separate and independent Latin translation of Al-Khwarizmi's algebra book. Its Latin date is assessed as late 12th or early 13th century. Its text has three instances of Latin word algebra | algebre, always in the phrase "computatione in algebra et almuchabala", but it fails to define algebra or almuchabala, and it chooses more often to use the Latin word restaura_ = "restore" – Article ''Gerard of Cremona's Translation of al-Khwārizmī's al-Jabr: A Critical Edition'', curated by Barnabas Hughes, year 1986 in journal ''Medieval Studies'' volume 48 pages 211-263. By the way, the curator Hughes repeatedly asserts that this translation was done by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187) but his assertion is questionable and he delivers no evidence.ref, The Latin text is published in ''Histoire des sciences mathématiques en Italie'' Volume 1, curated by Guillaume Libri, year 1838, on pages 253-297alt-link. Another mathematics treatise translated Arabic-to-Latin around the same time has three dozen instances of Latin aliabra | aliebre where the Latin 'i' is representing Arabic letter ج 'j' – Medieval Latin text ''Liber Mensurationum'' is published in article ''L'algèbre au Moyen Âge : le « Liber mensurationum » d'Abû Bekr'', curated by Hubert LL Busard, year 1968, in ''Journal des Savants'' Volume 2. The Latin text says the author is ''Ababuchri qui dicebatur Heus'' and it says the translator is ''Girardo Cremonensi''. This is an unknown Arabic author and no Arabic version of the text is known.ref. In the early 13th century in Latin the mathematician Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci wrote a chapter section involving the Latin title Algebre et AlmuchabaleBook in Latin, ''Liber Abbaci'' by Leonardo Pisano, written in 1202, revised in 1228. Edition curated by Baldassarre Boncompagni, year 1857. Section heading on page 406 in Volume 1 of ''Scritti di Leonardo Pisano''. The wordforms ALGEBRA and ALGEBRE are also elsewhere in the volume.ref. Leonardo Pisano had been influenced by an algebra book of essentially same title in Arabic by Abu Kamil Shujaʿ ibn Aslam (Biography of Abu Kamil Shuja Ibn Aslam, at an archive of history of mathematicsdied c. 930), this influence demonstrated by Leonardo's use of specific concrete numerical examples that Abu Kamil uses – Article, ''The Algebra of Abu Kamil'', by L.C. Karpinski, 12 pages, in journal ''The American Mathematical Monthly'', volume XXI number 2, year 1914. Search the article for the word Leonard.ref. The first known user of the phrase الجبر والمقابلة al-jabr wa al-muqābala is Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi (Biography of Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi, at an archive of history of mathematicsdied c. 850). Al-Khwarizmi is also the first known within Arabic mathematics to use the mathematical method that the phrase meant, although Al-Khwarizmi gives signs that he did not originate it himself – Book in Arabic plus translation to English : ''The Algebra of Mohammed ben Musa'' [al-Khwarizmi], with notes and translation by Frederic Rosen, year 1831. Introductory pages viii - x.ref (pages viii - x). An algebra treatise by Omar Al-Khayyam (Biography of Omar Khayyam, at an archive of history of mathematicsdied 1131) has the phrase "al-jabr wa al-muqābala" in the title of the treatise, and it is downloadable Book in Arabic : ''L'Algèbre d'Omar Alkhayyâmî, publiée, traduite et accompagnée d'extraits de manuscrits inédits'', by F. Woepcke, year 1851in Arabic (plus French translation) (also in print in more than one English translation). An algebra treatise by Al-Karkhi (aka Al-Karaji) (Biography of Al-Karaji, also known as Al-Karkhi, at an archive of history of mathematicsdied c. 1029) uses the phrase, and defines the two mathematical terms الجبر al-jabr and المقابلة al-muqābala; Al-Karkhi's definitions are online in Book in French, ''Extrait du FAKHRȊ, traité d'algèbre par... ALKARKHȊ'', by F. Woepcke, year 1853, on pages 63-64French translation. The algebra in Al-Karkhi, Abu Kamil and Omar al-Khayyam was built upon the foundation in Al-Khwarizmi. Al-Khwarizmi's algebraic method was the same as the method of Diophantus of Alexandria, who Biography of Diophantus of Alexandria, at an archive of history of mathematicslived in the 3rd century AD and wrote in Greek. Diophantus's algebra book was in circulation in Arabic from the later 10th century onward, and was quoted from by Al-Karkhi (died c. 1029), but was not known to Al-Khwarizmi (refs below). At the time when the Latins started learning mathematics from Arabic sources in the 12th century, the Latins had no knowledge of the mathematics of Diophantus nor of any similar Late Ancient Greek mathematics. Refs: Book, ''Diophantus of Alexandria; a study in the history of Greek algebra''. Containing the text of Diophantus's ''Arithmetica'' in English, with an introduction and notes by Thomas Heath, year 1910. Mentions Al-Karkhī on page 5 of the introduction.Diophantus's Arithmetica in English with notes on its dissemination history by Thomas Heath, year 1910; and published in journal ''Historia Mathematica'', volume 34, pages 45-61"Simplifying equations in [Medieval] Arabic algebra", by Oaks & Alkhateeb, year 2007; and an article published in ''Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Volume 2'', year 1996"The Influence of Arabic Mathematics in the Medieval West", by André Allard, year 1996; and ''Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of the Algebra of Al-Khowarizmi'', curated, annotated, translated and introduced by LC Karpinski, year 1915Karpinski's book on pages 7, 19, 24, 33, 42, 65-66, 67, 159.
    In medieval Latin, and then derivatively in some other late medieval European languages, the word "algebra" also had a medical sense, "restoration of broken body parts especially broken bones" – In Latin : Medicine writings of Al-Razi (died c. 930) translated from Arabic to Latin by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187). The linked book is a year 1544 print edition which also has medicine writings by other late medieval Latin medicine writers. Search the book for algebra, algebre, algebræ, algebrae.example , algebra @ Middle English Dictionary. Quotes the word in late medieval English in two medical books that were Latin-to-English translations.examples. This medical sense was entirely independent of the mathematical sense. It came from the same Arabic word by a different route. الجبر Al-jabr in the medical sense is in medieval Arabic medical writers Al-Razi (died c. 930) and others – Search for الجبر in the corpus of medieval Arabic texts at AlWaraq.net. Search results include الجبر in medical writings by Al-Razi (died c. 930). In the search results list at AlWaraq.net, the righthand column has clickable links.e.g., Book in Arabic : ''Canon of Medicine'' by Ibn Sina (died 1037), searchable. ابن سينا – القانون في الطب – بحث عن الجبرe.g. – whose medical books were translated to Latin in the late 12th and the 13th century.
  20. ^ algorithm

    The medieval Latin introductions to calculating with the Hindu-Arabic numerals usually had the word algorismus in their title. The introduction with the most medieval distribution was the one by Johannes de Sacrobosco, dated about 1230, about 20 pages long, which was also titled De Arte Numerandi = "On the Craft of Arithmetic". Its opening paragraph says algorismus is the craft of arithmetic – Latin text ''Iohannis de Sacrobosco Algorismus Vulgaris'' is published within the book ''Petri Philomeni de Dacia in Algorismum vulgarem Johannis de Sacrobosco commentarius. Una cum Algorismo ipso edidit'', curated by Curtze, year 1897.ref, Latin text ''Tractatus de Arte Numerandi'' by Joannis de Sacro-Bosco is published within the book ''A collection of treatises on the mathematics and subjects connected with them, from ancient inedited manuscripts'', curated by Halliwell, year 1841.alt-ref. In 1534 the spelling algorithm(us) occurs in the title of a book on arithmetic methods, Algorithmus Demonstratus, published that year, written originally in the 13th or 14th century by an uncertain author. But in general, until the late 17th century and later, the spelling was algorism(us). The spelling algorithm(us) was effectively a new spelling in the mid 17th century, under the influence of the model of the word Logarithm, with the arithm taken from ancient Greek arithmos = "arithmetic" and the algor descended from medieval Latin algorismus = "Hindu-Arabic numeral system". Algorism and algorithm were synonymous and meant only the basic methods of the decimal number system until the late 19th century, at which point the word was almost obsolete – an English dictionary in year 1921 flagged the word as "archaic" algorism @ An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, by Ernest Weekley, year 1921(ref) – but starting in the late 19th century algorithm was saved from oblivion by an expansion of the meaning to cover any systematic codified procedure in mathematics. The next paragraph is about how the word began in medieval Latin.
    In the introductions to the algorismus arithmetic in the late medieval Western European languages, including the late-medieval English and Latin introductory texts at ''The Earliest Arithmetics in English'', curated by Robert Steele, year 1922. Publishes four short 15th-century English tutorials plus one in medieval Latin. The tutorials in English had been translated from earlier works in Latin, for the most part. Total of 80 pages.Ref at pages 3 and 33 and 72, and the year 1296 Latin at ''Algorismus'' in Latin about year 1296 in the encyclopedia by Johannes Egidius Zamorensis aka Juan Gil de Zamora (died c. 1318)Ref, it can be seen that people in late-medieval Europe generally assumed the name algorismus had somehow come from an Arabic or Indian or other foreign source, but they did not know what source. They did not connect it with al-Khwarizmi's name. Likewise, centuries later, the year 1828 Webster's English dictionary said algorism is "an Arabic term" Webster's English dictionary, year 1828 edition(ref), which was a false statement in the sense it was intended, because algorism was not a term in Arabic. The connection with al-Khwarizmi's name was made by historians in the mid 19th century (Algorismus @ ''Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge'', volume 2, year 1843. It says ''Algorismus'' is the medieval Latin short form of name Mohammed Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi.

    Aside note : Al-Khwarizmi's algebra book does not use the Hindu-Arabic numeral system and therefore this article is wrong when it says Al-Khwarizmi's algebra book uses ''Indian system of arithmetic''.
    , Article ''Mémoire sur la propagation des chiffres indiens'', by Franz Woepcke, year 1863 in Journal Asiatique on page 519-520e.g.). The evidence that al-Khwarizmi's name was the source of the medieval Latin word algorismus is in certain Latin tutorials which have been date-assessed as 12th century, and which had only low distribution in Latin, and which gave introductions to the Hindu-Arabic arithmetic in a similar way to one another. These several texts, and the relationships among them, are discussed in "Early [ Latin ] Texts on Hindu-Arabic Calculation", by Menso Folkerts, year 2001, 24 pages – ''Early Texts on Hindu-Arabic Calculation'', by Menso Folkerts, year 2001. The title is referring to early Latin texts.ref, search @ BOOKSC.orgalt-link. Supplemental details are in "The Arabic Origins and Development of Latin Algorisms in the Twelfth Century", by André Allard, year 1991, 50 pages – downloadable @ BOOKSC.orgref. The earliest of these Latin texts is theoretically date-hypothesized as mid 12th century. The location where the Latin was written was Christian-ruled Iberia. The Latin has to have come from some kind of Arabic source in Iberia somehow, but nothing matching has survived from the Arabic side. Other introductions in Latin evolved out of it, without input from other Arabic introductions. Four versions were produced by unknown or uncertain Latin authors having dates assessed as late 12th and early 13th century. One of these carries the title liber alchorismi and in medieval Latin the writing of a proper name with the initial letter lowercase was sometimes done, and thus alchorismi could be eligible for translation as Al-Khwarizmi (died c. 850). But in this particular version the stated author is magister iohanne = "master John" – Manuscript at BNF, dated about mid 13th century as physical manuscript, begins : ''Incipit prologus in libro alchorismi de pratica arismetice qui editus est a magistro iohanne.'' The manuscript at BNF has library-assigned catalog title ''Liber alchorismi de practica arismetice'' and archive number ''latin 15461''.ref. For that reason, and for additional reasons seen in the body of that version, the alchorismi in the title is better translated as "algorism". Another version begins "Dixit alchoarizmi..." where Latin dixit = "said (grammatically 3rd person singular)" – Photograph of the first page of the manuscript text ''Dixit alchoarizmi'' in manuscript owned by Hispanic Society of America with archive number HC 397/726. The manuscript is dated 13th century. The photo is printed in the book ''Les chiffres arabes à la conquête de l'Europe, 1143-1585'', by Alain Schärlig, year 2010, on page 45.photo of the 1st page of manuscript, Book, ''The art and influence of Islamic Spain : selections from the Hispanic Society of America'', by Heather Ecker, year 2004, photo plate number 39 on page 41.alt-photo. And this version also survives in a closely corresponding variant manuscript that begins "Dixit algorizmi..." – Photograph of the first page of the medieval manuscript ''Dixit algorizmi''. Manuscript kept at Cambridge University Library with archive number Ms. Ii.vi.5.manuscript page photo. English "Al-Khwarizmi said" is the only translation for Latin dixit alchoarizmi | dixit algorizmi. A muchly different version begins "Intencio algarismi est in hoc opere..." which at least one translating historian has translated as "The intention of Al-Khwarizmi in this work is..." Article, ''Two Twelfth Century Algorisms'', by Louis C. Karpinski, year 1921, in journal ''Isis'' Volume 3 pages 396–413(ref). That translation is debatable. A related variant text of late 12th and more probably early 13th century (Article, ''Two Twelfth Century Algorisms'', by Louis C. Karpinski, year 1921, in journal ''Isis'', vol 3 pages 396–413. Altlink : jstor.org/stable/224048 ref for date) begins "Intendit algorismus in hoc opere..." which is translatable as "The craft of arithmetic intended in this work...". These early tutorials begot the name algorismus. The thing that most strongly indicates that the Latin algorismus was initially referring to Al-Khwarizmi (died c. 850) is that the versions begining "Dixit alchoarizmi..." and "Dixit algorizmi...", in the 2nd half of their first page, mention the title of a well-known algebra book by Al-Khwarizmi : "Et iam Latin PATEFECI means ''I have revealed''. It is a verb in the first-person singular. patefeci in libro algebre et almucabalah, idest restaurationis et oppositionisRobert of Chester's mid-12th-century Arabic-to-Latin translation of the algebra book of al-Khwarizmi was originally called Liber Restaurationis et Oppositionis and its first and last sentences have this phrase – ref: ''Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of the Algebra of Al-Khowarizmi'', curated by Karpinski, year 1915. The first sentence of the Latin text is on page 66 where it says ''incipit liber Restaurationis et Oppositionis''. By the way, on page 66 there is also a title ''Liber Algebrae et Almucabola'' but that title is a centuries-later late addition.first sentence , ''Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of the Algebra of Al-Khowarizmi'', curated by Karpinski, year 1915. The last sentence of the Latin text is on page 124 where it says ''Finis libri restaurationis et oppositionis''.last sentence. The phrase "restaurationis et oppositionis" used in the Dixit alchoarizmi tutorial is necessarily copied from Robert of Chester's Latin.

    Arabic ibn = Latin filius = English "son of". In Robert of Chester's translation, the name of Mohammed Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi (died c. 850) is written in Latin as "Mahumed filius moysi algaurizim" and is also in wordforms algaurizm etc in medieval copies.

    Robert of Chester's Latin was done in year 1145. There is a separate Arabic-to-Latin translation of the algebra book of Al-Khwarizmi, whose Latin date is assessed as late 12th century. Its Latin title is "Liber Maumeti filii Moysi alchoarismi de algebra et almuchabala" – Book ''Histoire des sciences mathématiques en Italie'' Volume 1, curated by Guillaume Libri, year 1838, on pages 253-297, publishes a medieval Latin translation of Al-Khwarizmi's algebra tutorial, and the Latin title is printed on page 253.
      A year 1986 publication of the same Latin is at :
    . The two words "algebra" and "almuchabala" are not found elsewhere in Latin mathematics until the 13th century.
    , quod uniuersus numerus sit..." = "And already I have revealed in the book of algebra and almucabala, i.e., restoration and opposition, that every number is..." – ref: Article, ''Thus spake al-Khwārizmī: A translation of the text of Cambridge University Library Ms. Ii.vi.5'', by J Crossley & A Henry, in journal ''Historia Mathematica'', volume 17 issue 2, year 1990. Translates the ''Dixit algorizmi'' text into English.Dixit algorizmi in English translation; for the Dixit algorizmi in Latin see the photos linked above and supplementarily Latin text ''Algoritmi de numero indorum'', aka ''Dixit algorizmi'', published in ''Trattati d'aritmetica'' Volume 1, curated by Baldassarre Boncompagni, year 1857. Text is copied from manuscript Ms. Ii.vi.5 at Cambridge University Library. This publication in some places erroneously prints ''Dixit algoritmi'' instead of ''Dixit algorizmi'' -- you can see this is an error by looking at the manuscript photo.Ref. The Dixit algorizmi tutorial has the word "Indian" at least 8 times and it says that what it is describing is an "Indian" system of numbering. A history book in Arabic by Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī (died 1070) states that Mohammed Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi authored an explanation of how to calculate with the "Indian" numerals – Book in Arabic : صاعد الاندلسي - طبقات الامم ''Kitāb Tabaqāt al-Umam'', by Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī (died 1070), curated by Louis Cheikho, year 1912, on page ١٤. Book has a chapter about sciences developed by people in India (العلم في الهند). In that chapter it is stated that Mohammed Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi explained calculating with the Indian numerals.ref. It is not clear that Al-Khwarizmi was the true original author, because: (#1) Al-Khwarizmi's algebra book – Text in medieval Arabic with modern English translation : ''The Algebra of Mohammed ben Musa'' [al-Khwarizmi], curated and translated by Frederic Rosen, year 1831link-1, Text in medieval Latin with modern English translation of the Latin : ''Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of the Algebra of Al-Khowarizmi'', curated and translated by Louis Charles Karpinski, year 1915. The Latin was translated from Arabic in the mid 12th century.link-2 – does not use zero or positional notation, the key innovation of the Hindu-Arabic numerals (a late-medieval copy has the Hindu-Arabic numerals in labels on drawings), and (#2) no copy nor fragment of an Al-Khwarizmi algorism text survives in Arabic, and (#3) the earliest use of zero and positional notation that survives from any mathematics writer in Arabic is dated a century after Al-Khwarizmi died (cf Some early records of zero in Arabic are cited in the article ''The Transmission of Hindu-Arabic Numerals Reconsidered'', by Paul Kunitzsch, year 2003, in the book ''The Enterprise of Science in Islam: New Perspectives''ref), despite a good few surviving antecedent Arabic works on mathematics and math-intensive astronomy, and (#4) Al-Khwarizmi was medievally famous as a mathematician and Definition at Wikipedia : Pseudepigraphypseudepigraphy was common in the era, and (#5) the founding text of the Latin text-family does not survive in Latin, and in other words the Latin texts are all "reworkings" and "hybrids", and in other words the presumed Arabic tutorial is unavailable in a faithful Latin translation.
  21. ^ alidade

    The Latin text Sententie Astrolabii is an Arabic-to-Latin translation of a tutorial about using astrolabe instruments. The Latin is dated around year 1000 (location: Catalonia). It has Latin hahidada and alhidade translating Arabic العضادة al-ʿiḍāda = "alidade" – Article, ''Al-Khwārizmī as a Source for the SENTENTIE ASTROLABII'', by Paul Kunitzsch, year 1987, 9 pages. Prints medieval Arabic text and medieval Latin text. See pages 228 & 229 in Arabic and Latin.ref, Article, ''Al-Khwārizmī as a Source for the SENTENTIE ASTROLABII'', by Paul Kunitzsch, year 1987, reprinted in book ''The Arabs and the Stars'' by Paul Kunitzsch, year 1989alt-link. In Latin in the mid 12th century, an Arabic-derived book about astrolabes has Latin alhaidada = "alidade" – Link goes to Latin text of a short treatise on the Astrolabe by Rudolf of Bruges, who lived mid 12th century in Languedoc. Rudolf's text was derived from Arabic astronomy sources. Rudolf's text, curated by Richard Lorch year 1999, is published in book ''Essays in the History of Science and Philosophy Presented to John D. North'', year 1999, pages 60-75 in Latin, translation in English on pages 80-86.ref. With same meaning, the spelling allidada occurs in mid-13th-century Latin in another Arabic-influenced book about using the astrolabe – Book, ''Pseudo-Masha’allah, On the Astrolabe: A Critical Edition of the Latin Text with English Translation'', by Ron B. Thomson, year 2014. Pseudo-Masha’allah's compilation on the Astrolabe is dated 3rd quarter of the 13th century as a compilation. Some of its contents are a century older than the time of the compilation.ref. In the Spanish language in 3rd quarter of 13th century alhidada = "alidade" occurs about 250 times in astronomy books that were commissioned by the king of Castille, these books translated from Arabic for the most part – Edition at HispanicSeminary.org : ''Libros del saber de astronomía del rey Alfonso X de Castilla'', commissioned by the king of Castille and completed about year 1277ref. In year 1523 in Germany an introduction to astrolabes says in Latin: "Alhidada, an Arabic word, is a dial which turns and moves on the surface of an [astrolabe] instrument." – Book, ''Coelestium rerum disciplinae atque totius sphaericae peritissimi Iohannis Stoeflerini Iustingensis, viri Germani, variorum astrolabiorum compositionem seu fabricam.'' Edition year 1535, ''alhidada'' and ''dioptra'' on page 33. The author is Johannes Stöffler (died 1531).ref. For background context, see history articles on medieval astrolabes (Article, ''An Introduction to the Astrolabe'', by Darin Hayton, year 2012, 32 pagese.g., Article, ''Some remarks on Islamic astronomical instruments'', by David A. King, year 1992, in journal ''Scientiarum Historia'', volume 18 pages 5-23.e.g.). In the 18th century in English, Bailey's English Dictionary defined "alidada" as "the ruler or label that moves on the center of an astrolabe, quadrant, etc., and carries the sight." – Bailey's English Dictionary, 1726 editionref.
  22. ^ alkali  ^ kalium

    The medieval Arabic القلي al-qalī was obtained from succulent flowering plants that grow where water has relatively high levels of sodium. The plants have relatively high levels of sodium. When the plants are burned, much of the sodium ends up as sodium carbonate in the ash. Another major component in the ash is potassium carbonate. The ash also has calcium compounds and other compounds. Medievally these saltwort plants were collected at tidal marshes and other saline soils, including saline desert soils, and the plants were burned for their ash, and this kind of ash was called al-qalī in Arabic. The desert-dwelling saltwort species, such as Anabasis is a genus within the taxonomic subfamilies Salsoloideae and Salsoleae. Salsoloideae and Salsoleae include numerous desert-dwelling saltwort plants.Anabasis, were burned in greater volume and were of greater commercial importance than the marsh-dwelling saltworts. Making glass and making soap were the main things the ash was used for. Ash from burning non-salty plants could be used for making glass and soap, and indeed was used, but the results were not as good. The chemical composition of some ancient glass from the Mediterranean region suggests that the ash of saltwort plants (rich in sodium carbonate) might have been sometimes used as an ingredient in making glass thousands of years ago – Book, ''Ancient Glass: An Interdisciplinary Exploration'', by Julian Henderson, year 2013. By looking through the entirety of the book's table of contents you will see relevant section headings.ref. On the other hand, however, no synonym for al-qalī or saltwort ash occurs in ancient Greek or Latin writings.
    Al-qalī salt is made from al-qalī, says an Arabic dictionary dated about year 980 – أبو عبدالله محمد بن أحمد بن يوسف الخوارزمي - مفاتيح العلوم :: الباب التاسع - في الكيمياء Book in medieval Arabic plus footnotes in modern Latin : ''Mafâtîh al-olûm'', by Ahmed ibn Jûsof al-Kâtib al-Khowarezmi (lived c. 980), curated by Van Vloten year 1895. القلي al-qilī | al-qalī on page ٢٥٩ (259) on line 7.ref. Arabic milḥ = "salt". Medieval Arabic ملح القلى milḥ al-qalā | ملح القلي milḥ al-qalī = "alkali salt" was a product refined from al-qalī = "alkali ash". Al-Razi (died c. 930) has a description of the refining procedure – Book in Arabic : الرازي كتاب الأسرار وسر الأسرار ''Kitāb al-asrār wa sirr al-asrār'', by Al-Razi (died c. 930). Downloadable from Arabic Collections Online at http://dlib.nyu.edu/aco/. In this copy, باب ملح القلي is on print pages ٧-٦ which is PDF pages 34-35.ref-1 , Book in English translation : ''Kitāb al-Asrār'' by Al-Razi (died c. 930). Translated from German by Gail Taylor, year 2008, the German having been translated from Arabic by Julius Ruska, year 1937. Al-Razi's Arabic word ''al-qali'' is in English as ''soda'' in this translation. The translation has a section headed ''Preparation of Soda Salt''.ref-2 (Book in English : ''The Alchemy of Al-Razi :: A Translation of the BOOK OF SECRETS'', translated by Gail Marlow Taylor, year 2008, year 2014. Search for ''preparation of soda salt''.alt-link) , ''Liber Secretorum de voce Bubacaris'' is Arabic-to-Latin translation of ''Kitāb al-Asrār'' of Abu Bakr Al-Razi (died c. 930). It is in medieval Latin, 13th century, in more than one version. Extracts from Latin versions are in ''Ubersetzung und Bearbeitungen von Al-Razi's Buch Geheimnis der Geheimnisse'', year 1935. The procedure for refining alkali salt is in Latin on page 71-72. Latin uses word ALKALI.ref-3. The procedure was: The al-qalī ash is mixed with about seven times as much hot water and this causes the desired components of the ash to dissolve in the water, then the non-dissolved components are gotten rid of by passing the water through a fine sieve, then the water is gotten rid of by evaporation, and then what is left is the dissolved components as solids. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are extremely soluble in water. They were the main components of the al-qalī salts. The procedure removed much of the other components of the al-qalī ash.
  23. ^ alkali

    One of the earliest records of the word "alkali" among the Latins is in the Liber de Aluminibus et Salibus (English: Book on Alums and Salts), which is an Arabic-to-Latin translation with translation date about year 1200. Its text is in medieval Arabic and medieval Latin at Book in Arabic and Latin : ''Das Buch der Alaune und Salze'', curated by Julius Ruska, year 1935. Arabic section A §78 (on page 52) has ملح القلي milḥ al-qalī. This is translated in Latin section G §78 (on page 81) as SAL ALKALI. Arabic section A §44 (on page 45) has ماء القلى māʾ al-qalī and it is translated in Latin section G §44 (on page 69) as ALKALI.Ref, where it can be seen that the Arabic القلي al-qalī was translated as Latin alkali. The minerals book of Al-Razi (died c. 930) is available in original Arabic and in 13th century Latin translation, where you can see that Al-Razi's القلي al-qalī was translated as Latin alkali and the word is in the book many times – note #22 above has the http links. Another Arabic-to-Latin translation dated early 13th century is De Anima in Arte Alchemiae. It has more than 60 instances of Latin sal alcali | sale alcali | salis alcaliText ''De Anima in Arte Alchimiae'' is within the volume ''Artis Chemicae Principes'', year 1572, from page 1 to page 471 (beyond page 471 is different, later, and unrelated alchemy). An improved edition of the early-13th-century Latin text has been published under title ''Le DE ANIMA alchimique du pseudo-Avicenne'', curated by Sébastien Moureau, year 2016.ref; the text does not survive in Arabic. Another 13th-century Latin text about salts and minerals is Liber Dedali aka Liber Luminis Luminum, much influenced by an unknown Arabic source. It has more than a dozen instances of alkali | alcaliArticle ''The Texts of Michael Scot's Ars Alchemie'', curated by Thomson, year 1938 in journal ''Osiris''. It publishes texts associated with the name of Michael Scot, who died in 1230s. Guessed as written late 13th and thus not written by Michael Scot. Texts have alkali (17 times) and alcali (9 times). Alt-src : Appendix III on pages 240-268 at archive.org/details/anenquiryintoli00browgoog ref , Article, ''The ARS ALCHEMIE: the first Latin text on practical alchemy'', by Antony Vinciguerra, year 2009, 11 pages, in journal ''Ambix'' volume 57. The article says: ''LIBER DEDALI is a Latin translation of an unknown Arabic text.... LIBER DEDALI contains the most ancient version of the ARS ALCHEMIE text.''ref for date. The above four 13th-century Latin texts speak of "sal_ alkali" (with Latin sal_ = "salt") with the very same meaning as the Arabic "milḥ al-qalī" defined in note #22 above. "Sal_ alkali" is easy to find in 14th & 15th century Latin alchemy – Book, ''Verae Alchemiae Artisque Metallicae'', a collection of Latin alchemy texts by uncertain and various authors, nearly all dated 14th and 15th century, printed in year 1561. The OCR'd text has three dozen instances of substring ''alkal''. Most of the instances are in the form ''sal__ alkali''.some examples. Also spelled "''Catalogue of Latin and Vernacular Alchemical Manuscripts in the United States and Canada'', by WJ Wilson, year 1939, is a 836-page report in Volume 6 of journal ''Osiris''. It has 70 instances of 15th century SALIS ALCHALI | SALE ALCHALI | SAL ALCHALI, on pages from page 60 to page 146. Altlink : jstor.org/stable/301597 sal_ alchali" in medieval Latin.
    14th century Italian has sale alkali (sale = "salt") – alcali @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini'' (''TLIO'') gives medieval quotationsref: TLIO. "Alkali" is in the English language from the later 14th century on – alkali @ ''The Middle English Dictionary'' gives medieval quotationsref. In medieval French the word's records are limited to two or three books that were Latin-to-French translations – details omitted. Earliest known in Spanish is dated around year 1500. Around that year, three new books have alcali | alkali in Spanish: All three are medical books translated from Latin to Spanish, two of them were written in Latin in Italy and the third written in Latin in France – Search for ''alcali'' + ''alkali'' in Corpus Diacrónico del Españolref, Search for ''alcali'' + ''alkali'' in 15th and 16th century Spanish medical texts at HispanicSeminary.org. Has instances in Spanish in translations of books originally written in Latin by Theodoric Borgognoni (Tederico), Saladinus of Ascoli, and Guy de Chauliac.ref. Medieval Spanish has plenty of records of the alkali ashes product under a completely different name.
    Alkali ashes were regularly imported from Arabic lands into Italy by the glass-making industry of late medieval Italy. That is the main subject in the article "Levantine Alkali Ashes and European Industries", by E. Ashtor and G. Cevidalli, in Journal of European Economic History, year 1983. The Levantine alkali ashes were produced in semi-desert places in Syria. They were the fluxing material of first choice in glass-making at Venice especially. Late medieval Italian writers connected with the glass-making industry in Italy most often used names other than alcali for the alkali ashes, but you can see two of them using the name alcali quoted in TLIO, link above.
    In the 17th-18th centuries, the alkali ashes was most often called "soda" and "soda ash" in English and throughout Western Europe (with wordforms soude etc) – Book ''An universal European dictionary of merchandise'', by PA Nemnich, year 1798. It has English ''Soda'' translated to 9 or 10 Western European languages. The dictionary treats ''Soda Ash'' as synonymous with ''Soda''. Search for word SODA. Search also for word BARILLA, which was synonymous with soda ash. This dictionary had been translated from German ''Waaren-lexicon in zwölf sprachen'', year 1797.examples.
  24. ^ amalgam

    Evidence that late 13th century Latin amalgama came from Arabic al-malgham with same meaning:
    It is stated in the dictionary of Ibn Sīda (died 1066): وكل جَوهر ذؤَّاب. كالذَّهب ونحوه خُلط بالزَّاوُوق: مُلْغَمٌ = "And any melting substance such as gold, etc, mixed with mercury is called مُلْغَمٌ mulgham" – ref: Dictionary titled المحكم والمحيط الأعظملغم @ Ibn Sīda's dictionary @ AlWaraq.net. Ibn Sīda's statement was copied into the dictionary of Ibn Manẓūr (died 1312) and placed under the rootword لغم L-Gh-MSearchable Medieval Arabic dictionaries. The ''Lisan al-Arab'' of Ibn Manzur says: وكلُّ جوهر ذوّاب كالذهب ونحوه خُلِط بالزَّاوُوق مُلْغَمٌ، وقد أُلْغِمَ فالْتَغَمَلغم @ Lisan al-Arab. Essentially the same statement about ملغم mulgham | malgham is in the dictionary of Abū ʿAlī al-Qālī (died 967), whose dictionary is titled al-Bāriʿ fī al-Lugha''Wörterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache'', by Manfred Ullmann, Volume 2 (letter ل), on page 901, year 1991, quotes from page 279 of the al-Bāriʿ dictionary as published in 1975 curated by Taʿʿān = هاشم الطعان.ref , The 10th century ''al-Bāriʿ fī al-Lugha'' dictionary is downloadable as a PDF file inside a RAR wrapper file at the link. This requires that you have a program that can extract files from a RAR-format wrapper file. ملغم is on page 279 (on line 10) of the PDF file.ref (page 279).
    An Arabic alchemy text date-assessed about late 9th century has Lead (Pb) mixed with pyrite and copper, and it says "into this it is appropriate to mix mercury until it becomes a ملغماً malghamā". This text was compiled from Late Ancient Greek alchemy authors (who are named in the text). The Arabic compiler is named "Al-Ḥabīb" and the text is titled Kitāb al-Ḥabīb. Book, ''La Chimie au Moyen Age, Tome III : L'Alchimie Arabe... Texte et Traduction'', by Berthelot and Houdas, year 1893, on Arabic page ٥۴ (on line 3), where the Arabic text has: رصاصنا اذا خلط... وابار نحاس وعند ذلك ينبغى ان يخلط فيه الزيبق حتَى يصير ملغماً ثمَ يجعل انآئه ثم يطبخ. The Arabic text of ''Kitab al-Habib'' begins on Arabic page ٣۴ and ends on Arabic page ٧۸.Kitāb al-Ḥabīb text in Arabic ; Book, ''Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, Band IV: Alchimie-Chemie, Botanik-Agrikultur. Bis ca. 430 H.'', by Fuat Sezgin, year 1971, on pages 91-94 for Kitab al-Habibref-1 for date, Book, ''La Chimie au Moyen Age, Tome III : L'Alchimie Arabe... Texte et Traduction'', by Berthelot and Houdas, year 1893, introductory info on pages 12-13 for Kitab al-Habibref-2 for date; and the text has been put in French translation under title Book, ''La Chimie au Moyen Age, Tome III : L'Alchimie Arabe... Texte et Traduction'', by Berthelot and Houdas, year 1893. French translation of ''Kitab al-Habib'' is on pages 76-115. In French on page 94 (on line 6) the Arabic word ''malghamā'' is translated as French word ''pâte'' = English ''paste''.Le Livre d'El-Habib.
    The Book on Precious Stones by Al-Bīrūnī (died c. 1050), in its chapter about mercury, has grammatical plural ملاغم الذهب... ملاغم الفضة malāghim al-dhahab... malāghim al-fida = "gold amalgams... silver amalgams". Elsewhere in the same book Al-Bīrūnī has كالملغمة kal-malghama meaning a paste consisting of cow-dung and salt, where Arabic prefix kal- means English suffix "-like" = "sort of". كتاب الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر - البيروني -- البحث عن ملاغمAl-Biruni's book in Arabic, In Arabic : كتاب الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر - البيروني ''Comprehensive Book on Knowledge on Precious Stones''. بملاغم is in the chapter on mercury on page 137 where Al-Biruni writes ''doing gold-plating with gold amalgams and doing silver-plating with silver amalgams''. كالملغمة is in the chapter on iron on page 151.alt-link.
    Several Arabic alchemy texts of the Jabirean School have grammatical plural الملاغم al-malāghim | al-mulāghim = "amalgams" in the titles of the texts. These Jabirean School texts have not been published, and have not had the benefit of clear confirmations of the dates of their titles. But at least some of the titles are judged medieval, about 10th century. One of them is titled Tafsīr al-Malāghim = "Explication of Amalgams", pseudepigraphically attributed to Jabir Ibn Hayyan (died c. 820). Another is Kitāb al-Malāghim al-Awal = "The First Book on Amalgams", attributed pseudoepigraphically to Jabir Ibn Hayyan. Another is Kitāb al-Malāghim al-Saghīr = "Short Book on Amalgams". Some info about these Jabirean School manuscripts is at the USA National Library of Medicine at An Arabic alchemy manuscript which has manuscript catalog number MS A 33 at the USA National Library of Medicine: Description of item 4 in the manuscriptref , An Arabic alchemy manuscript which has manuscript catalog number MS A 33 at the USA National Library of Medicine: Description of item 1 in the manuscriptref , Arabic alchemy manuscript having catalog number MS A 33 at the USA National Library of Medicine : Photograph of page 1 of item 4 in the manuscript. The first line in the photograph says : ''Kitāb Tafsīr al-Malāghim l-Jābir Bin Hayyān''.ref ; and you can see some of them classifed as pre-12th century texts in Fuat Sezgin's Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, Volume IV, on Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, Band IV: Alchimie-Chemie, Botanik-Agrikultur. Bis ca. 430 H. By Fuat Sezgin. Year 1971.page 234 and Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, Band IV: Alchimie-Chemie, Botanik-Agrikultur. Bis ca. 430 H. By Fuat Sezgin. Year 1971.page 269.
    Kitāb al-Asrār wa Sirr al-Asrār by Zakariya Al-Razi (died c. 930) is about minerals and medieval chemistry. It has التلغيم al-talghīm meaning amalgamation with a metal, including various named metals each being amalgamated with mercury. It has al-talghīm repeatedly over many pages, and also has تلغم talghamBook in Arabic : الرازي كتاب الأسرار وسر الأسرار ''Kitāb al-asrār wa sirr al-asrār'', by Al-Razi (died c. 930). In edition at ''Arabic Collections Online'' at http://dlib.nyu.edu/aco/ , بالتلغيم is on pages ٣٤ ، ٤٢ ، ٤٥ ، ٤٨ and تلغم on page ٣٥, and بالالغم on page ٣٨.ref: pages ٣٤, ٣٥, ٣٨, ٤٢, ٤٨, etc. Anyone who knows a little Arabic grammar can see that, formally speaking, talghīm involves a notional rootword لغم L-Gh-M with the Arabic grammar prefix 't-', while malgham involves the same rootword with the Arabic grammar prefix 'm-'.
    Late-10th-century Arabic book titled Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm = "Keywords of the Sciences", by Ibn Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Al-Khuwarizmi, is a technical dictionary for various subjects. It has a chapter on keywords in alchemy and metallurgy. It defines الإلغام al-ʾilghām | الألغام al-ʾalghām as "a body pulverized then mixed with mercury" – Book in Arabic with footnotes in modern Latin : مفاتيح العلوم ''Mafâtîh al-olûm'', by Ahmed ibn Jûsof al-Kâtib al-Khowarezmi (flourished circa 975 AD), curated by G. van Vloten, year 1895. الإلغام on page ٢٦٥ with curator's footnotes h , i , and k.ref , Biography of this 10th century author in ''Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography'', year 2008, @ Encyclopedia.comref for the date. The same wordform is in an Arabic alchemy text dated roughly 10th century, by a pseudonymous author, where الالغام al-alghām means an amalgamation with mercury – Book in Arabic : ''Arabische Alchemisten: II. Ǧaʿfar Alṣādiq, der sechste Imām'', curated and translated by Julius Ruska, year 1924. الالغام is on line 15 on print page numbered 5 of Arabic text, which is PDF page 182. Translator has comment on page 72-73 of German text, which is PDF page 72-73. Attribution of authorship to Ja'far al-Sadiq (died 765 AD) is rejected.ref: Julius Ruska year 1924. The wordform al-ʾalghām is odd-looking and contributes to the assessment that the notional rootword لغم L-Gh-M is only notional, only a retrofit, and not the real root. More about the rootword is later below.
    The book Shams al-maʻārif al-kubrā has been printed several times with attribution to author Ahmad al-Buni who died in 1225, but the authorship of it is a complexity, and some parts of it have a date of composition around 16th century – Article, ''Notes on the Production, Transmission, and Reception of the Major Works of Ahmad al-Buni'', by Noah Gardiner, year 2012 in ''Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies'' Volume 12 pages 81-143ref , Book (PhD dissertation), ''Esotericism in a manuscript culture : Aḥmad al-Būnī and his readers through the Mamlūk period'', by Noah Daedalus Gardiner, year 2014ref. It has a chapter about alchemy. The alchemy chapter has الملغمة al-malghama meaning an amalgam – Book in Arabic : شمس المعارف الكبرى ''Shams al-maʻārif al-kubrā'' attributed to أحمد بن علي البوني Aḥmad ibn ʻAlī Būnī, a.k.a. Al-Buni, died year 1225. In the linked copy, the الملغمة on print page ٣٧٨ is on or near electronic page 384.ref: page ٣٧٨ on lines 10, 14 & 25, This link has the same book printed by a different printeralt-link: page 399-400.
    The researcher Manfred Ullmann, reading unpublished old Arabic alchemy manuscripts, has found a very small number of other texts with (ة)الملغم al-malgham(a) meaning "amalgam, especially amalgam of mercury with metal". His findings are in his Wörterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache, year 1991, under letter L on ''Wörterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache'', by Manfred Ullmann, Volume 2, on page 901page 901 & ''Wörterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache'', by Manfred Ullmann, Volume 2, on page 902page 902; and in his book Katalog der arabischen alchemistischen Handschriften der Chester Beatty Library, two volumes, years 1974-1976.
    Next, medieval Syriac has at least two records of ܡܠܓܡܐ malagma with meaning "amalgam". One is in the Syriac-to-Arabic dictionary of Bar Bahlul, dated 3rd quarter of 10th century. Bar Bahlul says in Syriac that a ܡܠܓܡܐ malagma of mercury with silver is called الملغمة al-malghama in Arabic. Ref: Bar Bahlul's 10th century Syriac-Arabic dictionary published in year 1901 curated by Rubens Duval, volume 1, entry for headword ܐܦܪܘܣܠܝܢܘܢ ''aphroselinon'' on page 267ܐܦܪܘܣܠܝܢܘܢ @ Bar Bahlul column 267, line 25; ref also "Notices Alchimiques Tirées du Lexique Syriaque de Bar Bahloul", Book ''La Chimie Au Moyen Age, Tome II: Alchimie Syriaque'', by Marcellin Berthelot and Rubens Duval, year 1893, on page 134, item #66, which is within the chapter ''Notices Alchimiques Tirées du Lexique Syriaque de Bar Bahloul''.item lexical #66, by Rubens Duval, year 1893. The other record of Syriac ܡܠܓܡܐ malagma = "amalgam" is in an early medieval Syriac alchemy text – ref: Having ܡܠܓܡܐ on page 194 at column 2 line 7.
    Supplement done by Jessie Payne Margoliouth.
    Supplement to Payne-Smith's Syriac Dictionary
    , year 1927, which is citing the following medieval Syriac alchemy text: Book, ''La Chimie Au Moyen Age, Tome II: Alchimie Syriaque'', curated by Rubens Duval and Marcellin Berthelot, year 1893, publishes a Syriac alchemy text with ''malagma'' on page 12, on 19th line. The book's introduction discusses the date and estimates approx 8th century.ܡܠܓܡܐ @ page 12, line 19 (in Syriac).
    In medieval Syriac records, the far more common meaning for ܡܠܓܡܐ malagma is a medicinal ointment for a skin inflammation, a poultice, a bandage dressing – Hassan bar Bahlul's lexicon is a Syriac-to-Arabic dictionary that was written in the 10th century. It translates Syriac ܡܠܓܡܐ ''malagma'' as Arabic مرهم ''marham'', which is English medicinal ointment or medicinal bandage dressing. In edition curated by Rubens Duval, year 1901, this is at Volume 2 column 1088, on the first line of the column.ref , Brockelmann's ''Lexicon Syriacum'', year 1895 page 187, translates Syriac ''malagma'' as Latin ''malagma'', which is English medicinal ointment, bandage dressing, poultice. Brockelmann cites Syriac texts that use this word.ref , ''Compendious Syriac Dictionary'', by J. Payne Smith, year 1903 on page 275, translates Syriac ''malagma'' as English ''soothing ointment''. This Syriac-to-English dictionary is an abridgement of the Syriac-to-Latin dictionary ''Thesaurus Syriacus'' by R. Payne Smith, year 1879.ref , ''Supplement to Payne-Smith's Thesaurus Syriacus'', year 1927 on page 194, translates Syriac ''malagma'' as English ''emollient plaster'' (also translates it as ''amalgam'')ref. This meaning was also in use for the Arabic al-malgham prior to the 20th century in Arabic. The Arabic-to-English dictionaries by Richardson year 1777, Barretto year 1804, Johnson year 1852, and Steingass year 1884, translate Arabic ملغم malgham as English "an emollient poultice or unguent" or "softening ointment" and they do not translate it as an amalgam – ملغم MELGHEM @ ''A Dictionary, Persian, Arabic, and English'', by John Richardson, year 1777, at page-column 1840ref , Joseph Barretto's Persian-Arabic-English dictionary year 1804 on page 783 has Persian & Arabic ملغم MELGHEM defined as English ''unguent for sores'', i.e. medicinal cream for skin sores.ref , ملغم malgham @ ''A Dictionary, Persian, Arabic, and English'', year 1852. This dictionary incorporates the year 1777 dictionary of the same title done by John Richardson (died 1795). It has expansions and edits done by Francis Johnson (died 1876).ref , ملغم malgam @ Steingass's Arabic-to-English dictionary, year 1884, page 1056, says the meaning is ''softening ointment''. This dictionary by Steingass is heavily derived from the 1852 Johnson's Richardson's dictionary and is a more concise version of it.ref. Golius's Arabic-to-Latin dictionary, year 1653, translates لغم lagham as medicinal ointment and does not translate it as amalgam – Jacobus Golius's Arabic-to-Latin dictionary, year 1653, column 2143, has لغم ''lagham'' translated as Latin ''parum unguenti seu odorati linimenti''. Additionally Golius's dictionary has unrelated translations for this word.ref. This لغم lagham is an only-notional root لغم L-Gh-M getting extracted from malgham by reading the initial 'm' as the grammar prefix 'm' and removing it. The true root is a foreign import. That is, Arabic malgham = "medicinal skin dressing" came from the Syriac malagma with same meaning. The Syriac word has records in early medieval Syriac, and it came from ancient Greek μάλαγμα malagma with same meaning, a word used in Greek by medical writers including Galen (died c. 200 AD) and Aetius Amida (lived early 6th century). In the medieval Arabic medical writers, medicinal malgham is clearly a rare word, and hard to find. Meanwhile in the medieval Arabic alchemy writers, numerous words have no native root in Arabic and arrived in Arabic alchemy on a specifically alchemical pathway from Greek alchemy. It follows that the alchemical Arabic malgham = "amalgam" may be from Greek alchemy specifically.
    To repeat, Arabic malgham and Syriac malagma are each on record meaning both "amalgam" and "medicinal skin dressing". Medievally and continuing almost until the invention of modern antibiotics, amalgams containing pure mercury were used in medicinal ointments and bandage dressings to treat skin sores and skin infections, because they were effective. (Mercury's effectiveness is in 19th century British medicine texts such as Book, ''A compendium of current formulæ, approved dressings and specific methods for the treatment of surgical diseases and injuries'', by George H. Napheys, year 1878, on page 22 and many other pagesref and ''The Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics'', by Jonathan Pereira, Volume 1, year 1852 on page 786ref). Other effective and commonly used amalgams for skin infections involved lead metal (Pb) or lead monoxide (PbO). In the 19th century in Britain, an officially approved and commonly used dressing for infected skin was an amalgam of (#1) lead monoxide, plus (#2) pure mercury, plus (#3) sulfurated olive oil – Formula for ''Plaster of Mercury'' in ''The Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics'', by Jonathan Pereira, Volume 1, year 1852, formula #163 on page 786. On nearby pages, the book gives slightly varying formulas that were approved by the standards-making bodies of the medical colleges of London, Edinburgh and Dublin.ref. Essentially the same and very similar recipes, using mercury for the same purpose, are in medieval Arabic in a medicines book by Ibn al-Jazzar (died c. 980), though he does not use the word malghamBook in Arabic plus English translation : زاد المسافر وقوت الحاضر ل ابن الجزّار , ''Provisions for the Traveller and Nourishment for the Sedentary'' by Ibn al-Jazzār (died c.980), translated by Gerrit Bos, year 2015. This publication does not have the full Arabic book. It only has chapters 7 to 30 of PART 7. English ''quicksilver'' means mercury in chapters 22 and 24 on pages 119 and 134.ref-1, Article, ''Healing with Mercury : The Uses of Mercury in Arabic Medical Literature'', by Natalia Bachour, year 2015, in journal ''Asiatische Studien''. Search the article for Ibn al-Jazzar. Altlink @ https://core.ac.uk/ref-2. Two dozen formulas involving lead-based amalgams for medicinal skin dressings, and a few involving mercury, are in Arabic in Ibn Sina (died 1037) and Najm al-Din Mahmoud (died 1330), although they do not use the word malghamArticle, ''Healing with Mercury : The Uses of Mercury in Arabic Medical Literature'', by Natalia Bachour, year 2015, in journal ''Asiatische Studien''. Ibn Sina's so-called ''Killed mercury'' is discussed in the article on pages 846-847.ref , Book 5 of Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine is formulations for compounding several substances into one medicine. Sections 10 to 12 of Book 5 have formulations for skin ointments and pastes for bandages. Section 11 of Book 5 has compound formulations using lead (Pb) in bandages. ref , Book in Arabic plus French translation : كتاب الحاوي في علم التداوي من نجم الدين محمود , مقالة خامسة ''Le Livre de l'Art du Traitement de Najm ad-Dyn Mahmoud: Cinquième Partie'', year 1903. Lead (Pb) and Lead monoxide (litharge) and White Lead (céruse) are in skin bandages in chapter 47 (Marāham) starting page ٢١٧. Litharge mixed with mercury and olive oil is in sec 16 of chap 19 on page ١١٩ (translated on page 89).ref. Similar skin dressings are described in ancient Greek and Roman medicine writings; e.g. Cornelius Celsus (died c. 50 AD) has a skin dressing that is an amalgam of lead monoxide, melted resin, and olive oil – Celsus's book ''De Medicina'' has skin dressing formulas involving lead monoxide (litharge), green copper oxide (verdigris), and resin, in Part V section 19. Celsus called those skin dressings ''emplastra'' in Latin. He has less-heavy skin dressings he calls ''malagmata''. In Part V section 17 he states the difference between ''emplastra'' and ''malagma(ta)''. Link has Latin and English side-by-side.ref.
    The re-location of the vowel that occurs in going from malagma to malgham is something that frequently and characteristically occurred in medieval Arabic words coming from Greek. As a good example, the medieval and modern Arabic for "phlegm | phlegmatic" is بلغم belgham from ancient Greek phlegma. Vowel re-location does not occur in Latin borrowings from Greek, nor in Latin words within Latin. Malagma = "medicinal skin dressing" is a pretty common word in classical Latin and medieval Latin. Any idea that this Latin malagma could be the parent of the Latin amalgama = "amalgam" would be an impossible idea linguistically because of the relocated vowel in the middle and because of the extra 'a' at the front. The newly arrived 13th century Latin amalgama does not have a plausible word-origin in terms of any other Latin or Greek precedent word either. Meanwhile, the loss of the first letter 'L' in going from the Arabic al-malgham(a) = "amalgam" to the Latin amalgama = "amalgam" is called Definition at Wikipedia : Dissimilation (in phonology)phonetic dissimilation and it is something that often happens in the context of borrowing foreign words. Phonetically the Arabic al-malgham is unimpeachable as a match for the Latin amalgama. The overall historical context —profusely documented in 13th century Latin— is that the Latins were actively adopting alchemy material from Arabic sources in the 13th century.
    However, numerous etymology dictionaries are still unconvinced that the Latin amalgama came from Arabic al-malgham. The basis for their doubt is their information that the Arabic word is very poorly attested in medieval Arabic texts. This information was prevalent among late 19th century etymology books amalgam @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'', year 1888 page 262, says : ''An Arabic adaption of Greek MALAGMA with prefixed AL- [is a suggestion we have heard] .... But no instance of the use of these as chemical terms is cited from Arabic writers.''(example in year 1888). Henri Lammens in year 1890 said correctly about amalgam: "Until we have collected examples... in the literature of Arabic alchemy, the proposed etymologies remain in a state of conjecture" amalgame @ ''Remarques sur les mots français dérivés de l'arabe'', by Henri Lammens, year 1890 page 22(ref). Henri Lammens and Reinhart Dozy and certain other 19th century etymology writers had read lots of literature in Arabic, but very little in the domain of alchemy. They had not come across an Arabic malgham meaning amalgam. Amalgams were called by words derived from the rootword خلط khalt = "to mix" in Arabic literature in most cases, medievally and post-medievally. 19th-century Arabic does not have any record of malgham meaning amalgam, it seems; and more exactly it is not in any of the dictionaries and if it occurs elsewhere it must be very rare. 20th century Arabic dictionaries have malgham with the same meaning as the European word amalgam, no more and no less, and it looks clearly borrowed from the European word.
    The situation about amalgam's word-origin is that the quantity of medieval Arabic alchemy texts available in published form is still truly small, and the ones in manuscript form generally pose challenges about dating them (the physical manuscripts usually have dates from the 15th through 18th centuries). The quantity of medieval Arabic material published from the domain of medicine is a lot more plentiful than from alchemy, but as I already said the medieval Arabic medicine books speak of amalgams and bandage dressings through the use of words other than malgham. Likewise in medieval Latin, the records of amalgama are in the alchemy books and are not in the medicine books. Latin alchemy books with amalgama include the "Pseudo-Geber corpus" titles Liber Fornacum and De Inventione Perfectionis (both of which are in Latin at A volume in Latin titled ''Verae alchemiae artisque metallicae'', year 1561, publishes several texts of the Pseudo-Geber corpus. Search the volume for substring ''amalgam__''. The volume also has texts that are not part of the Pseudo-Geber Corpus. Texts of the Pseudo-Geber Corpus have also been published in other outlets. Text ''De Inventione Perfectionis'' is also known by title ''De Investigatione Perfectionis''.Ref and in English translation at Book, ''The Works of Geber'', translated from Latin to English by Richard Russell, year 1678, reprint 1686Ref), and Testamentum Gebri (Pseudo-Geber text ''Testamentum Gebri'', aka ''Testamentum Geberis'', has been published several timesref). Some of the "Pseudo-Geber corpus" is late 13th century Book, ''The Summa Perfectionis of Pseudo-Geber: A Critical Edition'', edition by William R. Newman, year 1991. Editor's introduction talks about how the Pseudo-Geber book ''Summa Perfectionis'' is dated late 13th century.(ref), but the titles just named were more likely written in the early 14th century Book, ''The Summa Perfectionis of Pseudo-Geber: A Critical Edition'', edition by William R. Newman, year 1991, editor's introduction on pages 72-82(ref). To my knowledge, the word's potential instances in Latin prior to the early 14th century are very few in number and are beset by serious insecurities about their dates. Instances are plentiful in the 14th and 15th centuries in Latin, some more examples of which are in ''Katalog der mittelalterlichen lateinischen Papierhandschriften aus den Sammlungen der Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha'schen Stiftung für Kunst und Wissenschaft'', by Elisabeth Wunderle, year 2002. Search for word ''amalgama''.Ref and Book, ''Verae Alchemiae Artisque Metallicae'', a collection of Latin alchemy texts by uncertain and various authors, nearly all dated 14th and 15th century, published in 1561, 550 pages. OCR'ed. The quality of the OCR is pretty good.Ref. The origin of Latin amalgama is less understood than the other medieval Latin alchemy words in this page's collection -- Alchemy, Alcohol, Alembic, Alkali, Borax, Elixir, Marcasite, Talc, Tincar/Tincal, each of which is securely dated in Latin in several Arabic-to-Latin translations of alchemy material of late 12th and early 13th century Latin. Amalgama does not occur in those translations. To more solidly support the judgement that amalgama came from Arabic al-malgham, it remains desirable to collect more instances in medieval Arabic alchemy texts. But the Arabic instances given above -- the unpublished ones found by Manfred Ullmann included -- are effectively enough. The transfer channel into Latin remains foggy. Transfer date seems to be very late in the 13th century.
  25. ^ ambergris

    Medieval Arabic dictionary definitions and medieval Arabic texts that talk about عنبر ʿanbar = "ambergris" are at Rootword عنبر in Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon, year 1874 (page 2168), reprinted at ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.comعنبر @ Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon , عنبر @ Medieval Dictionaries @ ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.comعنبر @ ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.com , In Arabic with French translation : مروج الذهب للمسعودي Prairies D'Or by Al-Mas'udi (died 956), volume 1, year 1861. Download and machine-search the French text for ''ambre'' and see the corresponding Arabic text on the same pages.عنبر @ Al-Mas'udi (died 956) volume 1 , search medieval Arabic texts @ AlWaraq.netالعنبر @ AlWaraq.net + search medieval Arabic texts @ AlWaraq.netعنبر @ AlWaraq.net. The word is frequent in medieval Arabic texts, as you can see at AlWaraq.net.
    For a majority of Arabic speakers today, any written letter pair -nb- is pronounced -MB-. In the medieval era for at least some Arabic speakers, the written ʿanbar was pronounced ʿAMBAR. ʿAnbar was pronounced ʿAMBAR in Damascus in the early 16th century – Italian physician Andreas Alpagus Bellunensis (died c. 1521) lived for two decades in Damascus. He did an annotated edition of Gerard of Cremona's Arabic-to-Latin translation of Ibn Sina's ''Canon of Medicine''. His annotations are printed in the page margins in 16th-century Latin editions. Adjacent to ambergris, Bellunensis notes the name in Arabic is HAMBAR, where his letter H is representing Arabic letter ʿayn.ref.
    The letter ʿayn sound in the Arabic عنبر ʿanbar is a good sign that the Arabic word was not sourced from Europe.
    Ambergris is unrecorded among the ancient Greeks & Latins under any name (one Greek nugget has very doubtful interpretation). In medieval Latin, ambar commences in three 9th-10th century sources located in northern France, northern Italy and Switzerland, wherein ambar is a vivaciously aromatic substance, and assuredly it is ambergris –  ref Quote dated late 9th or early 10th century: ''Revulsoque sarcophagi operculo, mirificae virtutis AMBARE suaviter redolentis viri [scilicet Sebastiani] faciem demonstrant.'' Written by a monk Odilo at the abbey of Saint-Medard in northern France. It occurs in Odilo's narrative of the relocation of the bones of Saint Sebastian from Rome to Saint-Medard. Odilo is saying in the above sentence that when the lid was lifted up off the coffin-tomb of Saint Sebastian, there appeared a wonderfully virtuous AMBAR smell pleasantly emitting from the bones of the saint. Saint Sebastian died in 286 AD. His relics were relocated in 826. Odilo of Saint-Medard died about 925. Odilo's narrative is titled Translatio Sebastiani and has been published more than once. ,  ref A Latin poem, dated probably 9th century, location northern Italy, says: ''nardei qui sedulo et ambaris odorem ore spirabas, dogmata philosophorum '' = ''intense nard-oil [odour] and AMBAR odour you were exhaling from the mouth, the doctrines of the philosophers''. The poem is published in Volume is curated by Karl Strecker.Rhythmi aevi Merovingici et Carolini, volume IV parts 2 & 3, on page 721, year 1923. This item for ambar is cited in the unfinished Latin dictionary AMBAR is a headword in the volume for letters A-B, year 1967Mittellateinisches Wörterbuch, year 1967. ,  ref Latin medicinal recipes text Antidotarium Sangallense has late 9th or early 10th century estimated date. In text title, Antidotarium means "compendium of antidotes" and Sangallense means the big medieval monastery at Saint Gallen in Switzerland. The text is Book ''Studien und Texte zur frühmittelalterlichen Rezeptliteratur'', by Henry E Sigerist, year 1923. The book publishes early-medieval Latin medicinal recipes texts. One of its texts is assigned a title ''St. Galler Antidotarium'' or ''Antidotarium Sangallense''. The relevant bit is at the top of page 89.online. The text has one recipe headlined Confectio timiame, where Latin timiame is from Greek θυμιαμα = ''incense''. This recipe has a list of ingredients with the Latin names: In medieval Latin it is spelled also cozumbrum, cozimbrum, cociumbrius, corimbr[i]um. It is a resinous incense. One later medieval source defines it as ''red storax'', another defines it as ''liquid storax'', another defines it as ''incense'' and says it has ''pleasant smell'', another says it is synonymous with θυμιαμα.cozumbrio... Storax, an incense resinstorace... THUS is frankincense, an incense resin. THUS was more often spelled TUS in Latin. ''Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum'' Volume III, curated by Goetz, year 1892, has THUS + TUS in 10th-11th century glossaries, @ archive.org/details/corpusglossarior03linduoft thus... Myrrh, an incense resinmirra... masticeMastic resin, usable as an incense... Spikenard, very fragrant essential oil (also known as ''nard oil''), can be used as an additive in incensesspica [read: spica nardi]... crocoSaffron... Here ''aloen'' is aloeswood, aka lignum aloes, very aromatic wood, totally unrelated to aloe veraaloen... Camphor, an aromatic woodcafora... muscoMusk... ambar. All of them are strongly odoriferous. The position of the word ambar at the end of the list adjacent to Latin musco (English ''musk'') implies it is likely that the ambar means ambergris, not amber. This recipe is also the location of the earliest record in Latin for the word camphor, here spelled cafora. Greek starting in the 10th century has kafora | kafoura meaning camphor. Medieval Arabic kāfūr meant camphor. The Arabic kāfūr went into Latin & Greek medicine from Arabic medicine. The Latin cafora in the above list of ingredients is additional support for reading the above ambar as meaning ambergris (not amber), because: (#1) the Arabic ʿanbar never meant amber in medieval Arabic and (#2) the above cafora increases the likelihood that the above ambar was from the Arabic ʿanbar.. Next in medieval Latin, ambra is in the Arabic-to-Latin medical translations by Constantinus Africanus (died late 11th century), where Latin ambra is translating Arabic ʿanbar = "ambergris". Constantinus says correctly "ambra comes from the belly of a certain beast of the sea" – In Latin : ''Opera Constantinus Africanus'' Volume 1, published at Basel in 1536, ambra on page 357ref. Constantinus says there is little difference between ambra and musk in their medicinal actions – ''De Communibus Medico Cognitu Necessariis Locis'', alternatively titled ''Pantegni Theorica'' or ''Pantechni Theorica'', is an Arabic-to-Latin translation by translator Constantinus Africanus. The edition at Basel in year 1539 on page 136 has the statement: ''Ambra calida est & sicca. Actiones suae parum dissimilant musco.''ref, Book ''Omnia Opera Ysaac'' published at Lyon in year 1515 includes the text ''Pantechni'', a translation by Constantinus Africanus. ''Pantechni'' has a subheading ''De naturis aromatum'' (chapter ciiii, on page Fo xxiiii+1) having the statement : ''Ambra... actiones eius a musco parum dissimilantur''. It is on last line on lefthand side on page Fo xxiiii+1, which is approx electronic page 535.alt-ref. Subsequently ambra is in 12th & 13th century Latin medicines writers in Italy influenced by Constantinus's translations – 12th & 13th century Latin medical books of the Salernitan School are published in the five-volume collection ''Collectio Salernitana'', years 1852-1859. Search for substring ambra in the five volumes. The Salernitan School's way of doing medicine was much influenced by the Arabic translations of Constantinus Africanus.examples. Late-12th-century Arabic-to-Latin medicine translator Gerard of Cremona translated Arabic ʿanbar as Latin ambra, meaning "ambergris" – In Arabic : Entry for عنبر ʿanbar in Book Two of the Canon of Medicine of Ibn Sina (died 1037). Linked copy is print edition year 1593.ref-1, In Latin : Entry for ''ambra'' in Book Two of Canon of Medicine of Ibn Sina (died 1037) translated by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187). The linked OCR'd book has ambra in Latin wordforms ambra, ambre, ambrę, ambræ.ref-2. Away from medicine, 13th century Italy has several poets who sing the praises of the scents of ambra and musk in Italian, and their ambra clearly means "ambergris" – ambra @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)TLIO.
    In Greek in the late 11th century, medicines writer Symeon Seth has ἄμπαρ ampar clearly meaning "ambergris". He says it is a grey-colored coagulation, fatty, collected from fish, found in India and Yemen – In Greek : Book on foods and medicines by Symeon Seth published under title ''Syntagma de alimentorum facultatibus'', curated by Langkavel, year 1868. Page 26 says ἄμπαρ AMPAR is : grey colored and also whitish and blackish, a ''coagulation'', an ''excrescence'' (μεν κρειττον), ''fatty'' (Λιπώδες), collected from fish (συνάγεται εξ ιχθύων), found in India (Ινδικη) and in Yemen (εὐδαίμονος Αραβίας).ref (page 26), In Greek : Book on foods and medicines by Symeon Seth, curated by Langkavel, year 1868, has ἄμπαρος AMPAROS on page 72 on line 15 in the phrase ''a combination of musk and AMPAROS and Indian aloeswood''. Because musk and Indian aloeswood (aka agarwood) are strong aromatics, the AMPAROS in the context must mean ambergris not amber. The OS in AMPAROS is a Greek grammar declension suffix.ref (page 72). The Greek medicines writer Aetius of Amida lived in 6th century, but the handed-down and received version of his text is infiltrated by later additions of approx 11th century. The problem with the Aetius of Amida text is discussed The received text of Aetius of Amida has certain medicines words that are not found in Greek elsewhere until the 10th century. ''Ambar'' is one of the words of this class. These words are 10th-11th century additions to Aetius's medicines recipes.elsewhere on the current page at Note #26; the problem is that the Aetius text has multiple composition dates. Assuredly part of the additions around 11th century, the Aetius text has ἄμβαρ ambar, which the text does not define but it uses it medicinally alongside musk Aetius of Amida's medical encyclopedia is in 16 divisions called ''books''. Book 16 was published in Greek in year 1901, curated by Skevos Zervos. It has ἄμβαρ immediately beside μόσχος (moschos = musk) on pages 169, 170 & 171. Book 16 also has ἄμβαρ on pages 163 & 168. The ἄμβαρ is an ingredient in medicines recipes in all cases.(Ref), which implies it more likely means ambergris not amber. Furthermore the Aetius text uses the word ηλεκτρον elektron for amber Aetius of Amida's medical encyclopedia is in 16 divisions called ''books''. The first eight ''books'' were published in Greek in one physical volume in year 1534. ''Book 2'' is a dictionary of medicinal substances, and it has Ηλεκτρον Elektron on page 29 on lines 5 & 6. It says Ηλεκτρον is also called σούχινον, which is Latin suc[c]inum, the usual Latin name for amber. ηλεκτρο_ is also elsewhere in the encyclopedia.(Ref), which again implies the text's ambar means ambergris. More early records in medieval Greek are cited at ''Lexikon zur Byzantinischen Gräzität'' (LBG), Lexicon of Byzantine Greek, year 2014ἄμπαρ ampar | ἄμβαρ ambar @ LBG, year 2014, a lexicon of medieval Greek up to the end of the 13th century. Greek has three different securely-dated records for ampar | ambar in the 10th century. The LBG lexicon, linked above, assigns the meaning "amber" to these records. But LBG's interpretation "amber" in each one of those records is very insecure and is disputed, and a number of people, myself included, say the right interpretation in medieval Greek is always "ambergris" not "amber" –    details   Book of the Eparch, also known as Book of the Prefect, is a set of Byzantine trade regulations issued in the 10th century in Constantinople. It includes ἄμβαρ ambar in a list of exotic foreign imports and the English translation of the list is as follows: pepper, spikenard, cinnamon, aloeswood [aka agarwood], ἄμβαρ AMBAR, musk, frankincense, myrrh, balsam, indigo, lac [a red dye from India, was secondarily used as a lacquer], lapis lazuli, golden wood [suggested interpretation: yellow sandalwood, an aromatic wood from India]In Greek, ''Le Livre du préfet ou L'Edit de l'empereur Léon le Sage sur les corporations de Constantinople'', curated by Jules Nicole, year 1893 in journal ''Mémoires de l'Institut National Genevois'', volume XVIII. See page 41 line 18. Side-by-side is translation of Greek to modern Latin, but the translation has bad errors on some words. Much better translation is in German edition ''DAS EPARCHENBUCH'', year 1991.text in Greek. The Book of Ceremonies of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII (died 959) includes ἄμπαρ ampar in a list as follows. The Emperor's cabinets should include ointments, various incenses, fumigations, mastic, frankincense, sugar, saffron, musk, ἄμπαρ AMPAR, aloeswood wet and dry, true cinnamon of first and second grades, cassia cinnamon, and other aromaticsBook in Greek, ''Constantini Porphyrogeniti imperatoris : De cerimoniis aulae byzantinae'', curated by I.I. Reiske, year 1829, Volume 1 on page 468 on line 16.text in Greek. The Appendix to the "B Recension" of Hippiatrica is Greek with a composition date of mid 10th century (Book, ''The Sources, Compilation, and Transmission of the Hippiatrica'', by Anne McCabe, year 2007. Hippiatrica is a compilation with multiple composition dates and mainly it is far earlier than 10th century. The composition date of the appendix of the ''B Recension'' is put in the reign of Constantine VII (died 959).ref for date). It has a list that begins: ἄμβαρος AMBAROS, musk, aloeswood, cinnamon, cloves, spikenard, white pepper,...Book ''Corpus hippiatricorum Graecorum, Volume 1'', curated by Oder & Hoppe, year 1924 on page 446 line 17. Different versions of Hippiatrica exist, and the versions have different appendixes. The link is going to the appendix of the version called ''Hippiatrica Berolinensia'', called abbreviatedly ''B'' or ''B Recension''.text in Greek (page 446 line 17). And two pages later it has: aromatics... musk and aloeswood and ἄμβαρ AMBAR and cinnamon and cloves and pepper...Book ''Corpus hippiatricorum Graecorum, Volume 1'', curated by Oder & Hoppe, year 1924 on page 448 line 7text in Greek (page 448 line 7). In each of the above three books the ambar/ampar occurs immediately beside the word "musk", which implies its meaning is much more likely to be "ambergris" not "amber". And in each of the three books the ambar/ampar is also immediately beside aloeswood, an aromatic wood imported from the Indies. The primary feature of aloeswood is that it has a strong and pleasant smell. The earliest record in Greek where ambar/ampar's meaning is presented clearly and unmistakeably is in the book on foods and medicines by Symeon Seth (died c. 1110), where the meaning is "ambergris". About year 1300 in Greek a text includes the list: "musk, Greek book on foods and medicines by Symeon Seth (died c. 1110) defines Greek νίτ NÍT as a composition of three named strong aromatics (page 72 in year 1868 Langkavel edition). νίτ NÍT is scarce in Greek. The word is in medieval Arabic as الندّ AL-NADD with same definition. It is much more frequent in Arabic. Greek νίται NÍTAI is scarce and is translatable as the aromatics in NÍT and AL-NADD.Nítai aromatics and ἄμβαρα AMBARA, camphor and cassia-cinnamon" – Book in Greek with translation to English: ''Digenis Akritis: The Grottaferrata and Escorial Versions'', curated and translated by Elizabeth Jeffreys, year 1998. Relevant Greek is in Grottaferrata version of Digenis Akritis tales, and it says : μόσχοι, νίται καὶ ἄμβαρα, καμφοραὶ καὶ κασσίαι. The Grottaferrata manuscript is dated about 1300 as a physical manuscript.text in Greek. Which again is a list of odoriferous substances, implying the ambara is "ambergris". Another medieval Greek text from roughly the same timeframe has ἄμπαρ ampar grouped with the odoriferous substances musk, camphor, sandalwood, aloeswood, saffron, cloves & rosewater – A certain anonymously-authored Greek text carrying title ''Peri Trophon Dynameos'' has a date range from 11th to 14th century. It is in Greek in ''Anecdota Atheniensia'' Volume 2, year 1939, curated by Armand Delatte, with curator's intro on page 466-467, with ἄμπαρ on page 475 line 26. The linked electronic file has both Volume 1 and Volume 2 of ''Anecdota Atheniensia''.text in Greek – implying its ampar is "ambergris". One recent historian and translator of medieval Greek says (with emphasis added by me): "[Medieval] Greek ambar... always means ambergris" – Book, ''Tastes of Byzantium'' by Andrew Dalby, year 2010. The same book was published in year 2003 under title ''Flavours of Byzantium''. Ambergris is on page 41 and other pages. For the English ambergris on page 142, Andrew Dalby is translating medieval Greek ἄμπαρ published in Greek curated by Delatte year 1939 Volume 2 page 475 line 26.Ref: on page 41.. It is secure that Greek ampar | ambar was a foreign loanword in medieval Greek, because in the 10th century it is put in the lists of exotic foreign imports, and it is not documented until the 10th century, and there is no obvious parent-word in Greek, and the concurrent use of the two wordforms (ἄμπαρ | ἄμβαρ) is another sign of its foreignness.
    The earliest I know of where Latin ambra means "amber" is mid-13th century. Thomas de Cantimpré's Liber De Natura Rerum was completed in year 1244 and was written in northern France. It uses the longstanding Latin succinus for amber but it says succinus is also called lambraSearch for ''Lambra'' at website SOURCES DES ENCYCLOPÉDIES MÉDIÉVALES. The site has the ''Natura Rerum'' encyclopedia of Thomas de Cantimpré aka Thomas Cantimpratensis (died c. 1272). The site also has the ''Speculum Naturale'' encyclopedia of Vincent de Beauvais aka Vincentius Belvacensis (died 1264). The info about lambra in Cantimpré's ''Natura Rerum'' got copied into Beauvais's ''Speculum Naturale''.ref. In 1257 or 1258 at Marseille, "buttons of ambra" and household objects made of silver are given as collateral for a loan of money – Book in Latin : ''Documents Inédits sur le Commerce de Marseille au Moyen-âge'', Volume ONE, curated and annotated by Louis Blancard, year 1884 on page 214ref. That item means amber, not ambergris, as affirmed by the following four quotations from a little later in time. 1277 or 1278 at Marseille: "five gilded ambre buttons, value 90 denarius coins... twelve plain silver buttons, value 14 denarius coins" – Book in Latin : ''Documents Inédits sur le Commerce de Marseille au Moyen-âge'', Volume TWO, curated and annotated by Louis Blancard, year 1884 on page 410ref. 1278 at Venice: "gold metal threads (for ornamenting clothes) and silk and buttons of ambro.... gold rings and small-pear-shaped pieces of ambro" – Latin text ''Judicum Venetorum in causis piraticis contra Graecos decisiones'', year 1278, published on pages 159-281 in Volume 3 of ''Urkunden Zur Älteren Handels- und Staatsgeschichte Der Republik Venedig, Mit Besonderer Beziehung Auf Byzanz und Die Levante'', year 1857. Word ''ambro'' is on pages 255, 262, and 277.ref. Year 1300 at Venice: "one new overcoat garment of scarlata cloth with decorations of pearls and with 8 buttons of anbro" – ambra @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini''. Has quotation ''inprima varnaçon J novo de scarlato con frisadura de perle e con botoni VIIJ d'anbro''. The quotation is copied from page 29 of the book ''Testi veneziani del Duecento e dei primi del Trecento'', year 1965, curated by Stussi.ref. Latin by an author from Genoa in Cyprus year 1300: "gamera una de blavo claro cum botonis septem de ambray" = "one light-blue overcoat with seven buttons of amber" – Text in Latin : ''Actes passée à Famagouste de 1299 à 1301 par devant le notaire Génois Lamberto di Sambuceto'', curated by Desimoni, published in book ''Archives de l'Orient Latin, Tome II'', year 1884, ambray on page 102 on 6th line. NOTE: Lamberto di Sambuceto elsewhere has ''pomelli grossi quinque de ambra'', which is referencing ambergris (see English pomander) not amber.ref. In 1320 a well-known poem by poet Dante Alighieri has: "come in vetro, in ambra o in cristallo / raggio resplende sì" = "like in glass, in amber, or in crystal / a ray is resplendent". In the 1330s in Italian, Pegolotti's manual for international trading mentions the product ambra a dozen times and it clearly means "amber" sometimes (and sometimes it is not clear) – Book, ''La Pratica della Mercatura'', by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, dated around 1340, curated and annotated by Allan Evans year 1936. Search text for ''ambra''.ref.
    The great majority of medieval ambergris was sourced on the shores of the Indian Ocean. That includes the east coast of Africa (the Swahili coast), the west coast of India, and the Maldives islands. The coast of Iberia was also a source. Info about ambergris's medieval sources is in Al-Mas'udi (died 956) linked above, and ambre @ ''Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen-âge'', by W. Heyd, year 1886, Volume 2 pages 571-574ambre @ W. Heyd (year 1886 in French), and Book in English : ''Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India'', by Garcia da Orta, translated from Portuguese to English, year 1913 (year 1563 Portuguese), chapter on ''amber'', meaning ambergris, on pages 20-27. Garcia da Orta makes several statements about where ambergris was being sourced from in the 16th century.ambergris @ Garcia da Orta (died 1568). The Indian Ocean ambergris was brought to the Mediterranean region by Arab traders, who called it ʿanbar and that is the parent word of the medieval Latin & medieval Greek ambra | ambrum | ambar | ampar with the same meaning. The word never meant "amber" in medieval Arabic. Meanwhile in the medieval Mediterranean region, amber mostly came from the Baltic Sea region of northern Europe. One can imagine in the abstract that a word of the form ambra meaning amber could be brought to southern Europe by traders from the Baltic region. But no supporting evidence is found in the northern European languages for that. The records in Latin only show that the Latin word began with one meaning (ambergris) and later had two meanings (ambergris and amber). When the meaning is amber, where the word came from is undetermined and obscure. It could not have come from an Arabic source, because the medieval Arabic ʿanbar is unattested meaning amber.
    Possibly the word meaning "amber" came from the north shore of the Black Sea, because one of the medieval trade routes for Baltic amber was down the Dnieper River from Belarus to the Black Sea ("Defined at Wikipediatrade route from the Varangians to the Greeks"). Italian sea merchants started commercial colonies at Caffa and other places on the north shore of the Black Sea in the 13th century, which is when the word ambra meaning "amber" has its records starting in Italian-Latin. The lands on the Black Sea's north side at that time were predominantly populated by Turkic speakers (Cuman language). Unworked bulk amber was sold out of boxes and sacks at Constantinople in the 1330s, reported by Pegolotti, link above.
    Many English dictionaries have endorsed the speculative idea that somehow the European ambra meaning "amber" was derived from the European ambra meaning "ambergris". But this idea makes no sense semantically. And the proponents of it do not offer medieval documentation to support it. Rather, the medieval documentation shows that people did not regard the two products as being in the same category. The ancient and early-medieval Latins used amber and they named it suc(c)inum and electrum and glaesum. In any hypothetical scenario where the later-medieval Latins ignored those names and adopted the name ambra = "amber" as a derivative from their ambra = "ambergris", there would have to be a driver that drove them to do that. There is no trace of any such driver in medieval writers.
    Although the two products were not in the same category, when a writer uses the word ambra in Europe in and around the 14th century, it is not clear in numerous cases whether the intended meaning is "ambergris" or "amber". Each substance was grinded up and consumed as a medicine, occasionally. Amber was mostly for making ornaments. Ambergris was mostly for making perfumes, notably including perfumed medicines. The two incompatible meanings of ambra are presented in two sets of quotations from 13th-14th century Italian at ambra @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)ambra @ TLIO, and two sets from 14th-15th century French at ambre @ Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (1330-1500)ambre @ DMF, and two sets from 14th-15th century English at aumbre @ Middle English Dictionary (MED)ambre | aumbre @ MED, also late medieval English laumbre @ Middle English Dictionary (MED)laumbre | lambur (solely meaning amber) @ MED. Extra note about semantics: Medieval pomme d'ambre | pomo d'ambra | pomo de aumbre was a A pomander was a scent-emitting small basket, ball-shaped, ornamented, usually made from metal, with gaps on it for the scent to come out, and you put scent-emitting substances into the basket, and hang the basket in a room. Small pomanders were suspended on a chain hanging from the human waist. A pomander was regarded as a visual ornament as much as an odorant. The wordform pomander was late. The early wordform was pomme d'ambre, where ambre meant ambergris.pomander, which has nothing to do with amber.
    As far as I can see the European word meaning "amber" did not start in Iberia. But a Spanish minerals book dated 1250-1278 has alambre clearly meaning "amber" – At HispanicSeminary.org : Full text of ''Lapidario de Alfonso X'', dated 1250-1278. Text has ''alambre'' meaning amber. NOTE: This text has a number of mineral names that are isolated records, i.e. the names are not found elsewhere in Spanish during the two hundred years after the date of this text.ref. It is an isolated record. Medieval Spanish alambre | arambre normally meant "copper" and came from a rootword that seems unrelated to "amber". Medieval Spanish vocabulary is well done at CORDE @ Real Academia Españolasearch @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE). Spanish ambra = "ambergris" has numerous records in the 13th & 14th centuries at CORDE. But ambra | ambar | ambre = "amber" is absent in Spanish until the 15th century at CORDE. CORDE is not all-encompassing, but it encompasses a body of texts so big that the absent word must be very rare in Spanish until the 15th. Adding more confusion to the picture, Portuguese dictionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries said the Portuguese word for amber is alambreDictionary, ''Hieronymi Cardosi Lamacensis Dictionarium ex Lusitanico in latinum sermonem'', by Jerónimo Cardoso, year 1562 edition, downloadable as PDF file. Alambre is on PDF page 21 in the PDF file.ref,  ref Portuguese alambre = Latin succinum = Latin electrum (English "amber") is in Jerónimo Cardoso's Portuguese-to-Latin and Latin-to-Portuguese dictionary in editions printed in 1562 and 1694. Same is in Portuguese dictionary by Bento Pereira in edition years 1647 and 1697. Same is in Rafael Bluteau's Portuguese dictionary in year 1712 (on page 205 of Volume 1 of ten volumes). The dictionaries are downloadable at Biblioteca Digital de Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal..  
    In summary, ambra = "amber" is a difficult and unsolved problem and many people have jumped to ill-founded conclusions about it. Ambra = "ambergris" is a solved problem.
  26.  Relevant for the words AMBERGRIS, CAMPHOR, GALANGAL, SANDALWOOD, ZEDOARY Problems with Aetius of Amida

    Aetius of Amida was the producer of an encyclopedia of medicine, 700+ pages, in Greek. Its date is standardly put at early 6th century AD and thereabouts. The bulk of the Aetius of Amida encyclopedia looks genuinely about that date. As handed down and received and propagated, the Aetius text has certain medicines names that are not found elsewhere in Greek until the 10th century. These particular names were in widespread use in medieval Arabic medicine and the particular medicines are aromatics that came from across the Indian Ocean. As reported by the Greek lexicons search @ Liddell-Scott-Jones (LSJ) Lexicon of Ancient Greek, year 1925LSJ or search @ ''Lexikon zur Byzantinischen Gräzität'' (LBG) Lexicon of Byzantine Greek, year 2014LBG, the propagated Aetius text has the following five words and spellings: ἄμβαρ ambar = "ambergris", καφουρά kafoura = "camphor", γάλαγγα galanga = "galangal", Encyclopedia of Aetius of Amida is organized in 16 divisions, called ''books''. As of year 2016, the only edition of ''book XI'' that has ever been published in Greek is inside the volume ''Oeuvres de Rufus d'Ephese'', curated by Daremberg & Ruelle, year 1879, on pages 85–126 and pages 568–581. ζαδώρ is in a medicinal recipe on page 575 last paragraph, where ζαδώρ is beside γαλαγγά = galanga.ζαδώρ zador = "zedoary (an edible aromatic root from Indies)", σάνδανον sandanon = "interpretation: sandalwood". Each of those five words is in Greek in the Appendices to the Hippiatrica, which are medicines recipes reliably dated mid 10th century Book, ''The Sources, Compilation, and Transmission of the Hippiatrica'', by Anne McCabe, year 2007. The Hippiatrica was composed before the 10th century. Two copies of Hippiatrica are in two physical manuscripts dated 10th century. These two manuscripts are called ''Hippiatrica Berolinensia'' and ''Hippiatrica Cantabrigiensia''. The two have different appendices. Their appendices were composed in the 10th century.(ref for date) and in which the spellings are the same except sandalwood is spelled Book in Greek, ''Corpus hippiatricorum Graecorum'', curated by Oder & Hoppe (years 1924 & 1927), in Volume 2 on page 193 at lines 3 & 5. Volume 2 page 193 is part of the Appendix text of ''Hippiatrica Cantabrigiensia''.σανδαλον sandalon and zedoary is Book in Greek, ''Corpus hippiatricorum Graecorum'', curated by Oder & Hoppe (years 1924 & 1927), in Volume 1 on page 449 at line 17. Volume 1 page 449 is part of the Appendix text of ''Hippiatrica Berolinensia''. This appendix's ζαδώριον is immediately adjacent to ζιγγιβέρεως = ginger. Six lines earlier on same page is γαλαγγά = galanga.ζαδώριον zadorion. A minority of the five are also in other 10th century Greek sources (search @ ''Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität'' (LBG), year 2014LBG). Also, those five words have starting dates in the Latin language in the late 9th or the 10th century except that sandalwood starts late 11th century in Latin. In Greek, in the timeframe from Aetius in the 6th to Appendices to Hippiatrica in the 10th, there is a significant number of documents mentioning aromatic imports from the Indies, and the mentions are mainly in medicinal contexts. In other words, the surviving records for pepper, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, etc, are mainly in medicines contexts, and the quantity of the records in the timeframe is not too small to draw conclusions from, in Greek. The records in Latin can be added to the Greek to increase the quantity of records. To say it again repetitiously, we have a body of late-ancient and early-medieval medicines documents with lots of aromatics and they do not have the above five aromatics we see in Aetius. Aetius's encyclopedia has a big number of medicinal treatment recipes. Nearly every recipe calls for a multiplicity of ingredients and especially aromatic ingredients. The ingredients that were genuinely in use in 6th century medicine – including pepper, ginger and cinnamon – occur very repeatedly in the Aetius recipes, whereas the five anomalous words named above are only in a very small number of the recipes, and are in recipes only – Most of Aetius is freely online in Greek. Yet still it is not in machine-searchable Greek. All of Aetius was translated to Latin in 16th century, translator Janus Cornarius. Cornarius's Latin is online in OCR'd copy. It has OCR errors but is quite usable. Search it for counts of occurrences of PIPER, MYRRH, NARDI, ZING (for zingiber), CINAMOM, CAFIA (= casia), CAPHUR (camphor), FANDAL (sandal), AMBRA, GALANG, ZADOR.Ref. In Aetius's encyclopedia the first 100 pages (all of Bib-1 §1 and a subset of Bib-1 §2) is a dictionary of medicinal substances. This part of the encyclopedia gives the names and main medicinal attributes of the elementary medicines, handled individually. It does not have the five anomalous medicines named above. If the five had been genuinely in use in Aetius's time, then it would have been senseless to have omitted them in this part of the encyclopedia. The manuscript cataloging site Page headed ''Aetius Amidenus, Libri medicinales'' at website ''PINAKES: Textes et manuscrits grecs''PINAKES : Textes et manuscrits grecs gives a list of 177 Greek manuscripts that have a portion or all of the Aetius encyclopedia (this number includes manuscripts that have only fragments). In Pinakes's list, no manuscript of the Aetius text is dated before 11th century, excluding one small fragment dated 10th century, and what is dated 11th century is less than the complete encyclopedia. The manuscripts are at substantial variance and conflict with each other in the subsections of the encyclopedia that give medicinal treatment recipes. When historians look at the multiplicity of recipe variants across the different Aetius manuscripts, it is clear there is a multiplicity of composition dates, and the problem is, in general, there is no way to know the composition dates and no way to know what variants are older. An introduction and overview of the situation is "in journal ''Revue des Études Anciennes'', tome 86 pages 245-257Problèmes relatifs à l'édition des livres IV-XVI du Tétrabiblon d'Aétios d'Amida", by Antonio Garzya, year 1984, 12 pages. Aetius's recipes are the scene of serious damage from medieval enhancements and alterations; the problems are more than the five words named above. But on the other hand, Aetius's encyclopedia is fundamentally okay and tractable in the sections dealing with physiology and everything except the treatment recipes. It is practically impossible that the five words be in medicine treatments in Aetius genuinely in the 6th century and be undocumented before it and after it until the 10th century; and instead what is practically certain is that the five words are part of enhancement insertions done about 11th century. The five histories of the five words are handled individually in the book you are now reading. The five of them entered Greek from Arabic in the 10th century. Efforts at getting hold of a reasonably authentic Aetius text were the subject of research reports by various people during the 25 years 1987-2012 – The link has the Table of Contents of Conference Proceedings on the subject ''Trasmissione e ecdotica dei testi medici greci'', published in the years 1992, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2006, & 2010. Search the table of contents for eleven instances of AEZIO, which is the Italian wordform for Aetius. All of these Conference Proceedings were overseen and edited by Antonio Garzya and Jacques Jouanna.ref, Book, ''Per l’edizione del primo dei “Libri medicinales” di Aezio Amideno'', by Irene Calà, year 2012. Table of Contents is at end of book. It has :: Chapter 3: Manuscript tradition of Book One of Aetius of Amida's Medicinal Books. Chapter 4: Info for collating the codices of Book One of Aetius. Chapter 5: Further considerations for doing a Critical Edition of Book One of Aetius.ref, Book ''Medici Bizantini:...Aezio...'', curated by Roberto Romano, with Antonio Garzya, year 2006. Includes an edition of Aetius's 16th book, in ancient Greek, plus Italian translation. In this edition the curator surrounds the anomalous words with square brackets but keeps them on the page. Related curator's footnotes are numbered #384, #385 & #386 at foot of pages 536-537; also pages 546-547.ref.
  27. ^ aniline

    In medieval Arabic the word for indigo dye had the word-forms al-nīl and al-nīlaj. Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) freely intermixed both word-forms – الجامع لمفردات الأدوية والأغذية - ابن البيطارref (on page 866). The geography writer Al-Muqaddasi (died c. 995) said نيل nīl produces an azure blue color and is commerically cultivated as a plant in southwest Yemen Al-Muqaddasi's geography book in Arabic : Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, Volume III, year 1877, curated by M.J. de Goeje. On page 98 on line 9 Al-Muqaddasi says: ونيلها الذي لا نظير له كانه لازورد = ''and their indigo is unrivalled, it is like azure''.(ref) and in Palestine (Al-Muqaddasi's geography book in Arabic, curated by de Goeje, year 1877, on page 175 on line 1 has النيلref, Al-Muqaddasi's geography book in Arabic, curated by de Goeje, year 1877, on page 181 on line 10 has النيلref, Al-Muqaddasi's geography book in Arabic, curated by de Goeje, year 1877, on page 186 on line 10 has نيلref). Ibn al-Awwam (died c. 1200) said the al-nīl plant is used for dyeing clothes – In Arabic : Volume 2 of Book of Agriculture by Ibn al-Awwam, with translation to Spanish by JA Banqueri, year 1802. Search for word النيل. On page 307-308, Ibn al-Awwam says two types of plants are cultivated under the name النيل al-nīl, and Banqueri here translates this name as ''woad dye''.ref, In Arabic : Volume 1 of Book of Agriculture by Ibn al-Awwam, with translation to Spanish by JA Banqueri, year 1802. Page 88 has النيل والفوة ''al-nīl wal-fuwwa'', which Banqueri translates as ''el añil y la rubia'', which is English indigo and madder dye.ref. Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (died 1231) in his description of Egypt said "النيل al-nīl is abundant [in cultivation in Egypt] but inferior in quality to that of India" – Book in Arabic : عبد اللطيف البغدادي - الإفادة والاعتبار في الأمور المشاهدة والحوادث المعاينة بأرض مصر. Abd al-Latif Al-Baghdadi's book says : والنيل يكثر بها ولكنه دون الهندي. It is translated to French at the bottom of page 36 at archive.org/details/relationdelegypt00abda ref. The Indigofera plant genus has a number of species that are usable as indigo dyes. Among the medieval Indians in India, the indigo dye was from the species Indigofera Tinctoria. Among the medieval Arabs more than one Indigofera species was in cultivation – ref al-nīl in Ibn al-Awwam. The species Indigofera Argentea was the predominant commercial species of indigo grown in Egypt in the 19th century – Book, ''Letters from Egypt and Syria'', by William Arnold Bromfield, year 1856, on page 162 says : ''INDIGOFERA ARGENTEA is to this day universally used in Egypt for dyeing the common blue cloth of the country.''ref, Book, ''Text-book of Egyptian Agriculture, Volume 2'', edited by Foaden, year 1910, on page 513 says : ''The form of Indigofera grown in Egypt is the I. argentea.''ref. Indigofera Argentea grows unattended (no irrigation) in the hot arid climate in Sudan.
    More info can be gleaned from the book A book of historical geography. Written by Jenny Balfour-Paul. 270 pages.Indigo in the Arab World, year 1997.
    In late medieval Spanish the corresponding word is uncommon. It has late medieval Spanish records as anil (c. 1295), annil (after 1250+ ; 1482), annir (1250; 1300; 1501) – search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE) at Real Academia Españolaref, anil @ ''Vocabulario del comercio medieval'', by Miguel Gual Camarena (died 1974) and others. Online at University of Murcia, year 2014.ref. The word and wordform añil started to become common in Spanish in the 2nd half of the 16th century. In Portuguese in the early 16th century at least three commerce writers in India have anil | anill = "indigo dye". Supplementary history info for al-nīl or anil is in Article, ''Las plantas textiles y tintóreas en al-Andalus'', by Expiración García Sánchez, year 2001, 38 pages, explains on page 441 that the medieval Arabic term ''habb al-nīl'' is to be understood as utterly unrelated to indigo-type plantsref, indigo @ ''Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen-âge'', by W. Heyd, year 1886, Volume 2, on pages 626-629ref, anil + aniline @ ''New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'', year 1888ref, anilin @ ''Arabismen im Deutschen'' by Raja Tazi, year 1998, on pages 190-192ref, Article ''Growth and Decline of Indigo Production in Colonial Brazil'', by Dauril Alden, year 1965, 26 pages, includes an eleven-page review of worldwide sources of imports of indigo to Europe in post-medieval centuries. Altlink : jstor.org/stable/2116392 ref. The word "anilin" | "aniline" was created by a chemist in Germany in year 1840 and contains the chemical suffix -in | -ine.
  28. ^ apricot

    Arabic البرقوق al-barqūq means plum nowadays. The botanist Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) grew up in the Maghreb and later lived in Syria. He wrote that the word means apricot in the Maghreb and a species of plum in Syria – برقوق @ Ibn al-Baitar's book in Arabic : الجامع لمفردات الأدوية والأغذية - ابن البيطارref (on page 106). Ibn al-Awwam (died circa 1200) lived in the Maghreb and wrote a book on agriculture. His book has a section on how to propagate apricot trees, and he says al-barqūq means apricot – In Arabic : ''Kitāb al-Filāha'' by Ibn al-Awwam, with translation to Spanish by Banqueri, year 1802, in Volume One (of two volumes) on page 336ref. The Arabic dictionary of Fairuzabadi (died 1414) says al-burqūq is an apricot – Fairuzabadi's dictionary says : والبُرْقوقُ: إجَّاصٌ صِغارٌ، والمِشْمِشُ. Fairuzabadi's dictionary is titled القاموس المحيط and it is online at several websites.ref. Fairuzabadi lived in the eastern countries including Syria, but in the preface to his dictionary Fairuzabadi acknowledges that he has copied a lot from the dictionary of Ibn Sida (died 1066), who lived in the Maghreb.
  29. ^ arsenal

    Medieval Arabic دار صناعة dār ṣināʿa was a manufacturing operation of the ruler of the State, and could mean making weapons for the military, or constructing and equipping war-ships ''Dār al-Ṣināʿa'' is an encyclopedia article title in Brill's ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' 2nd Edition, year 1961 & 1965(ref). Al-Mas'udi (died 956) wrote: "Rhodes is currently a dār ṣināʿa where the Byzantine Greeks build their war-ships" – In Arabic with French translation : مروج الذهب للمسعودي Al-Mas'udi's Prairies D'Or, Chapter XXXIIAl-Mas'udi's 10th century Arabic. Ibn Batuta (died 1369) wrote that soon after Gibraltar had been retaken by Muslims from Christians in 1333 a " dār ṣinaʿa " was established at Gibraltar as a part of military strengthening there – In Arabic, plus translation into French : Ibn Batuta's ''Voyages'', in 1879 edition in volume IV page 356-357Ibn Batuta's 14th century Arabic. The historian Ibn Khaldoun (died 1406) quotes a recommendation of the caliph Abd al-Malik (died 705) to build at Tunis a " dār ṣināʿa " for the construction of everything necessary for the equipment and armament of seagoing vessels – ''Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe'', by R. Dozy and W.H. Engelmann, year 1869, on page 205Arsenal @ Engelmann & Dozy year 1869. In the following example the wordform is slightly different. The geographer Al-Ya'qubi (died 897-898) wrote: "A city in southern Lebanon. Also known as Tyre city. Descriptions of Ṣūr city are collected in English in the book ''A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers by Guy Le Strange.'' Year 1890.Ṣūr [in Lebanon] is a coastal city, and it has a دار الصناعة dār al-ṣināʿa, and from here go out the ships of the sultan for the war expeditions against the Byzantines, and it is greatly fortified." – Book in Arabic : البلدان ''Al-Buldān'' by بن واضح اليعقوبي Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi, curated by Juynboll year 1861. It has دار الصناعة on page ١١٥ = 115, at line 13.Al-Ya'qubi's 9th century Arabic. During most of the centuries of Arabic rule in southern Iberia, a naval shipyard was in operation at Algeciras harbour in southern Iberia. The naval shipyard at Algeciras is called a dār al-ṣināʿa or dār ṣināʿa in a history book by Abd Allah ibn Buluggin (died soon after 1090), and in a geography book by Al-Idrisi (died 1165), and in a history book by Ibn `Idhari (died after 1312) – Book in English translation, ''The Tibyān: Memoirs of ʻAbd Allāh B. Buluggīn, Last Zīrid Amīr of Granada'', كتاب التبيان للأمير عبد الله بن بلقين, by Abdallah ibn Buluggin, put in English by Amin Tibi, year 1986. Search for word NAVAL in text and translator's notes.ref, Book in Arabic : ''Description de l'Afrique et de l'Espagne par Edrīsī [aka Al-Idrisi, died 1165]'', edited by Dozy & de Goeje, year 1866. Al-Idrisi has دار صناعة on page ١٧٦ on line 13 in his description of الجزيرة الخضراء = Algeciras. It is translated to French on page 212.ref, Book in Arabic : ''Al-Bayān'' by Ibn `Idhārī كتاب البيان المغرب لابن عذاري المراكشي. Book has a handful of mentions of دار الصناعة (has also دار الصنعة and دار صنعه), and has a larger handful of mentions of الجزيرة الخضراء meaning Algeciras, and has also الخضراء meaning Algeciras. Book is in machine-searchable format at a number of websites.ref, Article, ''Las atarazanas musulmanas de Algeciras (siglos X-XIV)'', by Torremocha Silva, year 2011-2012 in journal ''Estudios sobre Patrimonio, Cultura y Ciencias Medievales''ref. Additional records in medieval Arabic texts are cited in Article, ''Les arsenaux musulmans de la Méditerranée et de l’océan Atlantique (VIIe-XVe siècle)'', by Christophe Picard, year 2004, in book ''Chemins d'outre-mer : Études d'histoire sur la Méditerranée médiévale'' by various authors.Ref.
  30. ^ arsenal

    The word arsenal has early records in European languages in the Latin wordform darsena meaning dockyard at Genoa in 1147, Pisa in 1162, and Sicily in 1209 – ref: tarsanatus @ ''Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia'', by Girolamo Caracausi, year 1983 on pages 375-378Caracausi, year 1983. With meaning dockyard, the port of Amalfi in southern Italy in the 12th century has Latin wordforms arsena and arsina, while the port of Venice has Latin arsana in 1206 and arsenatus in 1272 – same ref. With same meaning, wordform tarsanatus is at the port of Messina in Sicily in 1147, while the ports of Palermo & Messina in the 1280s & 1290s have the wordform tarsianatu in Latin documents – same ref. In continuation from the above Latin early wordforms, Italian documents in the 14th century have arsenà @ TLIOarsenà = "naval dockyard" and 14th century darsenà @ TLIOdarsenà | terzanà @ TLIOterzanà = "small dockyard" – ref: search @ TLIO, a lexicon of 13th & 14th century ItalianTesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini. In contrast to those wordforms, at the port of Pisa are Italian wordforms tersanaia (date 1313-1323), tersanaja (1343) (where Italian j is pronounced y), tersonaia (1375), terzinaia (later 14th century), meaning dockyard – terzanaia @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)TLIO , arsenal @ Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales (CNRTL.fr)CNRTL. Those 14th century wordforms at Pisa look independently influenced by direct contact with the Arabic dār sināʿa and in other words they do not look evolved out of the prior Italian-Latin tarsanatus | darsena | arsana. In 13th-15th centuries in Catalan and Catalan-Latin, with meaning dockyard, and naval dockyard, are wordforms daraçana (ç = z), daraçanale, darassana, darasanal, etc – Book, ''Memorias históricas sobre la marina, comercio y artes de la antigua ciudad de Barcelona'' Volume II primera parte, curated by Antonio de Capmany, year 1779, reissued 1962. Search for all words that begin DARA. Includes ''darassanali'' (year 1356), ''daraçanal'' (year 1378), ''daraçana''.ref , Book, ''Crónica'' by Ramon Muntaner, dated 1325-1328, has numerous instances of ''darasanal(s)'' meaning naval dockyard(s). Link is print year 1844.ref , drassana @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by AM Alcover & FB Moll, year 1962. Quotes ''daraçana'' in years 1341, 1360, 1378. Also quotes ''daraçanam'' year 1230.ref , Book about the port city of Valencia, ''Valence, Port Méditerranéen au XVe siècle: 1410-1525'', by Jacqueline Guiral-Hadziiossif, year 1986. Search for ''daraçana''.ref. Those Catalan wordforms display contact with an Arabic form having a definite article, i.e. Arabic dār as-sināʿa. Spanish had wordform taraçana in the 14th & 15th centuries, with same meaning as the Catalan and Italian word – search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Españolref. The year 1495 Spanish-to-Latin dictionary of Antonio de Nebrija uses a Spanish wordform ataraçana and translates it to Latin as Latin navale, which is English "dockyard for ships" – Latin-Spanish and Spanish-Latin dictionary of Antonio de Nebrija aka Antonius Nebrissensis, dated 1490s, and the link is edition year 1513. Has Spanish ''ataraçana'' = Latin ''navale''. Has also Latin ''navale'' = Spanish ''ataraçana delas naves''.ref. Ataraçana with its vowel before 't' and its vowel before 'ç' apparently reflects two Arabic definite articles. The Spanish wordform (a)taraçana is not found in Italian sources, and it is understood as influenced by Arabic semi-independently of the Italian sources, even though the Spanish is fundamentally from Italian. The point of mentioning all those wordform variants is that they help affirm that the 12th century Italian-Latin darsena | arsena had come from the Arabic dār sināʿa.
  31. ^ artichoke

    Three medieval Andalusian Arabic authors with khurshuf | kharshūf meaning "artichoke, cardoon" are cited in A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic, year 1997 on The dictionary uses the notation XRŠF and xuršuf for خرشف = khurshuf. The three Arabic authors cited for khurshuf are: (1) LZ = book Lahn al-'awamm by Abū Bakr az-Zubaydī (died 989), (2) IH = Ibn Hisham al-Lakhmi (died c. 1181), (3) IZ = Ibn Zamrak (died 1393). Dictionary compiled by Federico Corriente. Abbreviations are defined on pages xiii-xvii.page 153 -- the three authors are Abu Bakr al-Zubaydi (died 989), Ibn Hisham al-Lakhmi (died c. 1181), Ibn Zamrak (died 1393). An Andalusian Arab Ibn Baklarish (died early 12th century) spelled it kharshuf in his book Mustaʿīnī, as reported by Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe, by R. Dozy and W.H. Engelmann, year 1869, page 85-86Reinhart Dozy year 1869. Health benefits of eating الخرشوف al-kharshūf are mentioned in a book on foods and medicines by Ibn Khalṣūn, who lived 13th century in Maghreb. Ibn Khalṣūn's book is online at كتاب الأغذية – بن خلصون Kitab al-Aghdhiya – Ibn Khalsoun. Ibn Khalsoun's book is published in Arabic plus French translation by Suzanne Gigandet, year 1996 (translation titled ''Le livre des aliments''). His book has five sections. Link goes to Arabic text of fifth section. Search it for الخرشوف. French translation @ https://books.openedition.org/ifpo/5509 Ref. An Andalusian Arab Ibn al-Khatīb (died 1374) spelled it خُرشُف khurshuf and he talks about preparation ways for eating it, and he is quoted at Book, ''Los Arabismos del Castellano en la Baja Edad Media'', by Felipe Maíllo Salgado, year 1998 on page 219Ref. The above six Arabic authors, or at least the last three named above, really do not describe the plant nor the foodstuff. But the things that they do convey have nothing contradicting the meaning "artichoke, cardoon". All the known medieval Arabic authors who used this word were located in the Far Western part of the Arabic-speaking world. The rest of the Arabic-speaking world used other words, but one of the other words was حرشف harshaf = "artichoke, cardoon", which was obviously the parent of the Far Western kharshuf, as was noted by Reinhart Dozy year 1869 and artichaut @ Dictionnaire Étymologique Des Mots Français D'Origine Orientale, by L. Marcel Devic, year 1876Marcel Devic year 1876. Ḥarshaf was also in use in the Arabic Far West (Book in Arabic : ''Kitāb al-Filāḥa'' by Ibn al-Awwam (died c. 1200) in Arabic together with translation to Spanish by Josef Antonio Banqueri, year 1802. Volume Two has الحرشف on pages 303, 365, and 369. The same volume has also الخرشف on page 440.e.g.).
  32. ^ artichoke

    Spanish alcachofa | alcarchofa | carchofa = "artichoke, cardoon" starts in the first quarter of 15th century. Its earliest Spanish records are quoted in the book Los Arabismos del Castellano en la Baja Edad Media at Book ''Los Arabismos del Castellano en la Baja Edad Media'', by Felipe Maíllo Salgado, year 1998 page 218page 218 + Book ''Los Arabismos del Castellano en la Baja Edad Media'', by Felipe Maíllo Salgado, year 1998 page 219page 219; and numerous Spanish records of late 15th & early 16th century are at search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE)Ref. Catalan carxofa = "artichoke" has first record around 1490 – carxofa @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by Antoni Maria Alcover (died 1932) and Francesc de Borja Moll (died 1991). It quotes ''carxofes'' in the book ''Tirant lo Blanch'' which is dated 1490.ref, carxofa @ Diccionari.cat, online dictionary of today's Catalan, gives the year of earliest record in Catalan as 1490. The dictionary copies this year from other publications.ref. The earliest records in French include year 1535 artichault, 1542 carchiophe, and 1544 charchiophe, all meaning "artichoke" – ref: Book, ''Addenda au FEW XIX (Orientalia)'', by Raymond Arveiller, year 1999, on page 180Addenda au FEW XIX. Italian has artichioc(c)o in years Book, ''Il Gentil'huomo'', by Sebastiano Fausto da Longiano, published at Venice in 1544, mentions ''le castagne, ouero a lo artichiocco''1544, Andrea Calmo (died 1571) used the word ''artichiochi'' in letters he wrote in the late 1540s. His letters are in the book ''Le lettere di Messer Andrea Calmo'', curated by Vittorio Rossi, year 1888.1547, Book, ''Studien zum venezianischen Wortschatz des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts'', by Elke Sallach, year 1993, on pages 28-29. Quotes artichiochi in 1547, 1548 & 1552.1552, Book, ''Libro della natura et virtu delle cose che nutriscono'', by Bartolomeo Boldo, year 1576. ''Artichiocco'' on page 66.1576, and Italian has arcichiocco in years Book, ''Studien zum venezianischen Wortschatz des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts'', by Elke Sallach, year 1993, on pages 28-29. Quotes year 1568 arcichiocco.1568, carcioffo @ ''Volgare et Latino'', a dictionary by Filippo Venuti, year 1573 edition. On page 153 it says Italian carcioffo & Italian arcichiocho are the same as Latin ''Cinara'' [Greek ''Kinara'']. On page 68 it says ''ARCICHIOCCO leggi Carcioffo''.1573, and Italian has artichioffo in year carcioffo = artichioffo @ ''Dittionario volgare et latino'' by Filippo Venuti, year 1590 edition on page 1821590 and arcicioffo in year The Italian-to-English dictionary by John Florio in its year 1611 edition has : Italian arcicioffi = Italian arciciocchi = English artichockes1611, all meaning "artichoke". Further Italian wordforms are cited at artichiocco @ ''Origines Linguae Italicae'' by Ottavio Ferrari, year 1676. Mentions Italian-Latin and Italian variant wordforms ''articacti'', ''artscioccho'', ''artiochiocco'', and others.Ref. Botany authors in German in 1539 and 1543 have Cardchoffil meaning "artichoke" – ''Kreütter Buch'', by Hieronymus Bock, year 1539, year 1546. It has a chapter headed ''Von Welsch Distel'' in which it says : ''...hiess bei den Walen Cardchoffil.... die Walen sagen Cardchoffil''. In German writers, Welsch meant Southern Europe and Walen meant people of Southern Europe. Link is 1546 edition. 1539 edition is at :
    , Book in German : ''Das Kräuterbuch'' by Leonhart Fuchs, edition year 1543. The book's chapter titled ''Von Strobildorn'' is about artichoke. It mentions a number of names for artichoke. The book was published in Latin in 1542 and in German in 1543.ref. A Latin botany book in Germany in 1542 mentions a slew of "corrupt" names that some people "nowadays" have used for artichoke, one of which is the name ArticocaBook : ''De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes'', by Leonhart Fuchs, year 1542, having chapter on artichoke on pages 791-793. The book's main and non-corrupt names for artichoke are SCOLYMUS and CINARA. The ''corrupt'' names are Arcocum, Alcocalum, Cocali, Articocalus, Articoclus, Articols, Articoca.ref. Early records in English are cited in artichoke @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (''NED''), year 1888NED.
    The ancient Greeks & Latins ate artichokes, as discussed at Article downloadable as PDF, ''Plants and Progress'', by Michael Decker, in Journal of World History, Volume 20 Number 2, year 2009, artichoke on pages 201-203. Altlink : jstor.org/stable/40542757 Ref: on pages 201-203. The ancient Greek medical writer Galen (died c. 200 AD) wrote a book titled The Properties of Foodstuffs. In it, Galen says: The thorny plants are moderately good for the stomach. Among these plants are the golden and spindle thistles... and the over-valued artichoke [Greek: kinara].... It [the kinara] is unwholesome food, especially when already rather hard.... So it is preferable to boil it down and eat it in this way [i.e. boiled], adding coriander if one is taking it with oil and fish sauce, but without coriander if one prepares it in a pan or fries it. Many people also eat the heads [Greek: kefalàs], which they call ‘whorls’. The English translator adds that his English ‘whorls’ is translating Galen's Greek sphondyloi and he comments: sphondyloi are the circular weights that are used in spinning. These are the flower heads of the artichoke, which is the item we consume today. It is clear that what Galen has been referring to up to this point is the thistle-like artichoke plant.Book, ''Galen on the Properties of Foodstuffs'', translated and annotated by Owen Powell, year 2003. Page 104 translates section 50 of book II, and page 178 has a translator's footnote. Altlink @ https://z-lib.orgref: Galen in English translation , Text in Greek : ''De alimentorum facultatibus'' by Galen, curated by Helmreich, year 1923, in Volume 4.2 of series ''Corpus Medicorum Graecorum''. Relevant part is section 50 of book II, which is on pages 315-316 of the volume.Galen in ancient Greek. It is clear too that people in Galen's time were also consuming a part of the plant other than the heads. Namely, they were also consuming the stalks of the leaves (i.e. cardoons; at Wikipedia : a photograph of cardoon leaf-stalks boiled with garlicphotograph of boiled cardoons). You can see in other ancient texts that Galen's opinion that the artichoke is "over-valued" and "unwholesome" is not representative of the generality of ancient opinion. Further review and discussion of what is said about artichokes & cardoons in ancient Greek & ancient Latin texts is at Book, ''A History of Inventions, Discoveries, and Origins'', by Johann Beckmann (died 1811), translated from German to English, has a chapter on artichoke in Volume 1 on pages 212-221 of the English year 1846 editionRef: on pages 212-221.
    It is thought today, but more evidence is desirable, an improved artichoke cultivar arrived late in the medieval era, and was the impetus for the spread of the new name in Europe in the 15th and early 16th centuries.
  33. ^ assassin

    "Genesis of the word Assassin" is §610 of the book History of the Ismailis, by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin, year 1998. The book has the history of the Nizari Ismaili religious sect in the medieval Levant. This sect was pejoratively nicknamed the Ḥashīshīya by other Muslims in the 12th and 13th centuries. The book says: "The earliest reported application of the term Hashishiyya to the Ismailis occurs in the anti-Ismaili polemical epistle issued in 517 [Hijri] / 1123 [A.D.] by the then Fatimid regime in Cairo on behalf of the caliph." The book quotes five medieval Arabic texts using the nickname الحشيشية al-hashīshīya for the Nizari Ismaili sect. A dozen more such texts are available at Search for الحشيشية in the books at AlWaraq.net. Results include the history books by Abū Shāma al-Maqdisī (died c. 1268) and Al-Dhahabi (died 1348).AlWaraq.net. A history book by Abū Shāma al-Maqdisī (died 1267-1268; lived in Syria) has الحشيشية al-hashīshīya about two dozen times meaning Nizari Ismailis – Medieval text : أبو شامة المقدسي - الروضتين في أخبار الدولتين: النورية و الصلاحية. Its title translates as ''The two meadows on the events of the two governments: Nur al-Din's and Salah al-Din's''.ref, This link is for when the first link dies.altlink. The nickname hashīshīya | hashīshīn has been sometimes interpreted as implying that the medieval Nizari Ismailis consumed hashish, but this interpretation is without good evidence and it is very liable to be mistaken. The writings of the medieval Muslims (Sunnis, Shi'ites, Ismailis) do not say that the Nizaris used hashish drug or any other drug – Article, ''The Use of Bāṭinī, Fidā'ī and Ḥashīshī'', by Shakib Saleh, year 1995 in journal ''Studia Islamica''. Search for word Hashishiyya. Altlink @ https://www.jstor.org/ref. Evidence is very good that the 12th century Nizari Ismailis assassinated political opponents on many occasions.
    Referring to the same religious sect, the Crusader historian William of Tyre (died c. 1190) has it in Latin as AssissiniIn Latin : Search for words ASSISSINORUM (6 instances), ASSISSINIS, and ASSISSINOS in book ''Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum'', by William of Tyre. The book was completed in year 1184.ref. William of Tyre says "we do not know where the name is taken from" In Latin : Chapter ''Describitur Assissinorum secta'' in book ''Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum'', by William of Tyre(ref), which implies he knows the name is a nickname. Crusader historian Jacobus de Vitriaco (died 1240) has it in Latin as AssasiniBook in Latin : ''Orientalis, sive Hierosolymitanae'', by Iacobus de Vitriaco, aka Jacques de Vitry. ''Assasini'' is the spelling in edition year 1596 on page 40. Incidentally, a modern French translation of this book is at
    (Vitriaco's report about the sect has been Book, ''Secret Societies of the Middle Ages'', by Thomas Keightley, year 1837 on pages 117-119. Pages 117-119 is Latin-to-English translation of Vitriaco's description of the Assassins sect. Latin surname ''de Vitriaco'' is French surname ''de Vitry''.translated to English). Events chronicles compiled in England in Latin in the 1190s-1230s have Assassi and Assisinos referring to the same Levantine sect – assassini @ Du Cange. Cites the Latin chronicles compiled by Roger Hovenden (died c. 1202; lived in England).ref, assassin @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles quotes ASSISINOS in the Latin chronicles of Roger of Wendover (died 1236) and/or Matthew Parisref. Independently, a German diplomat visited Egypt in 1175 and he spelled it in Latin Heyssessini and this was copied into a chronicle in Latin by Arnold of Lübeck (died c. 1212) – Book, ''Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum'', by Arnold von Lübeck, completed in 1210, curated by I.M. Lappenberg year 1868, ''Heyssessini'' on page 274. Arnold von Lübeck's ''Heyssessini'' is quoting from a report by Burchard of Strassburg who in 1175 went on an official diplomatic mission to Egypt on behalf of king Frederick I Barbarossa. Some manuscripts of Arnold's chronicles have it spelled ''Heissesin''.ref. Referring to the same sect, the word is in at least a half dozen authors in the 13th century in the Italian language, most of them spelling it assessiniassassino @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)TLIO. The broadening or conversion of the word's meaning into any assassin or any murderer is seen in Italian from about 1300 onward; and 14th century Italian has assassino, assassinare, assassinato, assassinàtico, assassinatore, assassinerìa, assassinagione, as documented in Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO).
    Latin spelling and pronunciation did not use the sound /sh/ in any words. When medieval Latin and Italian borrowed words from outside the Latinate languages, the foreign sound /sh/ was converted to /s/ or to "sc". Here are some examples of that, gathered from elsewhere on this page, involving other Arabic loanwords in medieval Latin and Italian: Arabic مرقشيثا marqashīthā ➜ Latin marcasita ➜ English marcasite (a mineral); Arabic كشوت kushūt ➜ Latin cuscuta ➜ English cuscuta (a plant); Arabic أشنة ushna ➜ Latin usnea ➜ English usnea (a plant); Arabic شراب shirāb ➜ Latin sirop(us) ➜ English syrup; Arabic شاه shāh ➜ Latin scac(us) ➜ French eschac/eschec ➜ English check (in chess); Arabic خرشف kharshuf ➜ 16th century Italian carciofo = English "artichoke". Likewise, Arabic حشيشية Ḥashīshīya + حشيشين Ḥashīshīn had its sound /sh/ converted to /s/ in the medieval Latin and Italian Assissini | Assassini. Separately from that, the loss of the leading 'h' sound in going from Ḥashīshīn to Assissini is explained by the fact that any leading /h/ was usually not pronounced in Italian and French and Latin in medieval Italy and France. In Italian spelling, as well as in Italian pronunciation, words received with a leading /h/ usually have the h deleted. E.g.: classical Latin habitus ➜ Italian abito @ Etimo.itabito (English "habit"); classical Latin herba ➜ Italian erba @ Etimo.iterba (English "herb"); early medieval High German harpfe ➜ Italian arpa @ Etimo.itarpa (English "harp").
  34. ^ attar

    The word attar is not used in European languages other than English. One of its first records in English is in year 1788 in a writer located in Lucknow city in the Hindi/Urdu-speaking area of north India and this writer says: The Attar is obtained from the Roses by simple distillation and the rose flowers are grown specifically for purpose in fields in the Lucknow hinterland – Article ''Process of making Attar or Essential Oil of Roses'', by Lieutenant Colonel Polier [a resident of Lucknow], year 1788 in journal ''Asiatic Researches: Or, Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal, for Enquiry Into the History and Antiquities, the Arts and Sciences, and Literature of Asia'', Volume 1, on pages 332-335.ref. Also during the 1780s the word was in English as "otter of roses" in another report from India – Article, ''An Account of the Method of making the Otter of Roses, as it is prepared in the East Indies'', communicated in a letter from Donald Monro in year 1783, first published in year 1790 in journal ''Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh'', Volume 2 at Part 2 at pages 12-13.ref. In Urdu, عطر ʿatr | ʿitr = "perfume" – عطر @ Urdu-to-English Dictionary by John T Platts, year 1884, searchable at site ''Digital Dictionaries of South Asia''ref. Spelling in Hindi is इत्र ittr | itr | itra = "perfume" – Site DIGITAL DICTIONARIES OF SOUTH ASIA has dictionaries for many languages of India and adjacent countriesref. Among the English speakers in India in the 19th century it was Otto of Roses, or... Attar of Roses, an essential oil obtained in India from the petals of the flower, a manufacture of which the chief seat is at Ghazipur [Ghazipur city in Hindi/Urdu-speaking north India]otto @ ''A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words'', by Yule & Burnell, year 1903ref. Fanny Parks was a native of England who lived in India from 1822 to 1838 and was based at Allahabad city in the Hindi/Urdu-speaking area of north India for most of that time. She wrote about India: The Muhammadans, both male and female, are extremely fond of perfumes of every sort and description ; and the quantity of atr of roses, atr of jasmine, atr of khas-khās, etc., that the ladies in a zenāna put upon their garments is quite over powering.Book ''Wanderings of a Pilgrim in Search of the Picturesque, During Four-and-Twenty Years in the East; with Revelations of Life in the Zenana'', by Fanny Parks, year 1850, Volume 1 (of two volumes), on page 386.ref.
  35. ^ aubergine

    The book on agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam in late 12th century Arabic has a 3-page chapter on how to grow the aubergine. The book has dozens of mentions of the aubergine. Ibn al-Awwam's spelling is البادنجان al-bādinjān = "aubergine" – ref: In Arabic : Ibn al-Awwam's ''Kitāb al-Filāḥa'', in Volume Two of year 1802 edition, in which البادنجان is the subject of pages 245-251. Curated by JA Banqueri, with side-by-side translation to Spanish.Volume 2, In Arabic : Ibn al-Awwam's ''Kitāb al-Filāḥa'', Volume One of year 1802 edition, with translation to Spanish by JA Banqueri, where البادنجان is translated as berengena or berengenasVolume 1. The most common spelling in medieval Arabic is الباذنجان al-bādhinjān = "aubergine". The word is in loads of medieval Arabic writers – corpus of medieval Arabic textssearch @ AlWaraq.net. The plantnames dictionary by Abu Hanifa Al-Dinawari (died c. 895) has the comment that the name dhinjān came to Arabic from Persian – Downloadable, ''Abu Hanifah Al-Dinawari's Book of Plants: An Annotated English Translation of the Extant Alphabetical Portion'', by Catherine Alice Yff Breslin, year 1986, bādhinjān on page 94ref. Nobody disagrees with that comment today. It is widely believed that the Persian name came from India, as the plant itself did.
    For aubergine in European languages, an early example is Catalan alberginia in year 1383 at Book ''Regiment de la cosa publica'', by Francesc Eiximenis (died 1409), has ''alberginies'' within a list of fruits and vegetables. Downloadable as text-searchable PDF.Ref. The earliest in Catalan is in 1328, says albergínia @ Diccionari.cat, a dictionary of today's Catalan, which gets the date from dictionaries of historical CatalanDiccionari.cat. 15th century Spanish has instances of all of the spellings berengena | alberengena | verengena | alverengena | bereniena | berenjena | verenjena | verengenal, all meaning "aubergine", all in 15th century Spanish texts available at search @ HispanicSeminary.org and search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español. Despite plentiful instances in the 15th, the word is a rarity before the 15th in Spanish or Catalan.
    The change in the vowels in going from the Arabic الباذنجان al-bādhinjān to the Spanish (al)berengena is well understood: it is the Introduced on current page at Note 70medieval Arabic imala vowel shift. Medieval Arabic texts have also a lesser-used wordform باذنجانة dhinjāna البحث عن باذنجانة @ AlWaraq.net(Ref), which has a terminal vowel in correspondence with the terminal vowel in the Spanish word. However, the change from the sound /dh/ to the sound /r/ in going from the Arabic al-bādhinjān(a) to the Spanish (al)berengena is poorly understood and not understood. It is an irregular and abnormal phonetic change, which demands a second look over the correctness of the whole etymology. On second look, everything about the historical context and the semantics, and everything except one thing about phonetics, affirms the etymology is okay. (A somewhat similar irregularity is Spanish cola = "tail" from Latin coda | cauda = "tail").
    The aubergine was in provincial French two centuries ago under the name albergine''Dictionnaire De La Culture Des Arbres Et De L'Aménagement Des Forêts'', by J.A. Bosc and J.-J. Baudrillard, year 1821, on page 18, says French ''albergine'' is a synonym of French ''aubergine''ref, ''Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle'', by Bory de Saint-Vincent and others, Volume 1, year 1822, has a dictionary headword ''albergaine ou albergine'', for which it says: See ''aubergine''.ref. The French albergine had come from late medieval Catalan albergínia. In the French language, a phonetic shift from -al- to -au- is a common occurrence on condition that the L is not followed by a vowel. French words showing the shift from -al- to -au- that have later been transferred into English include auburn, faux, mauve, sauce, and chowder, as well as aubergine.
  36. ^ average

    In medieval Arabic, the word عور ʿawr meant "blind in one eye", and the word عوار ʿawār meant "any defect, or anything defective or damaged". The medieval Arabic dictionary definitions are under عور @ search @ ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.com and translation to English of what is in the medieval Arabic dictionaries is at E.W. Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon under rootword عور starting on page 2193, in Volume 5, year 1874. The eight volumes of Lane's Lexicon are downloadable in PDF format at the linked page. Lane's Lexicon is text-searchable at :
    عور @ Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon, pages 2193 & 2195
    . In the medieval Arabic texts, the wordforms search @ AlWaraq.net. In AlWaraq's search results, the book titles in the righthand column are clickable. Clicking on a book title will bring up the relevant text snippet(s) within the book. Subsequently the book's page numbers beside the snippets are clickable for bringing up a whole page.عواري ʿawārī and search @ AlWaraq.netعوار ʿawār or search @ AlWaraq.netعوارة ʿawāra are frequently used when referring to things that have ʿawār, i.e. damage. This can be seen in the searchable collection of medieval Arabic texts at AlWaraq.net and at other searchable collections online. Abstractly in Arabic a wordform ʿawārīa can be readily formed to refer to things that have ʿawār. But in practice the medieval Arabic dictionaries do not have the wordform عوارية ʿawārīa and none of the medieval Arabic texts at AlWaraq has the wordform ʿawārīa. Reinhart Dozy (year 1881) cites an instance of Arabic ʿawārīa meaning "merchandise damaged by seawater" but the date is post-medieval. The fact that Reinhart Dozy did not cite a medieval source is another good indication that a wordform ʿawārīa is rare and hard to find in medieval sources. To repeat, the corpuses of medieval texts show that ʿawār | ʿawārī | ʿawāra was a frequently used word in medieval Arabic meaning defective and damaged.
  37. ^ average

    At the port of Genoa in years 1200-1210, the word, as Latin avariis (ablative plural of avaria), is in numerous notarized commercial contracts where it is referring to physical damage on gold and silver coins. The main cause of coin damage was deliberate at Wikipedia : Coin clippingcoin clipping, i.e. a slender piece of the gold or silver has been cut off at the outer edge of the coin. Intentional damage on gold and silver coins was commonplace in the medieval era. As a result, precision weighing of the coins was commonplace, especially for gold coins. At Genoa in 1200-1210 avariis is in contracts where there is a promise of a future payment of a stated number of gold and silver coins, and the promise has the stipulation that the payment amount shall be "clear/clean/pure/neat/net and with just weight for all avariis", apparently meaning that damaged coins shall be acceptable but would be precisely weighed and would require top-ups to satisfy the value of the agreed number of perfect coins. One contract at Genoa dated 15 September 1200 says that 26 bezant gold coins promised shall be "mundos silicet ab omnibus avariis ad iustum pondus de Tripoli " which I translate as "clear, that is, from all physical damage to a just weight using the precision weighting procedure of Tripoli in Crusader-controlled Levant". It is the case that most of these contracts at Genoa involve sea-commerce with explicitly-named Arabic-speaking places and involve Arabic coins – Book in Latin, ''Guglielmo da Sori: Genova - Sori e dintorni (1191, 1195, 1200-1202)'', Volume 1 (of two volumes), curated by Oreste et al, year 2015. Avariis on page 298: ''b(isantios) XXVI Sulie mundos et iusti ponderis, quos promitto dare..., mundos s[c]ilicet ab omnibus avariis ad iustum pondus de Tripoli''.ref, Book in Latin, ''Guglielmo da Sori: Genova - Sori e dintorni (1191, 1195, 1200-1202)'', Volume 2 (of two volumes), curated by Oreste et al, year 2015. On page 705: ''bisantiorum CCXXXI Sulie mundorum et iusti ponderis ab omnibus avariis mundorum et ab omni datica''ref, Book in Latin, ''Notai Liguri del sec. XII e del XIII: Lanfranco (1202-1226)'' Volume 1, curated by Krueger & Reynolds, year 1951. The volume has many instances of AVARIIS.ref, Book in Latin, ''Notai Liguri del sec. XII e del XIII: Lanfranco (1202-1226)'' Volume 2, year 1951. Search for AVARIIS.ref; (Website ''Notariorum Itinera : Centro Studi Interateneo''. On linked page, search for the title ''Lanfranco (1202-1226), tomo'' and download volumes 1 & 2. On same page, search for the title ''Guglielmo da Sori. Genova-Sori e dintorni (1191, 1195, 1200-1202)'' and download volumes 1 & 2. The volumes by Guglielmo da Sori are also accessible via https://NotariorumItinera.eu/CollanaItinera.aspx alternative links). The contracts at Genoa in years 1200-1202 have coins named bisantios Sulie, where Sulie = Surie = Syria = Levant. The bisantios Sulie were either the gold coins issued by the Christian Crusader government in Levant or else the gold coins issued by the Islamic government in Levant.  ¶ The commerce vocabulary at seaport of Marseille in the 13th century was under the influence of the bigger seaport at Genoa. At Marseille during the first half of 13th century, avariis is in numerous notarized commercial contracts and loan agreements where it is referring to physical damage on gold and silver coins. In the Marseille contracts, the coins are, or will be, transferred to another person. As part of the notarization in some cases, it is stated that the coins are "justly weighted... and free from all avariis excepting known exceptions left unitemized" – Volume 1 page 84 in Blancard's ''Documents Inédits sur le Commerce de Marseille au Moyen-âge'', year 1884e.g. Latin in year 1235: "bizanciis auri sarracenatis Alexandrie [i.e. Egyptian gold coins], rectis et justi ponderis, mundis... omnibus avariis, renuncians in his expressim atque scienter exceptioni non numerate pecunie." About half of the Marseille contracts involve sea-commerce trips from Marseille to named Arabic-speaking places and involve the gold coins that the contracts call bisanti | bisanci, which in general were coins issued by Arabic governments. Coins under that name conceivably could have been issued by the Byzantine government, but in context it is a practical certainty they were not Byzantine-issued, and the contracts in many cases explicitly say the coins are "Saracen bezants". The early-13th-century Marseille commercial contracts are in Latin at ''Documents Inédits sur le Commerce de Marseille au Moyen-âge'', Volume 1 (of two volumes), curated by Louis Blancard, year 1884Ref.  ¶ The following is in Latin written at the seaport of Savona near Genoa in northwest Italy in 1203 or 1204. It refers to the seaport Buzea/Buzee = Bugia = بجاية Bejaia in Algeria: "At Bugia there were expenses [Latin exspendit] for food and drink and all things for the ship's crew of 42 bezants [local Arabic gold coins] and 9 miliarenses [local Arabic silver coins].... At Bugia there were expenses for the ship's sails and the ship's rudder and all avariis of the said ship, which came into being at any and all locations, amounting to 11 bezants." – Book in Latin, ''Il cartulario del notaio Martino: Savona (1203-1206)'', curated by Dino Puncuh, year 1974. Avariis is on pages 186-187, 189-190 and 335. If the link gives you ERROR 401: AUTHORIZATION DENIED, then reloading the link by clicking the brower's refresh button may immediately fix the problem.ref (page 186-187), This link is for when other link does not work. On the linked page, search for book title ''Il cartulario del notaio Martino''.alt-link, Search for book title ''Il cartulario del notaio Martino'' and then download the book.2nd alt-link. The same author in Latin a few pages later has a ship at the seaport Septa = سبتة Sebta = Ceuta in Morocco, where "there were expenses for the food storehouse of the ship and for local servants of the ship and for avariis of the ship" (page 190). Those usages of avariis carry the meaning of wear-and-tear damage to the ship, as I read them. The same author at Savona about a year later writes of a deputy ship-captain who "paid 13 solidos coins of Barcelona, happening in that part of the world,... in avariis rerum recuperatarum" (page 335), which I think is translatable as "for recuperating things from damage", more literally "for damages of recuperated things", and also it can be translated as "for expenses of recuperated things", and in the context it is implicit that the damage and recuperation was to the ship.  ¶ The word's very earliest records in Latin that I know of (excluding one certain case whose date is questionable) are in four notarized contracts written at Genoa in 1190. One of these contracts created a partnership to finance a sea-merchant to visit Syria to buy and sell. The contract says: "Nullum dispendium debeo facere super hanc societatem, nisi in avariis eiusdem" = "No expense is to be made owing upon this partnership, except for avariis." In that sentence avariis is a specific kind of expense. A closely similar sentence is in three other partnership contracts written by the same contract writer in year 1190 – Book in Latin, ''Oberto Scriba de Mercato (1190)'', curated by Chiaudano et al, year 1938. Avariis on pages 159, 176, 209 and 263. The book is part of the series ''Notai Liguri'' at :
    . He does not define avariis. As I read him, the intended meaning is exclusively physical damage expense; i.e. the financing partners bear the risks of unexpected damage and they owe the operating partner reimbursement in the event of damage expenses.  ¶ A different kind of example in year 1214At Savona in 1214, William and Bernard declare in writing that they have received in safekeeping from Raymond ten sacks of steel. They declare it is Raymond's intent that the steel be given to Girard. They promise to give the steel to Girard. Then William and Bernard declare: "si quid expenderimus pro ipso açario in avariis debet nobis dare dictus Girardus" = "if we would have to pay out anything for this steel in avariis we must give to the said Girard" – Book in Latin, ''Il cartolare di ‘Uberto’: Volume I [of two volumes] : Atti del notaio Giovanni, Savona (1213-1214)'', curated by Antonella Rovere, year 2013, on page 483. Altlink @ https://notariorumitinera.eu/ Ref. Which I read as saying that if the steel is damaged or lost during safekeeping then the keepers must pay compensation to Girard..
  38. ^ average

    The Arabic origin of Italian avaria was first reported by Reinhart Dozy in the 19th century. His summary is in his 1869 book avaria @ ''Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe'', by R. Dozy and W.H. Engelmann, year 1869.Glossaire. The seaport of Genoa is the location of the word's earliest records in Latin, late 12th century. More than a hundred instances of medieval Latin avariis | avarias at Genoa are in documents published at the website StoriaPatriaGenova.it – At StoriaPatriaGenova.it : Collection of books of notarized commercial contracts by Genoese notaries, written in Latin in 12th-14th centuries, published during the 20th centuryref-1, At StoriaPatriaGenova.it : More books of notarized commercial contracts by Genoese notaries, written in Latin in 13th-14th centuries, published during the 21st centuryref-2, Google search for Latin word AVARIIS at StoriaPatriaGenova.itref-3. The Latin lexicon ''Ligure'' means Liguria province in Italy. ''Vocabolario Ligure'' is downloadable as several PDF files. The relevant PDF is ''(Latino), pp. 1-250 – A/C''.Vocabolario Ligure by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, has a collection of medieval Latin examples from Genoa on pages 115-116. You can see in Aprosio's collection that the word's meaning had a multiplicity of facets. In many contexts it is hard to see what facet of the meaning was intended by the medieval writer. In Catalan and Catalan-Latin in and around 14th century, averies | aueries meant expenses of damage to ship or cargo at sea or some other expenses of a merchant sea venture – examples at avaria @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by Alcover & Moll, year 1962ref, Book ''Memorias históricas sobre la marina, comercio y artes de la antigua ciudad de Barcelona'' Volume II primera parte, curated by Antonio de Capmany, year 1779, reissued year 1962. Search for AVERIES and AVERIIS and AVARIIS having dates in years 1258, 1314, 1323, 1353.ref, Book, ''Historia del derecho en Cataluña, Mallorca y Valencia'', Volume III [of four volumes], curated by Bienvenido Oliver, year 1879. Page 296 has Bienvenido Oliver's 19th-century report concerning the medieval meaning of Catalan AUERIES | AVERIES. Page 638 has medieval AUERIES. Word AUERIES is also in Volume IV.ref. Summary info about early records in French is at Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicalesavarie @ CNRTL.fr. The synonymous Netherlands avarye | avarie | avarij | averij | haverij has its first record in the mid 16th century; examples from Netherlands in the 16th-18th centuries are at ''Instituut voor Nederlandse Lexicologie (INL): Historische woordenboeken'', year 2007. It republishes averij @ ''Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal'' (WNT), year 1894, plus 20th century supplements. At linked page, checkmark the box labelled ''citaten'' at top of page, and click the symbols on lefthand side of page.averij @ WNT @ INL. For the English word, see firstly the definition of "average" in the English dictionaries published in the early 18th century, i.e., in the time period just before the huge transformation of the meaning in English: Edward Phillips' English dictionary was expanded by John Kersey in year 1706Kersey-Phillips' dictionary year 1706 , Thomas Blount's English dictionary was first published in year 1656. The year 1707 edition is reworked and different from the early Blount's editions.Blount's dictionary 1707 , ''A Merchant or Trader's dictionary'' is one chapter in the book ''Trades Man's Treasury'', by Edward Hatton, reprinted year 1712, first published in the 1690sHatton's dictionary 1712 , average @ Bailey's English Dictionary, year 1726 edition. First edition was in 1721. It is partially copied from Kersey-Phillips dictionary year 1706.Bailey's dictionary 1726 , average @ ''Cyclopaedia: Or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'', Volume 1, by Ephraim Chambers (died 1740), edition year 1741E. Chambers' Cyclopaedia dictionary 1741. Ephraim Chambers' encyclopaedic dictionary in 1741 says English "average" means: The unforeseen damage to a ship or to merchant goods loaded in the ship, and also the expense of this damage, and furthermore average is more particularly used for the quota or proportion which each merchant or proprietor in the ship or loading is adjudged, upon a reasonable estimation, to contribute to a common average [where AVERAGE means DAMAGE EXPENSE]. Such sum shall be divided among the several claimers by way of average [i.e. damage expense] in proportion to their respective interests and demands. Some complexities surrounding the English word's history are discussed in Book, ''Contested etymologies in the dictionary of the Rev. W. W. Skeat'', by Hensleigh Wedgwood, year 1882Hensleigh Wedgwood year 1882 page 11 , ''An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language'', by Walter W. Skeat, Errata and Addenda at the end of the book, year 1888 editionWalter Skeat year 1888 page 781 , ''A Handbook of AVERAGE, for the use of merchants, agents, ship-owners, masters, and others. With a chapter on Arbitration'', by Manley Hopkins, 1859. Hopkins worked in the marine transport insurance industry. He gives very detailed legal info about the word's meaning in mid 19th century marine law contracts.Manley Hopkins year 1859 page 1 and average @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (''NED''), year 1888NED, year 1888.
    Today there is consensus that today's English "average" descends from the medieval Italian-Latin avaria. There is also consensus that the following four points about the origin of Italian-Latin avaria are correct: (#1) among the Latins the word avaria started in the 12th century and it started as a word of Mediterranean sea-commerce and its early records are in Italian seaport locales writing in Latin, especially at Genoa; and (#2) there is no rootword for avaria to be found in Latin; and (#3) a number of Arabic words entered Italian-Latin and Italian in the late 12th and the 13th century starting as terms of Mediterranean sea-commerce (see elsewhere on this page the word histories for caravan, carat, garble, jar, magazine, tare, and 14th century tariff); and (#4) the medieval Arabic عوار ʿawār | عواري ʿawārī – for which Note 36 above links to a large set of medieval Arabic records – is phonetically a good match for Italian-Latin avaria because conversion of Arabic و w to Italian-Latin 'v' was regular ﴾ details ﴿You can see the conversion happening elsewhere on the current page in the four medieval Italian-Latin words caravana, carvi, Vega, and dovana is an obsolete wordform, but it is discussed elsewhere on the current pagedovana. The current page gives the medieval Arabic parent-word for each those four words. The Arabic parent-word has the Arabic letter و w. The current page has history for those words taken individually. It has references to Italian-Latin documents containing the words in the 13th century. Moreover, medieval Italian did not use the sound /w/ in any words. and Italian suffix -ia @ Treccani.it Vocabolario on line-ia was a suffix in medieval Italian-Latin & Italian (accented Italian suffix -ìa @ Treccani.it Vocabolario on line-ìa in today's Italian). Most commentators agree about a fifth point: (#5) The medieval Arabic عوار ʿawār | عواري ʿawārī = "damage | relating to damage" (Note 36 above) is semantically a good match for the Italian-Latin avaria = "damage or damage expenses". Some commentators have been dubious about #5 for the reason that early records of avaria have, in some cases, a meaning of "an expense" in a broad and general sense – ref ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, ''avaria'' on pages 115-116 (pages 25-48 have the definitions of the abbreviations of the document sources)Aprosio (Italian-Latin) and avaria @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)TLIO (in Italian). My Note 37 above has a set of the word's earliest records in Latin, with attention to the meaning. My view and the view of numerous other people is that the meaning "an expense" was an expansion from "damage and damage expense", and the chronological order of the meanings supports this view, and the broad meaning "an expense" was not the most commonly used meaning. On the basis of the above points, the inferential step is made that the Latinate word came from the Arabic word.
  39. ^ azimuth

    In medieval Arabic astronomy the usual word for a direction or an azimuth was السمت al-samt and the grammatical plural of this was al-sumūt. Normally the medieval Arabic texts on astronomy use the word in the grammatical singular. The astronomy book of Al-Battani (died 929) has سمت samt 189 times in the singular and only once in the plural – In PDF format : البتاني - الزيج , aka كتاب زيج الصابئ , Al-Battānī's ''Kitāb Al-Zīj''.ref, زيج الصابئ -- البتانيalt-link. The Book of Optics of Ibn al-Haytham (died 1040) is not an astronomy book but it is notable for having about 90 instances of the plural سموت sumūt = "directions" – ابن الهيثم - كتاب المناظر. Text searchable. In case the link dies, this book is available at other websites, including http://www.islamicbook.ws/amma/almnadhr.pdf ref. The astronomer Maslama al-Majriti (died 1007) divides the circle of the horizon into divisions that he calls السموت al-sumūtMaslama al-Majrīṭī says : هذا فتكون قد قسمت دائرة الافق على السموت . He says it in his notes on Ptolemy's ''Planisphaerium'' as published in Arabic under title ''Las obras matemáticas de Maslama de Madrid'', year 1965, and republished online.ref. With same meaning, السموت al-sumūt is in the astronomer Ibn al-Saffar (died 1035; was a student of Maslama al-Majriti) (Ibn al-Saffar more often uses the singular al-samt) – Ibn al-Saffar's tutorial on working with the Astrolabe is in Arabic in journal ''Revista del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid'' Volume 3, year 1955, curated by Millás Vallicrosa. In linked PDF file, the Arabic text is on print pages ٤٧ to ٧٦ which is PDF pages 158 to 187. Word السموت is on page ٦٥ line 7 and on page ٦٩ line 12.ref (pages ٦٥ and ٦٩). Al-sumūt was always pronounced AS-SUMŪT in Arabic This point about pronunciation was introduced in Note #5 on the current page(ref). AS-SUMŪT was the source of the medieval Latin azimut | azimuth. Numerous Arabic astronomy texts were translated to Latin in the 12th and early 13th centuries – Article, ''Greek–Arabic–Latin: The Transmission of Mathematical Texts in the Middle Ages'', by Richard Lorch, year 2001. This article covers astronomy texts as well as mathematics texts. On pages 317-318 it has a summary tabulation of the math and astronomy texts that were translated Arabic-to-Latin medievally. On pages 322-325 it has greater details.ref. Most of the translations do not use the word azimuth in Latin. The ones that do are talking about Astrolabes. Surviving in Latin from the 11th and 12th centuries are a handful of Arabic-to-Latin translations on making and using Astrolabes – These handful of texts are named in editor's intro to the short Latin text ''The Treatise on the Astrolabe by Rudolf of Bruges'', intro by Richard Lorch, year 1999, on pages 55-56. The text of Rudolf of Bruges itself has ''azimuth'' in Latin (pages 72 and 73 at link) and it has been dated mid 12th century. Published in ''Essays in the History of Science and Philosophy Presented to John D. North'', year 1999.ref. But azimuth is not found in the 11th century Astrolabe texts in Latin. It starts in Latin in Astrolabe texts dated mid 12th century (years 1133-1153). It is likely that the only fountainheads of the word azimuth in Latin are one or two Arabic-to-Latin translations done in the mid 12th century. One of these is a 25-page tutorial on working with the Astrolabe written by Ibn al-Saffar in the Latin translation done by Johannes – it is in medieval Latin at Book ''Las traducciones orientales en los manuscritos de la Biblioteca Catedral de Toledo'', by José Millás Vallicrosa, year 1942. Relevant Latin text is Appendix I on pages 261-284, having AZIMUT page 271, ATZUMUT page 275, AZUMUT 276, AZIMUT + ASZIMUT 279. At linked html page, entire book is downloadable as PDF by clicking ''Descargar grupo''.Ref (pages 261-284) and in medieval Arabic at Ibn al-Saffar's كتاب العمل بالاسطرلاب is in Arabic in journal ''Revista del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid'' Volume 3, year 1955, curated by Millás Vallicrosa. In linked PDF file, the Arabic text is on print pages ٤٧ to ٧٦ which is PDF pages 158 to 187.Ref (pages ٤٧ to ٧٦). The early history of Arabic loanwords in Latin in the domain of Astrolabes, including the word azimuth, is given an indepth treatment in a 100-page article by Paul Kunitzsch, "Glossar der arabischen Fachausdrücke in der mittelalterlichen europäischen Astrolabliteratur", year 1982/1983, not available online in 2015. Available online in English from the same author is an introductory overview of the historical context – Article, ''Translations from Arabic Astronomy/Astrology: The Formation of [medieval latin] Terminology'', by Paul Kunitzsch, in journal ''Archivum Latinitatis Medii Aevi'', volume 63, year 2005, 8 pagesref.
  40. ^   Empty note #40 keeps stable the numbering of the other notes.
  41. ^   Empty note #41 keeps stable the numbering of the other notes.
  42. ^ benzoin

    Jāwā refers to the island Java in today's Arabic. But it referred to the adjacent island Sumatra in the medieval travel writer Ibn Batuta (died 1369), who wrote: "The island al-Jāwa gives its name to the incense al-jāwīyī." Ibn Batuta wrote اللبان الجاويي al-lubān al-jāwīyī, where لبان lubān = "frankincense". Elsewhere he wrote "perfumes... such as agarwood, ambergris and al-jāwīyī." – In Arabic plus translation to French : Ibn Batuta's ''Voyages'', in volume IV on page 228, published in 1853-1858ref-1, In Arabic plus translation to French : Ibn Batuta's ''Voyages'', in volume III on page 234, published in 1853-1858ref-2, benjoim @ ''Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe'', by R. Dozy and W.H. Engelmann, year 1869alt-ref.
    The explanation for how the Arabic lubān jāwīyī or lubān jāwī got mutated to the English "benzoin" is as follows and it involves four different causative factors. The word is in Catalan in the mid-15th century spelled benguy and benjuí and benjuhí benjuí @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by Alcover & Moll, year 1962. Cites the word in three 15th-century Catalan books (namely: ''Llibre de conexenses de spicies'', ''Spill o Libre de les dones'' and ''Tirant lo Blanch'').(ref), and in Catalan the definite article was lo. The word is in French in 1479 spelled benjuyn benjoin @ Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales(ref), and in French the definite article was la | le. In French the letter j is pronounced not far from the neighborhood of zh (as in "soup du zhour") and that is similar to the Arabic letter ج j. But in Latin and Italian, the letter j is pronounced as y (as in "Yuventus"). Therefore writing z instead of j would be somewhat more phonetic in Italian. Benzoin is in Italian at Venice in 1461 spelled benzoi (''Rerum Italicarum scriptores'' Volume 22 column 1170 year 1733, curated by Muratori, publishes an epistle dated 1461, in which around 30 kilograms of BENZOI is a gift sent by the government leader of Egypt to the government leader of Veniceref, benzoin @ ''A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive'', by Yule & Burnell, year 1903, on page 87alt-ref). Phonetically similarly in Italian in 1510 an Italian traveller in the Arabian peninsula wrote "Zida" for Jeddah city English translator's footnote #3 on page 7 in book : ''The Travels of Ludovico di Varthema in Egypt, Syria, Arabia Deserta, Arabia Felix, Persia, India and Ethiopia, AD 1503 to 1508'', translated to English from the original Italian edition of 1510, published 1863(ref). Similarly around the same time in Italian, Venice dialect Book in Latin : ''Traités de paix et de commerce et documents divers concernant les relations des chrétiens avec les Arabes de l'Afrique septentrionale au moyen age'', curated by De Mas Latrie, year 1866. Has zara, zaram, zare, zaris, zarris, zarram, all meaning jar, all in Venice authors in 14th & 15th centuries. The linked copy's text is machine searchable.zara | zarra @ John Florio's Italian-to-English dictionary year 1598zarra = widespread Italian giara @ John Florio's Italian-to-English dictionary year 1598giara | giarra @ TLIOgiarra = Arabic jarra = English "jar". Venice Italian ''Dizionario del dialetto veneziano'', by Giuseppe Boerio, year 1867 editionzardìn = widepread Italian giardino = French jardin = English "garden". Florence Italian had benzoin in the wordforms bengiui | bengioi | bengioino in the 16th century ( ref )Wordform ''bengiuì'' is in year 1550 ''Ricettario... de Medici... di Firenze'' (aka ''Ricettario Fiorentino''). Wordform ''bengioi'' is in year 1564/1566 ''Compendio dei Secreti'' by Leonardo Fioravanti. The Italian dictionary by John Florio in year 1611 has the two wordforms ''bengiuì'' and ''bengioíno''. The three books just named are at Books.Google.com.. In the Italian of Venice, 'z' was most often pronounced near the 'zh' in "soup du zhour", and this differs from the widespread Italian 'z'. Another phonetic aspect in going from Arabic lubān jāwī to European benjuí | benzoi | bengiui is the apparent change in the vowel going from Arabic bān to European ben. In medieval Arabic, the spelled lubān was generally pronounced LUBEN and they call that behavior Current page at Note 70 gives an intro to imalathe medieval Arabic imala vowel shift. Another phonetic aspect is the appended letter 'n' in French benjoin and Italian benzoino. This 'n' is a Latinate suffix descended from classical Latin Definition at Wikipedia's wiktionary : -inus, a suffix in Latin-inus. Parallelwise: medieval Italian verzi @ TLIOverzi –> medieval Italian verzino @ TLIOverzino; medieval Italian arancio @ TLIOaranci –> medieval Italian arancino @ TLIOarancino; medieval Italian cremisi @ TLIOcremisi –> medieval Italian cremisino @ TLIOcremisino; medieval Italian celeste @ TLIOcilestra –> medieval Italian celestino @ TLIOcilestrina.
    The principal Indonesian tree that produces the benzoin resin is called the Styrax benzoin tree in today's English botany books. It is related to a native Eastern Mediterranean tree, the Styrax officinalis, which has a somewhat similar aromatic resin, which was in use in the Mediterranean region in antiquity and medievally. The Mediterranean Styrax resin was called in medieval Arabic لبنى lubnā, ميعة mayʿa, and أصطرك asturak, and it is easy to find in medieval Arabic writings. In contrast, the Indonesian Styrax resin is hard to find in medieval Arabic writings and it does not seem to have arrived until late in the medieval era and the same is true of the name لبان جاوي lubān jāwī.
  43. ^ bezoar

    To see the word bezoar in medieval Arabic, search at AlWaraq.net for search @ AlWaraq.netالبادزهر and search @ AlWaraq.netالبازهر and search @ AlWaraq.netبازهر and search @ AlWaraq.netبادزهر . In medieval Latin, bezoar is bezahar in the late-12th-century Arabic-to-Latin translations of the medical books of Ibn Sina (died 1037) and Al-Razi (died c. 930), at In Latin : ''Liber Canonis Medicinae'', which is a translation of Ibn Sina's ''Qānūn fī al-Tibb'', translated by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187), annotated by Andreas Alpagus Bellunensis (died c. 1521), edition year 1544. Search for BEZAHAR, and also ALBEZAHAR.Ref and In Latin : Medicine works of Al-Razi translated by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187), edition year 1544. Page 196 has ''lapis qui uocatur bezahar''. Bezahar is also on pages 197 & 433.Ref. It is lapis bezaar | lapis bezahar in the late-13th-century Arabic-to-Latin translation of the medicines book of Serapion the Younger at In Latin : Serapion the Younger's aggregation of commentary from many commentators about medicines. ''De lapide bezaar'' is on page 261-262. The author name ''Serapion'' was a false attribution from an anonymous Latin translator. The book's Arabic compiler was Ibn Al-Wafid (died c. 1070) and/or a student of Ibn Al-Wafid.Ref. It is bezard in the late-13th-century Latin medicines dictionary of Simon of Genoa at bezard @ ''Clavis Sanationis sive Synonyma Medicinae'' by Simon of Genoa aka Simon Januensis, dated c. 1292Ref and Simon of Genoa says the word is Arabic. In Western Europe the 17th century was the high tide of the reputation of the bezoar stone as antidote medicine. Historically the original bezoar of Central Asia was expensive and the trade volume in it was very low. Historically sometimes other concretions were recommended for use as antidotes and were called bezoars in the looser sense of the word.
  44. ^ borax and tincal

    Medieval Arabic بورق būraq encompassed multiple salts. The salts included naturally-occurring sodium carbonate (aka natron) and sodium borate (aka borax). Medieval būraq meant sodium carbonate in most cases. It would be an error to interpret the medieval būraq as meaning borax without specific info in the context. In some medieval contexts, the word būraq has a qualifier attached to it to give more specificity to it. On the other hand, medieval Arabic التنكار al-tinkār was specifically borax. An early minerals book in Arabic, dated 9th century, titled The Stone Book of Aristotle, pseudonymously authored, says: (1) būraq is a class of salts and the class includes al-natrūn (i.e. natron) and al-tinkār; and (2) al-tinkār exists on the shores of salt-marshes and is used in shapening and soldering of gold – Book in medieval Arabic : كتاب الاحجار لارسطاطاليس ''Das Steinbuch des Aristotles'', curated and translated to modern German by Julius Ruska, year 1912. تنكار tinkār is stone #63 on page 123. بورق būraq is stone #46 on page 118. نطرون natrūn is stone #47 on page 118.ref (pages 118 & 123). Al-Razi (died c. 930) named six types of būraq salts. Among Al-Razi's named types of būraq, one was tinkār, another one was "goldsmith's būraq" (denoting some other mineral salt in customary use by goldsmiths for soldering metals), and another two or three of the named types were sodium carbonate brought from different geographical places with different impurities admixed – In Arabic : ''Kitāb al-asrār wa sirr al-asrār'' by Al-Razi (died c. 930). Page ٢ (PDF page 30) has seven names for seven types of boraxes. One printed name احمر is read as اخمر (causative of خمر). Page ٦ (PDF page 34) has more info about some types of boraxes. Page ٦٩ (PDF page 97) has plural بوارق and singular بورقا and same sentence has تنكارا and نطرونا.ref, In English : Al-Razi's ''Kitāb al-Asrār'' translated to English from German by Gail Taylor in the 2000s, after German translated from Arabic. In this translation, Al-Razi's words بورق and بوارق are put as English ''borax'' and ''boraxes''. Page 4 has the six names of six types of boraxes. Pages 10-11 has more about boraxes. Bear in mind that al-Razi's word's scope is much broader than English borax.ref. The author Al-Hamdani English short biography of al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad al-Hamdānī [ الحسن بن أحمد الهمداني ]. Bio written by Christopher Toll.(died c. 951), in a book about production of precious metals, has al-tinkār and al-būraq as two similar substances for fluxing a precious metal – الحسن بن أحمد الهمداني -- كتاب الجوهرتين العتيقتين المائعتين من الصفراء والبيضاء. The linked edition has four instances of التنكار. One instance is : ووضع عليها التنكار أو البورق والملح ، وسبك ، فإذا. It has seven instances of البورق or بورق. This includes instances by the edition's modern commentator.ref. Some medieval Arabic dictionaries say būraq is used as a rising agent for bread dough, causing bread to inflate during baking, and it is evident that this kind of būraq consisted mainly of sodium carbonate – Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon gives the medieval definitions for the word بورق under the rootword برق on page 191 column 3, in Volume 1, year 1863. Altlink for Lane's Lexicon :
    . Another widely used medieval application for sodium carbonate was as a cleaning agent; i.e. sodium carbonate was an ingredient in soaps and clothes' washing powders. Ibn Sina (died 1037) says būraq salts are of multiple types, and he says būraq salts have uses as cleaning agents – In Arabic, text searchable : القانون في الطب لابن سينا. The book has more than 250 instances of بورق. It has more than 100 instances of البورق or البورقي or البورقية meaning the būraq class of salts. It also has a few instances in the plural wordforms البوارق and البورقيات meaning the multiple types of بورق salts.ref, In Arabic : بورق @ Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine, Book Two. Book Two has بورق as a section headword. The link is the Book Two section concerning بورق in the year 1593 print edition. The year 1593 print edition elsewhere has the phrase أصناف البوارق meaning ''the types of buraq salts''.alt-link. In the same book, Ibn Sina says tinkār is a fluxing agent for gold, and he says tinkār is medically useful against tooth decay – In Arabic : تنكار @ Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine, Book Tworef, In Arabic : تنكار @ Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine, Book Twoalt-link. Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) in his medicines book says firstly that tinkār is used by goldsmiths and jewellers more than by anyone else and they use it as a fluxing agent in soldering metals – Paragraph about تنكار on page 167. Paragraph about لحام الذهب on page 772. الجامع لمفردات الأدوية والأغذية - ابن البيطارref (page 167; also page 772). Al-Biruni (died c. 1050), in a book about precious stones, used vinegar with small quantities of each of "tinkār" and "būraq" (two distinct substances) as a gentle cleaner to improve the luster of white pearls – كتاب الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر - البيروني -- البحث عن تنكارref, كتاب الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر – البيروني -- يقول في الصفحة 80 : ''قيراط نوشادر وحبتين تنكار وحبة بورق وثلاث حبات قلى''ـalt-link – and surely his būraq meant sodium carbonate and his tinkār meant sodium borate.
    Medieval Arabic has reports of البورق al-būraq collected at salt-water lakes in Iran & Iraq & Syria – In Arabic : Geography book of Ibn Hawqal (died c. 988), curated by Goeje in ''Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum'' Volume 2, year 1873. Page ۲۴۸ on line 8 has ملح البورق meaning ''buraq salt''. The same page on line 10 has البحيرة ارمية بورق الصاغة meaning buraq from Lake Urmia in northwest Iran.ref , Search for the phrase البحيرة البورق in the geography book of Al-Idrisi (died c. 1165). Al-Idrisi says salt-water lakes in Iraq and Syria have al-būraq which is used for bread-making. Al-Idrisi's geography book is titled نزهة المشتاق and is online at multiple websites.ref. Today none of the salt-water lakes in Iran & Iraq & Syria has borates dissolved in it (not counting miniscule quantity). Sodium carbonate occurs in significant quantity in some salt-water lakes in that region. Therefore, the al-būraq salt in those medieval reports was not borax. There is no evidence that borax was sourced from anywhere in Iran in all history until the 19th century. You can find a contrary assertion in some historians. The burden is on them to show their evidence is for real. They fail.
    The foremost supply source for borax in the medieval era, and 16th-18th centuries also, was evaporites on the perimeters of lakes located on plateaus in the Himalay Mountains. It is believed nowadays by numerous historians that the Arabs and Persians were introduced to tinkār from India and that the name تنكار tinkār (tankār in Persian) originated from the medieval Sanskritic word ṭaṅkaṇa @ Digital Corpus of Sanskritṭaṅkaṇa meaning borax from Tibet & Kashmir. Search for wordforms ṭaṅkaṇa ṭaṅkana ṭaṅkaṇaka ṭaṅkaṇakṣāraDigital Corpus of Sanskrit has hundreds of medieval instances of ṭaṅkaṇa | ṭaṅkana | ṭaṅkaṇaka | ṭaṅkaṇakṣāra meaning borax; and additionally medieval Sanskrit has other words that are translated as borax – Search for English ''borax'' in word meanings at Digital Corpus of SanskritDigital Corpus of Sanskrit , Search for BORAX in ''The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary'', by V.S. Apte (died 1892), revised and enlarged edition year 1959, online at ''Digital Dictionaries of South Asia''Apte's Sanskrit-to-English dictionary. Thereby it is clear that borax was well known in medieval India. During the 16th to 18th centuries, the high north of India – more exactly Tibet – was the principal source of borax in international trade worldwide. It may be that Tibet was the only source on planet Earth during all centuries until the 19th century. This is discernable from info in two later paragraphs below. Borax and similar borate minerals can occur as surface evaporite deposits when a land's surface is intermittently flooded by water containing dissolved borax or borate. But, except in Tibet, the percentage borates in these deposits is small and minor, and there is no evidence these deposits were ever used commercially.
    The Latins of the ancient and early-medieval eras used metalworking fluxing agents. Latin name: chrysocolla. But borax was unknown to them. One of the first records in Latin for the substance borax, and for either of the names borax or tinkar, is in a late-12th-century enlargement of the Latin text Mappae Clavicula, in a section headlined "Composition of Niello is a metal. It is an alloy of copper, silver, and lead sulfides. It is black in color. It is used in metal ornaments and engravings, where typically it is a color-contrasting inlay beside a lighter-colored metal. niello with gold", where the borax is used as a fluxing agent: "detempera atincar, i.e., burrago, cum aqua; et cum hoc distempera nigello" = "blend tinkar, i.e. borax, with water; and coat (distemper) the niello with this" – One version of ''Mappae Clavicula'' is called the Phillipps-Corning version. It is published in journal ''Archaeologia'' in year 1847, where relevant text is recipe #195 on page 225. It is dated late 12th century. Earlier versions of Mappae Clavicula do not have this recipe.ref. Slightly earlier, in mid-12th century, a Latin medical writer in southern Italy said "borax" is an import from the far side of the sea (meaning the Arab lands), and he said it is in the form of a white powder, and he mistakenly said it was derived from a tree gum – Book ''Liber de Simplici Medicina'' aka ''Circa Instans'' by Matthaeus Platearius (died c. 1160). Link goes to images of a manuscript dated perhaps early 13th century. ''Borax'' is on page number 37-38, which is image number 20. Manuscript is owned by Mertz Library.ref. Other early records of the word borax in Latin are in Arabic-to-Latin translations of alchemy texts dated about year 1200 in Latin – they include the texts ''De Anima in Arte Alchimiae'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation. The Latin is printed in the volume ''Artis Chemicae Principes'', year 1572, from page 1 to page 471 (whereas pages 473-767 is unrelated alchemy). It has about seventy instances of BAURACH or BAURAC and a few BORACE.

    Info on the composition date and authorship is obtainable in ''Le DE ANIMA alchimique du pseudo-Avicenne'' by Sébastien Moureau, year 2016.
    , ''Liber Secretorum de voce Bubacaris'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation of كتاب الاسرار Kitāb al-Asrār of Abu Bakr Al-Razi (died c. 930). Its subject is minerals and medieval chemistry. It is in medieval Latin in more than one version. Extracts from Latin versions are in ''Bearbeitungen von Al-Razi's Buch Geheimnis der Geheimnisse'', year 1935. BORAX and BORACI__ on pages 23, 34, 40 & 66-67.ref-2 , The alchemy text ''Liber de Septuaginta'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation. The Latin is dated about 1200. It is published in ''Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de l'Institut de France'', volume 49, year 1906, on pages 310-363. It has wordforms bauracia, baurax, baurac.ref-3 , ''Liber Sacerdotum'' is a Latin compilation about minerals, colorants and metallurgy. Its date is assessed early 13th century as a compilation. It has content from Arabic-to-Latin translation in some places, and not in other places. It has 5 instances of BORAC__. The Latin is on pages 187-228 in ''La Chimie au Moyen Âge, Tome 1'', curated by Berthelot, year 1893.ref-4. Medieval Latin spellings included baurax | baurac | baurach | bauracia | borax | boracia | boraceLatin alchemy text ''Liber de Septuaginta'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation dated about 1200. It is in Latin in ''Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de l'Institut de France'', volume 49, year 1906, on pages 310-363. Search it for substring BAURA to get baurac, baurax, bauracia, bauracorum.e.g. , Early 13th century Latin text ''De Anima in Arte Alchimiae'' has many instances of BAURACH, BAURAC, BORACE. The text is within the volume ''Artis Chemicae Principes'', year 1572, from page 1 to page 471 (whereas pages 473 to 767 is unrelated and later).e.g. , Book ''Verae Alchemiae, Artisque Metallicae'', year 1561, a collection of late medieval Latin alchemy writings by Pseudo-Geber, Pseudo-Ramon-Llull, and other uncertain authors. Has the word spelled BAURAC, BAURACE, BAURACHIIS, BAURATIA, BORACE, BORACIA, BORAX, BORACIBUS, etc.e.g.. The word's medieval Latin meaning was sometimes the same broad meaning as in Arabic – ''De Anima in Arte Alchimiae'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation, dated early 13th century Latin. It has about 70 instances of BAURACH or BAURAC. It uses this substance as a metals flux. But in some instances the Latin word means the Arabic būraq as sodium carbonate, not borax. The text is within the volume ''Artis Chemicae Principes'', year 1572, on pages 1 - 471.e.g. , baurach @ ''Pandectarum Medicinae'' by Matthaeus Silvaticus, dated c. 1317. Book is heavily influenced by Arabic medicine practices and it uses many Arabic medicines words. It defines ''baurach'' as sodium carbonate. Among things it says : ''baurach armenum est defertur ab armenia'', which is referring to sodium carbonate exported from Lake Van, a big salt lake in medieval Armenia. Lake Van is rich in sodium carbonate.e.g.. But normally in medieval Latin the meaning was a substance used as a metals fluxing agent – Latin text ''Liber Sacerdotum'' uses BORAC__ to help melt metals, including gold and copper. Text is in Latin on pages 187-228 in ''La Chimie au Moyen Âge, Tome 1'', curated by Berthelot, year 1893.e.g. , Medieval Latin encyclopedia ''Speculum Naturale'' by Vincent de Beauvais (died 1264) says BORAX is used in soldering metals. Vincent de Beauvais says : ''borax consolidates silver with silver and also tin with tin.'' This book mentions BORAX in several places.e.g. , ''Sinonoma Bartholomei'', late 14th century Latin glossary, says BORAX is gum used in soldering of metals. Published with annotations by J.L.G. Mowat, year 1882.e.g. , borax | boras @ Middle English Dictionary gives a dozen usage quotes from late medieval English. Some of the quotes are from books that were Latin-to-English translations. The dictionary also gives a few quotes in medieval Latin.e.g.. The late medieval Latin borax fluxing agent usually meant what we call borax today, but sometimes it meant any fluxing agent. The same was true for the medieval Latin tincar | atincar | attincar | tinkar | atinkar | attinkar | tinchar | athincar, i.e. it was a fluxing agent, and it was usually borax, and it was not always borax. Likewise, chrysocolla in later-medieval Latin literature could mean either one certain specific material with fluxing uses or else any fluxing material. Examples of the medieval Latin tincar | atincar | attincar | tinkar | atinkar | attinkar | tinchar | athincar include ''Liber Sacerdotum'' is a compilation about minerals, colorants and metallurgy. It is assessed early 13th century as a compilation. It has content from Arabic-to-Latin translation in some places but not in other places. It has 18 instances of TINCAR or ATINCAR or ATTINCAR or ALTINCAR. The Latin is on pages 187-228 in ''La Chimie au Moyen Âge, Tome 1'', curated by Berthelot, year 1893.ref , ''Liber Secretorum Bubacaris'' is an Arabic-to-Latin translation of ''Kitāb al-Asrār'' of Abu Bakr Al-Razi (died c. 930). Its subject is minerals and medieval chemistry. It is in medieval Latin in more than one version. One version is early 13th. Extracts from Latin versions are in ''Bearbeitungen von Al-Razi's Buch Geheimnis der Geheimnisse'', year 1935. ATINKAR on page 23, TINCHAR on pages 34 & 40.ref , Article, ''Practical Chemistry in the Twelfth Century: Rasis de aluminibus et salibus'', by Robert Steele, year 1929 in journal ''Isis''. Publishes a version of Latin text ''De Aluminibus et Salibus'', which is an Arabic-to-Latin translation. Seek substring TINCAR to get atincaris and antincar and tincar. Altlink @ http://www.jstor.org/ref , Article, ''The Texts of Michael Scot's Ars Alchemie'', curated by Harrison Thomson, year 1938 in journal ''Osiris''. Publishes Latin alchemy texts associated with the name of Michael Scot (died 1230s). Guessed as written in late 13th century and thus not written by Michael Scot. Latin ATINCAR and ATTINCAR are on page 548.ref , A certain medieval Latin text is published in book ''Das Steinbuch des Aristotles'' curated by Julius Ruska, year 1912. On page 193 the Latin says ATTINKAR is very effective for fluxing gold. ATTINKAR is also on page 191 line 12. This medieval Latin text is somehow derived from a medieval Semitic source, as discussed on pages 66-67. Datation missing.ref , Book, ''Picatrix : The Latin version of the Ghāyat al-Hakīm'', curated by David Pingree, year 1986. The Latin Picatrix is mostly a translation of the Arabic ''Ghāyat al-Hakīm''. The Latin has 8 instances of ATTINCAR. The translation has been dated late 13th century, except that the Latin Picatrix additionally incorporates a 14th century Latin text titled ''Flos Naturarum''.ref , Article, ''The FLOS NATURARUM ascribed to Jābir'', by Charles Burnett and David Pingree, year 2009. Publishes a 14th-century Latin text in which ATINKAR is used for fluxing gold and silver. Altlink : jstor.org/stable/40593764 ref , Latin TINCAR @ Book Two of ''Liber Canonis Medicinae'' by Ibn Sina (died 1037) translated to Latin by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187). Print edition year 1544.ref , ''Liber aggregatus in medicinis simplicibus'' by Serapion the Younger is Arabic-to-Latin translation dated 13th century Latin. It quotes the medicines writer Isḥāq Ibn ʿImrān (died c. 908) who says in the Latin translation: ''TINCAR is from a species of salt. And in its taste one finds the taste of baurach [interpret: sodium carbonate], and it has with this a little bitterness'' (on page 279 in linked copy).ref , Latin TINCAR @ ''Synonyma Medicinae'' by Simon of Genoa, dated 1290s. It says tincar is synonymous with borax and is a fluxing agent for gold (''capistrum auri''). It cites tincar in Gerard of Cremona's Arabic-to-Latin translation of Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine (''Aui'').ref , Book ''Verae Alchemiae, Artisque Metallicae'', year 1561, is a collection of late medieval Latin alchemy writings by various unknown or uncertainly known writers. The book is searchable for wordforms ATINCAR & ATTINCAR & ATHINCAR. Search for substring ''inkar'' to get TINKAR (page 233). A page numbered 198 has ATINCAR twice as a fluxing agent that is NOT borax.ref , ''Catalogue of Latin and Vernacular Alchemical Manuscripts in the United States and Canada'', by WJ Wilson, is a 836-page report published as Volume 6 of the journal ''Osiris'', year 1939. It has 15th-century ATHINCAR on pages 104 & 111 and TINCHAR page 126, and 15th-century ATINCAR & ATTINCAR on page 36. Altlink : jstor.org/stable/301597 ref.
    From the Latin, 15th century English has borax | boras @ Middle English Dictionaryborax | boras and atinkar @ Middle English Dictionaryattincar.
    In Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries, borax was an import from the Indies (often still transported via Egypt and Venice), trade volume was small, the price was expensive, and its main use was as a fluxing agent in gold and silver metalworking. In the European metallurgy literature of the 16th and 17th centuries, borax was commonly called "tincar" | "atincar" and it was also called "Arabian borax", and "borax". Martin Ruland's year 1612 Lexicon Alchemiae has the definitions of that time period for atincar, tinckar, borax, boras, baurac, and chrysocollaIn Latin : ''Lexicon Alchemiae sive Dictionarium Alchemisticum'', by Martin Ruland, year 1612ref, In English translation : ''A Lexicon of Alchemy by Martin Rulandus the Elder'', translated from Latin to English by Arthur E. Waite, year 1893. The dictionary has multiple incompatible meanings for words, which reflects that the words were used with different meanings at the time the dictionary was written.ref.
    A year 2005 historical review of borax | tincar | tincal imported to Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries is Article by Jaime Wisniak, year 2005 in ''Indian Journal of Chemical Technology'' Volume 12, 12 pages"Borax, Boric acid, and Boron – From exotic to commodity" and a thing I take from the review is: No evidence of extraction of borax, or boric acid or any borate, anywhere in the world outside of Tibet until year 1818. The same finding is in the book Book, ''The Tincal Trail : A History of Borax'', by NJ Travis & EJ Cocks, year 1984. The bulk of this book is about the commercial history of the borax industry in the 19th and 20th centuries. The book's first two chapters are about the pre-19th century history of borax. A History of Borax, which includes a sub-point on page 24 A History of Borax by NJ Travis & EJ Cocks, year 1984, says Snippet view only. Book not free online. ''The Tincal Trail : A History of Borax'', by NJ Travis & EJ Cocks, year 1984.on page 24 concerning travel writers in Iran or Persia: John Mandelso [died 1644; aka Johan de Mandelslo] and Jean Chardin [died 1713], who both paid particular attention to minerals in Persia, saw nothing of borax there. Says on page 24 concerning Iran or Persia: There have been no reports of sodium borate being found in any lake deposits there.. In one sentence, a summary of the evidence is: There are more than 57 borate-containing Tibetan lakes... and very likely all of the world's borax from antiquity to 1818 came from these deposits. Book, ''Borates: Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties, and Use'', by Donald E. Garrett, year 1998, on page 58. This book is not a history book. It summarizes the history of extraction of borates in the book ''The Tincal Trail : A History of Borax'', year 1984.(ref). The way that the borax was extracted in Tibet is in reports in English from India in the 1780sRobert Saunders, a resident of Bengal, visited Tibet and Bhutan in 1783. In an article published in 1789 he says: Tincal, the nature and production of which we have only hitherto been able to guess at, is now well known, and Thibet, from whence we are supplied, contains it in inexhaustible quantities. It is a fossil brought to market in the state it is dug out of the lake, and afterwards refined into Borax.... Although tincal has been collected from this lake for a great length of time, the quantity is not perceptibly diminished ; and as the cavities made by digging it soon wear out or fill up, it is an opinion with the people, that the formation of fresh tincal is going on. They have never yet met with it in dry ground or high situations but it is found in the shallowest depths and the borders of the lake, which deepening gradually from the edges towards the center contains too much water to admit of their searching for the tincal conveniently.Article, ''Some Account of the Vegetable and Mineral Productions of Boutan and Thibet. By Mr. Robert Saunders, Surgeon at Boglepoor in Bengal'', year 1789 in journal ''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London''. Tincal is on page 96-97.Ref: print pages 96-97. Today it is known the borax in the Tibetan plateau's lakes is being replenished by thermal water springs coming up from far underground. These waters arrive at the surface carrying borax and other borates dissolved in them. The solubility of borax in water is unable to exceed a certain max concentration rate. The borax concentration increases when some water is evaporated to the sky at the lake's surface. Hence, when the concentration is max, some of the borax is precipitated to the lake's floor.

    In the 1780s William Blane resided at Lucknow city in the lowland plains of northern India. He never visited Tibet. He got info about borax from a resident of Nepal who visited Lucknow. William Blane wrote in 1786: I am assured, by many of the natives, that all the borax in India comes only from the mountains of Tibbet.... That it is really brought from the Tibbet mountains is certain, as I have myself often had occasion to see large quantities of it brought down, and have purchased from the Tartar mountaineers, who brought it to market.... I have never heard of its being either produced or brought into this country [i.e. India] from any other quarter. William Blane's informant from Nepal has mostly accurate info about how the borax was dug as natural evaporites in Tibet, which Blane retells at Article, ''Some Particulars Relative to the Production of Borax'', by William Blane, year 1787 in journal ''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London''Ref: print pages 297-300.

    Giuseppe (aka Joseph) da Rovato resided at Patna city in the northern India lowlands in the 1780s. He never visited Tibet. By specific arrangement and appointment, he interviewed a native of Tibet who was acquainted with harvesting borax. Rovato's report, dated 1786, is at ''A Letter from the Father Prefect of the Mission in Thibet, F. Joseph da Rovato, Containing Some Observations Relative to Borax'', 3 pages long, published in English translation in 1787 in journal ''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London''. It was also published in Italian in same journal.Ref: print pages 471-473. He says: Twenty-eight days journey to the north of Nepal, and twenty-five to the West of Lassa [Lhasa], the capital of Thibet, there is a vale... the inhabitants of which are wholly employed in digging the borax... the soil being so barren as to produce nothing but a few rushes.... There is a pool of a moderate size, and some smaller ones, where the ground is hollow, in which the rain-water collects. In these pools, after the water has been some time detained in them, the borax is formed naturally.

    The above 1780s reports may leave the impression that the source of borax was in only one valley, whereas in fact a very big and wide area in Tibet has borax-infused lakes. A year 1906 book Tibet and the Tibetans has a section headlined "The Salt Lake District" and it says Book ''Tibet and the Tibetans'', by Graham Sandberg, year 1906, has a chapter devoted to lakes, within which it has a section headlined ''The Salt Lake District'' on pages 41-44on pages 41-44: The thick far-reaching margins of saline crust encircling these lakes is evidence of an evaporation.... The salt soda and borax are principally collected from the thick deposits fringing such lakes and, being filled into 20-pound bags, the bags are placed in couples on the backs of sheep. Flocks of seven hundred sheep thus loaded are to be encountered patiently bearing these products either west into Ladak, or south to the markets of Nepal. Borax seems to occur most profusely on the plains of Majin, a district N.-E. of Ngari Khorsum [westernmost part of Tibet]. It lies there near the surface in vast tracts, and any amount may be had for the digging.... Borax sufficient to supply the potteries of all Europe is here lying unused.... In the Tibetan fields, however, great slackness of demand now prevails ; nevertheless, in one borax field in the plains bordering on the eastern-most sources of the Indus, one survey explorer noted 100 men at work.

    More reading is in the science book Book is partly a translation of a book written in Chinese in the 1980s.An Introduction to Saline Lakes on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, by Zheng Mianping, year 1997.
    . Year 1766 was before those reports published in English in the 1780s about how the Tibetan borax was being obtained. In 1766 an encyclopedic dictionary of chemistry by a well-informed French chemist said about borax: "We are even ignorant of its origin.... Borax is not found in Europe. It is brought from the East-Indies in a state which only requires a slight purification.... But it is not yet known whether this matter be a natural or an artificial substance, nor whence, nor how it is obtained." – borax @ ''A Dictionary of Chemistry'' by Pierre Joseph Macquer, year 1777 English edition. Translated from year 1766 French ''Dictionnaire de Chymie''.ref, ''A History of Borax'' by NJ Travis & EJ Cocks, year 1984, on page 10alt-ref. The 9th century Arabic Stone Book of Aristotle said al-tinkār exists on the shores of salt-marshes (ref: Book in Arabic : كتاب الاحجار لارسطاطاليس ''Das Steinbuch des Aristotles'', curated by Julius Ruska, year 1912, where تنكار tinkār is stone #63 on page 123يكون على سواحل السبخة). That statement in the so-called Stone Book of Aristotle is interpretable as probably the evaporites of the Tibetan lakes and nowhere else, because nobody anywhere before the late 18th century delivers information that would support another interpretation.
    Nathan Bailey's English Dictionary in the early 18th century defined tinkar as synonymous with borax and defined borax as "a mineral used by goldsmiths in melting and soldering of gold" – Bailey's English Dictionary, year 1726 editionref. Samuel Johnson's English dictionary, mid 18th century, defined tincal as "a mineral.... What our borax is made of" – tincal @ Samuel Johnson's English dictionary, year 1785 edition. The year 1755 edition says the same thing.ref. As reflected by Nathan Bailey's tinkar versus Samuel Johnson's tincal, there was a change in wordform from tincar to tincal. The wordform tincal became predominant in Europe in the 18th century. Practically all of the borax in 18th-century Europe was being shipped from northern India by sea by Europeans. Contrary to some reporters, it is not correct that the wordform tincal came to Europe from a native language of the Indies. This wordform came from the Indies from the Portuguese tincal, which came from the medieval European tincar, which came from the medieval Arabic tinkār. The wordform tincal has its earliest known records in the early 16th century in Portuguese in India. To appreciate the substantial overall influence that Portuguese had on English vocabulary in the Indies, see the book Book by Yule & Burnell, year 1903. The book has 700+ instances of the word ''Portuguese'', plus 153 ''Portuga__''.A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words, on preface pages xviii - xix. As one piece of the evidence for the Portuguese and European origin of the wordform tincal, with date between 1512 and 1515 the Portuguese writer Tomé Pires has tincall, and at about the same date the Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa has tincal, with both writers assuming the word needs no explanation to a Portuguese reader. Both of those writers wrote their books in the Indies. Both of them list tincal as a market commodity at Cambay in Gujarat province in northwestern India, a commodity that Portuguese merchant shipping at Cambay might carry to Europe – Downloadable book, ''Encontros civilizacionais no Oriente : visões sobre a alteridade nas obras de Duarte Barbosa e de Tomé Pires'', by Carla Sofia Saraiva Luís, year 2010. In the book's Anexo 15, the word-frequencies of the words used in Tomé Pires's ''Suma'' (= Su) and Duarte Barbosa's ''Livro'' (= Li) are listed and compared. Search for ''tincal''.ref, The book ''Livro'' by Duarte Barbosa (died 1521) includes ''tincal'' in the goods for sale in ''Guzarate e Cambaia'' = Gujarat & Cambay. In edition of Barbosa's ''Livro'' curated by AR Machado in year 1946, this ''tincal'' is on page 82, and ''tincal'' is for sale in Malabar on page 232. Barbosa's spelling is ''tinqual'' in edition year 1867 at :
    , Book in English : ''The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires'' translated from Portuguese by translator Armando Cortesão, year 1990. Tincal is in the book's section about trade at Cambay, on page 43-44.ref. Another piece of the evidence for the European and Portuguese origin of the wordform tincal comes from Garcia da Orta writing in Portuguese in India in 1563. His name for borax was tincal (he also referred to it as crisocola). He said the tincal on sale at the trading centers of the west coast of India was brought there from the northern interior of India and came to the coast through Cambay and Ahmedabad city in Gujarat, and he said the name for it in the Gujarati language is the same as the name it has in Arabic, namely (he said) tincar – ref: Garcia da Orta Book ''Coloquios dos simples e drogas da India'' by Garcia da Orta, year 1563, republished year 1891, where tincal is in Volume 1 on page 277. (Volume 1 page 281-282 has comment about tincal by the book's 19th-century curator Ficalho).in Portuguese and Colloquies on the simples & drugs of India, by Garcia da Orta, translated to English by Clements Markham, year 1913, chapter headlined ''criscola'' on page 162-163in English translation. British reporters in India in the 1780s said the mountains in the far north of India are the only known source of borax in India – they are quoted in the previous paragraph above. As cited in another of the previous paragraphs above, Latin atincar starts in the late 12th century and has plenty of records in medieval Latin, mostly in alchemy writers. The Latin atincar begot late medieval Spanish atincar = "borax or fluxing agent" (Medicine book ''Menor daño de la medicina'' by Al(f)onso Chirino (died c. 1429) says Spanish ''atincar'' is synonymous with Spanish ''borraj'' i.e. borax. NOTE : Records of ''atincar'' start in Latin 150 years before they start in Spanish. After the records start in Spanish, the output of records continued to be more numerous in Latin than in Spanish. This implies the Latin was the parent of the Spanish.Spanish example circa 1422). Synonymously the wordform atincal is in 16th-century Portuguese. A Portuguese-to-Latin dictionary in year 1562 has: "[Portuguese] Atincal = [Latin] Chrissocola " – atincal @ ''Hieronymi Cardosi Lamacensis Dictionarium ex Lusitanico in latinum sermonem'', by Jerónimo Cardoso, year 1562 edition, downloadable as PDF file. Atincal is on PDF page 44 in this PDF file.ref. It is easy to see in an etymology dictionary of Portuguese: English "azure" = Portuguese azul from medieval Latin azurium; English "carat" = Portuguese quilate from medieval Arabic qīrāt; English "paper" = Portuguese papel from medieval Catalan paper and ultimately from classical Latin papyrus; English "azarole hawthorn" = Portuguese azarola from medieval Arabic al-zaʿrūr; Portuguese atafal @ ''Vocabulario portuguez e latino'', by Rafael Bluteau, in Volume 1 on page 623, year 1712. In Portuguese the word ''atafal'' is scarce, and what gets used in its place is ''retranca''. Additional Portuguese dictionaries with a definition for ''atafal'' include:
    = Spanish atafarra @ Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Españolaatafarra from medieval Arabic ثفر @ Lane's Arabic-English Lexiconالثفر al-thafar. The quantity of writings in Portuguese before 1500 is smallish overall, and is small in the categories of writings that might likely mention tincal or borax. So you can put little weight on the fact that the Portuguese tincal is undocumented until the Portuguese went to the Indies. Book ''Glossário Luso-Asiático'' by Sebastião Rodolfo Dalgado, year 1919, has glossary treatment of Portuguese word ''tincal''. It quotes five 16th-century writers who mention tincal as a trade item in India.Tincal @ Glossário Luso-Asiático, year 1919, has quotations for tincal in four additional 16th-century Portuguese writers concerned with Portuguese commerce in Asia and none of them is inconsistent with the conclusion that the word entered Portuguese in Europe.
  45. ^ camphor

    Camphor is unrecorded among the ancient Greeks and Latins under any name. A medicinal kafora occurs in a Greek medicines text dated mid 10th century, namely Appendix to HippiatricaThere are different versions of the Greek Hippiatrica texts, and they have different appendixes. The relevant appendix text is part of the version called Hippiatrica Cantabrigiensia, which Anne McCabe calls C for short. (The other notable version is Hippiatrica Berolinensia, aka version B). The relevant appendix to Hippiatrica is dated mid 10th century. The information basis for this appendix's date is in the book also titled ''A Byzantine Encyclopaedia of Horse Medicine''The Sources, Compilation, and Transmission of the Hippiatrica, by Anne McCabe, year 2007, on pages 277-279 and other pages. Meanwhile, the relevant appendix's text is printed in Greek at Book in Greek, ''Corpus hippiatricorum Graecorum, Volume 2'', curated by Oder & Hoppe, year 1927, on page 193. Page 193 has καφόρα on line 2, and has σάνδαλον on line 3, and σανδάλον on line 5.Ref: page 193 on lines 2 & 3 & 5 having καφόρα kafora and σανδαλον sandalon meaning camphor and sandalwood.. That is the word's earliest reliably dated in Greek. In the late 11th century, camphor is in Greek as kafoura in a writer influenced by Arabic medicine, Symeon Seth – In Greek : Section headed περι καφουρας at page 58-59 in the book on foods and medicines by Symeon Seth (died c. 1110), published under book title ''Syntagma de alimentorum facultatibus'', curated by Langkavel, year 1868. Besides page 58-59, καφουρά is also on page 61 line 7.ref, In English translation : Section about camphor in the book on foods & medicines by Symeon Seth (died c. 1110), translation by Alison Noble, in article ''Complete list of foodstuffs in Symeon Seth’s SYNTAGMA DE ALIMENTORUM FACULTATIBUS arranged alphabetically in Greek. Selected items for which full translation'', year 2014, 9 pages. Published by Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Studies.ref. Symeon Seth says kafoura is a gum of a tree that grows in India. That statement by Symeon Seth is the earliest in Greek that delivers a description of the kafora | kafoura | kamfora. More citations for camphor in medieval Greek are at καμφορα + καφορα @ ''Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität'' (LBG), a lexicon of Byzantine Greek up to 13th century, year 2014καμφορα KAMFORA @ LBG. A record much earlier in Greek in the medical writer Aetius of Amida is reported by some reporters, but the dating is afflicted with serious problems and it is surely wrong. The problems with Aetius of Amida are elsewhere on this pagediscussed at Note #26 above.
    In Latin, the early records for camphor are in the wordform cafora in aromatic medicines recipes date-assessed as having been written in the 9th century at monasteries in Germany and Switzerland – Book in Latin : ''Der LORSCHER ARZNEIBUCH, ein medizinisches Kompendium'', curated by Ulrich Stoll, year 1992. It has Latin ''cafora'' 3 times. The Latin text survives only in the sole manuscript Codex Bambergensis Medicinalis 1, aka Staatsbibliothek Bamberg Msc.Med.1.ref-1 (Book in medieval Latin plus translation to modern German : ''Der LORSCHER ARZNEIBUCH, ein medizinisches Kompendium'', year 1992. Translation by Ulrich Stoll. The whole volume is downloadable as a searchable PDF file via the interface of the linked page. Search for Latin ''cafora''.alt-link), Latin text ''Antidotarium Sangallense'', also titled ''St. Galler Antidotarium'', is within the book ''Studien und Texte zur frühmittelalterlichen Rezeptliteratur'', by Henry E Sigerist, year 1923, where ''cafora'' is on page 89 on line 3. The text is in a parchment manuscript of 9th century date, says the curator on page 78.ref-2. In Latin the insertion of the letter 'm' in wordform camphora is first seen in the Arabic-to-Latin medical translator Constantinus Africanus (died c. 1087). The wordform with 'm' is in a manuscript of a Constantinus Africanus text dated 1150-1175 as physical manuscript – ref: Constantine the African, ''Theorica Pantegni'', word-searchable transcription of the Helsinki manuscript, Codex EÖ.II.14, dated 3rd quarter of 12th century as a physical manuscript. The ''Pantegni'' book is in two parts, ''Theorica'' and ''Practica''. The manuscript has only the ''Theorica'' part.camphora & camphara in Codex EÖ.II.14. The Book of Simple Medicines of Matthaeus Platearius (died c. 1160; was influenced by Constantinus's translations) has it as Latin camphera | camphora in a physical manuscript dated perhaps about 1200 – Book, ''Liber de Simplici Medicina'', aka ''Circa Instans'', by Matthaeus Platearius in a manuscript dated perhaps early 13th century. The manuscript is owned by Mertz Library. Entry for ''camphera'' is at the pages numbered 40-41 which means the images numbered 21-22.ref. The word in any wordform is a rarity in Latin before Constantinus. Constantinus's translations have dozens of instances of this word as an ingredient in medicines recipes – In Latin : Collected Works of Constantinus Africanus, Volume 1, published at Basel in year 1536. Top of page 370 says camphor is a gum from trees that grow in India. Download whole volume, then search it for 50 instances of substring ''campho''.ref. Reflecting the popularity of camphor in medieval Arabic medicine, the word camphor_ occurs around 200 times in the Arabic-to-Latin medical translations done by Gerard of Cremona in late 12th century Latin – Book in Latin, ''Canonis Medicinae'', translating ''Qānūn fī al-Tibb'' of Ibn Sina (died 1037), translation by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187), annotated by Andreas Alpagus Bellunensis (died 1521), edition year 1555. Search for substring ''campho''.ref (more than 150 times) , The link has medical writings by Al-Razi (died c. 930) in Arabic-to-Latin translation by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187). These writings are within a volume that also has writings by other medical writers. Volume printed in year 1544. The volume has about 70 instances of the substring CAMPHOR__. In the linked presentation at Google Books, many instances may not be visible.ref (up to 70 times).
    By the way, late medieval Spanish alcanfor, as well as Catalan camfora, came from the Italian-Latin camphora = "camphor". In particular, the Spanish alcanfor did not come from Arabic. This is demonstrable from the several medieval Spanish wordforms and their dates at search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (''CORDE'')CORDE. At CORDE, the word was in Spanish as camfora/camphora and canfora for 150 years before the first record of the wordform alcanfor in Spanish. The Spanish wordform alcanfor does not start until about year 1400, which is fully 300 years after the start of the Latin camphora. If Spanish had gotten it from the Arabic كافور kāfūr = "camphor", then the wordform in Spanish would have been alcafor. Medieval Spanish had no alcafor | cafor | cafora, and Arabic had no kānfūr. The Spanish alcanfor was from the Spanish canfora, which was the most-used wordform in Spanish medievally and was from the Latin camphora. Spanish has a small but significant number of words where Spanish speakers prefixed al- to the word when the word in Spanish did not come from Arabic. This behaviour by Spanish speakers is in several places elsewhere on the current page. You can find it by searching on this page for aduana, alambre, albérchigo, alcaparra, alcorque, almadreña, almastica, almirage, atún, azufre. The al- or a- on those words is not enough evidence that the word entered Spanish from Arabic. When I look into the histories of those particular words I find there is enough evidence to believe they did not enter Spanish from Arabic.
  46. ^ sandalwood

    English "sandalwood" descends from medieval Latin sandalus | sandalum. The medieval Latin is ultimately from ancient Sanskrit candana @ Digital Corpus of Sanskritcandana = "sandalwood", and Sanskritic vernacular languages Book ''Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India'' by Garcia da Orta (died 1568), translated from Portuguese to English, year 1913. Has ''chandan'' on page 393 & 394. Garcia da Orta says ''sandalwood... is called CHANDAM... in all the lands round Malacca''.chandan, Urdu spelling چندن @ Urdu-to-English dictionary of John T. Platts, year 1884, searchable online at ''Digital Dictionaries of South Asia''چندن tchandan. In the medieval Mediterranean region, the sandalwood product was always an import from the Indies. It arrived in Mediterranean markets through Arabic-speakers, mostly through Egypt. It was called ṣandal in medieval Arabic. Ṣandal wood was commonly used and well-known among the medieval Arabs, as demonstrated by the large number of instances in medieval Arabic authors at AlWaraq.net: البحث عن صندل @ AlWaraq.net. In a minority of medieval instances, صندل does not mean sandalwood.صندل and البحث عن الصندل @ AlWaraq.netالصندل.
    A History of the Materia Medica by John Hill in year 1751 said the following about sandalwood and I quote it because it is mainly correct: There are some who suppose the Ancients [meaning ancient Greeks and Latins] were acquainted with these [yellow, white and red sandalwoods].... But as Dioscorides and Galen are both wholly silent about them, it is very probable they were not known at all in their Time ; at least it is very evident that they were not known in Medicine. The Arabians [meaning the Arabians in Latin translations read by John Hill] are the earliest Authors we find making any certain Mention of them; they call them Sandal, and the modern Greeks speak of them as they do.Book, ''A history of the materia medica: containing descriptions of all the substances used in medicine'', by John Hill, year 1751, on page 683ref. Kosmas Indikopleustes was a Greek sea-merchant who personally visited India in the 6th century AD. One 21st-century historian says correctly: For sandalwood under any name, the first mention in surviving texts from the Mediterranean world comes in the Christian Topography of Kosmas Indikopleustes. He calls it tzandana, which is an accurate Greek transcription of the name that would have been used in the Indian portsArticle ''Some Byzantine Aromatics'' by Andrew Dalby, in the book ''Food and Wine in Byzantium'' by various authors, year 2007. Sandalwood on page 56. NOTE : The article has errors, though it is mostly correct.ref. Kosmas Indikopleustes mentions the word only once, and only as a trade item at seaports in Sri Lanka and the Indian Ocean, and he does not have it as a trade item going to the Mediterranean region – Book, ''The Christian Topography of Cosmas... translated from the Greek... with notes'', by J.W. McCrindle, year 1897, on page 366ref – and so he gives no indication the Mediterranean people had a use for it. Sandalwood was in extensive trade among the Indies people in Kosmas's time, as shown by many hundreds of mentions of candana in ancient and early medieval Sanskrit texts – candana @ Digital Corpus of Sanskritref (notably candana is mentioned 106 times in the Suśruta-saṃhitā, an ancient medical compendium in Sanskrit – same ref). Kosmas Indikopleustes's wordform tzandana (Book in Greek, ''Patrologiae Graecae Tomus LXXXVIII'', year 1860, on page 445. Incidentally, the word τζανδάναν does not occur elsewhere in Greek and so an internet search for τζανδάναν quickly surfaces Kosmas's text.τζανδάναν) is not found anywhere else in Greek and it looks like Kosmas wrote it down phonetically for a trade product he had encountered ONLY in the Indies.
    According to some modern reporters, sandalwood is documented in Greek in Late Antiquity in wordforms santal__ | sandan__ in more than one author. But those modern reporters are not correct, because the offered documentation is not valid when critically examined. In the centuries before and after the instance in Kosmas in the 6th century, in Greek, in any wordform, there is not a correctly dated instance with the correct meaning until the mid 10th century, and it is very scarce until the 12th century – search @ Liddell Scott Jones (''LSJ'') Lexicon of Ancient Greek. Lexicon has no σανταλ_ (santal_). Linked edition is at and after year 1925. An earlier edition misleadingly insinuated σανταλ_ was in ancient Greek meaning sandalwood. The earlier edition had relied on erroneous comments by Claudius Salmasius (died 1653). The lexicon has no σανδαλ_ (sandal_) meaning sandalwood. Altlink : https://LSJ.gr/ ref-1 ,  search @ ''Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität'', year 2014, Lexicon of Byzantine Greek covering centuries up to and including the 13th. With the meaning sandalwood, the lexicon has wordforms σανδαλον and σανταλον and σαντάλη. The lexicon gives citations to Byzantine documents. For some of the documents cited, the composition date is 12th-14th century and not known with better precision than that.ref-2 ,  ref-3 Periplus of the Erythraean Sea is a well-known Greek text dated 1st century AD. Periplus in paragraph 36 has Book in Greek : ''The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translation, and Commentary'', by Lionel Casson, year 1989, on page 72ξυλων σαγαλινων  (Book, ''Voyage of Nearchus, and the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea'', year 1809. It publishes texts in ancient Greek side-by-side with modern English translation. It has ξυλων σαγαλινων on page 94; and the translation puts it as ''sandal wood'' on page 94. Translated and annotated by William Vincent (died 1815).alt-link) which some Early Modern readers interpreted as sandalwood. The interpretation is an error. It is discussed in a 3-page article in journal ''The Classical Quarterly'' volume 32"Periplus Maris Erythraei 36: Teak, Not Sandalwood", by Lionel Casson, year 1982. ref-4 In medieval Greek, most early records for sandalwood are in the same texts that have the early records for camphor. Surrounding these texts are good and bad assignment of dates. Elsewhere on the current page, the date assignment issues for the Aetius of Amida text are discussed at Note #26: Problems with Aetius of Amida. The date of the Hippiatrica Appendix is covered at Note #45: Camphor elsewhere on current page.,  ref-5 A Greek papyrus text validly date-estimated around year 300 AD consists of formulas for doing magical things and it has the statement: λαβὼν πίτυρα πρῶτα καὶ Article, ''Notes on Two Michigan Magical Papyri'', by David Jordan, year 2001 in journal ''Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik'' volume 136. On page 187, Greek textline numbered 21 exactly reproduces the σάνταλον of published Greek papyrus (Preisendanz year 1974). But on page 191 David Jordan reports that what is actually on the papyrus is σανδαλον (sandalon, not sántalon).σανδαλον [sic] καὶ ὄξος ὅτι δριμύτατον καὶ ἀναδεύσας μάζια – Article, ''Notes on Two Michigan Magical Papyri'', by David Jordan, year 2001 in journal ''Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik'' volume 136. On page 187, Greek textline numbered 21 exactly reproduces the σάνταλον of published Greek papyrus (Preisendanz year 1974). But on page 191 David Jordan reports that what is actually on the papyrus is σανδαλον (sandalon, not sántalon).ref, σάνταλον [sic] @ ''Léxico de magia y religión en los papiros mágicos griegos'', by Luis Muñoz Delgado, year 2001. Regarding the lexicon's published word σάνταλον [sic] in the context, this lexicon says its sense is dubious (''sentido dudosa''). The lexicon has also σάνδαλον as another word.alt-ref. A published translation in English is: "Take bran of first quality and sandalwood and vinegar of the sharpest sort and mold a cake." That English translation has been published in more than a half dozen outlets including Article, ''Fragments from a Catabasis Ritual in a Greek Magical Papyrus'', by Hans Dieter Betz, year 1980 in journal ''History of Religions'' volume 19, where page 288 has ''sandalwood''.ref, Book, ''The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation'', by Hans Dieter Betz, year 1992, Volume 1, on page 297, translating the papyrus numbered LXX in the book ''Papyri Graecae Magicae'' Volume II, curated by Karl Preisendanz, 2nd edition, year 1973-1974.ref, Online resource at University of Michigan : ''Advanced Papyrological Information System'', Inventory Number ''P.Mich.inv. 7''. Has hi-res photos of the relevant papyrus. Has complete translation to English of the papyrus's text. Says the papyrus's date is late 3rd or early 4th century A.D. Says the text is published in Greek in ''Papyri Graecae Magicae'' Volume II, curated by Preisendanz, year 1973.ref, Online resource at University of Michigan, ''Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity'', by Gideon Bohak, year 1995. Page headed ''Recipe-Books'' quotes from ''PGM LXX'' meaning papyrus numbered LXX in ''Papyri Graecae Magicae'' 2nd edition.ref. It is in error. A first iteration for another translation is: "Take premier bran and SANDALON and very bitter vinegar and In LSJ lexicon of ancient Greek, ἀναδεύω is firstly English ''soak, steep'' and secondly English ''mix into a paste''. Ancient Greek μᾶζα is firstly cake of bread or lump of bread dough, and secondly lump or amalgam of any kind. The second and broader meaning is the first meaning in later times for μάζα | μᾶζα. Rootwise relatedly, μαζί means ''together with''. Hence ἀναδεύσας μάζια is translatable as soak together.soak them together or mix them together." With the limited context you get to see above, you cannot tell what the SANDALON is supposed to be. There is no historical basis for supposing SANDALON could be sandalwood in the context.

    An expert on Greek papyri, David Jordan Article, ''Notes on Two Michigan Magical Papyri'' by David Jordan, year 2001year 2001, on page 191, mentions that SANDALON has ancient Greek records where it means an edible seafish like the sole fishes. SANDALON is translated as English "a flat fish" in σάνδαλον @ Liddell-Scott-Jones (LSJ) Greek–English LexiconLSJ lexicon of ancient Greek, year 1925. Also mentioned by David Jordan: The above Greek papyrus text has been put in Spanish translation Book, ''Textos de Magia en Papiros Griegos'' by Calvo Martínez & Sánchez Romero, year 1987. Relevant bit is Papiro numbered LXX and footnote numbered 346 (page 385-386). At the linked page, search for the filename 105.textosDeMagiaEnPapirosGriegos.pdf (online) where the relevant SANDALON | SANTALON is left untranslated and is footnoted as "word of dubious sense".

    I believe the SANDALON in the context means a sandal shoe. It is necessary to go into context details for this. First needed is acquaintance with the ancient Greek goddess Hecate, aka Hekate, a goddess of magic, mostly a goddess of protective magic and sometimes a goddess of bitter, wicked witchcraft. In the well-known Greek drama Medea by Euripides (died c. 406 BC), a husband abandons his wife to marry another woman, and the abandoned wife says: "By the goddess I worship most of all, my chosen helper Hecate.... bitter will I make their marriage for them" – Full English translation of ''Medea'' is online at http://perseus.uchicago.edu/. The following is another translation of the relevant bit. It was published in 1846: ''I swear it by my mistress whom I reverence most of all gods, and whom I have chosen as my coadjutor, by Hecate.... Bitter for them and mournful will I make their marriage.''ref. One of the symbols of Hekate was a sandal shoe, and predominantly this was in grammatical singular, one sandal shoe. A common word for sandal shoe in ancient Greek was σανδαλον SANDALON. In the Greek papyri of late antiquity, the sandal shoe of Hekate is numerous times said to be brass or bronze or golden, and in other words Article, ''Die Sandale der Hekate-Persephone-Selene'', by D Wortmann, year 1968 in journal ''Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik''. The link goes to JSTOR.org. The article is also at https://booksc.org. Separately from this article, you can see three ancient examples of σάνδαλον SANDALON as sandal shoe as symbol of Hekate at
    there are numerous records of χάλκεον τὸ σάνδαλον and χρύσεον τὸ σάνδαλον and χρυσοσάνδαλον, etc, in relation to Hekate
    . In Greek late antiquity, sometimes the myths and traditions attached to Hekate were blended with those attached to the goddess Ereshkigal. In the papyrus in question, Hekate Ereshkigal is named as a single entity. The papyrus in question is only one sheet of paper and has only a half page of text. The following is most of it:
    Charm of Hecate Ereschigal against fear of punishment (in the underworld): If he (a punishment daimon) comes forth, say to him: I am Ereschigal, the one holding her thumbs, and not even one evil can befall her. If however he comes close to you, take hold of your right heel and recite the following: Ereschigal, virgin, bitch, serpent, wreath, key, herald's wand, golden sandal [Greek: σάνδαλον] of the Lady of at Wikipedia : Tartarus. It was a mythical Hell underground. It was a component of the mythical Underworld. The mythical goddess Hecate resided in the Underworld. Tartarus was more hellish than the rest of the Underworld.Tartaros [i.e. the golden sandal shoe of Hecate]. And you will avert him.... PHORBA PHORBA at Wikipedia : Brimo. Wikipedia says : ''In ancient Greek religion and myth, the epithet Brimo — ''angry'' or ''terrifying'' — may be applied to any of several goddesses with an inexorable, dreaded and vengeful aspect that is linked to the Land of the Dead: to Hecate or [goddess] Persephone, or [goddess] Demeter Erinyes.''BRIMO This is incantatory verbiage. It is comparable to English ''abracadabra''.AZZIEBYA. Take bran of first quality and one sandal shoe [Greek σανδαλον [sic]] and very bitter vinegar and soak them together. And write the name of so-and-so upon it, and inscribe it in such a way that you speak over it into the light the name of Hecate, and this: Take away his sleep from such-and-such a person, and he will be sleepless and worried.
    . In Latin, the earliest for sandalwood is in the late 11th century in the Arabic-to-Latin translations by Constantinus Africanus, where Latin sandalum translated Arabic sandal. There is no record in Latin prior to Constantinus. The Works of Constantinus Africanus, Volume One consists of Arabic-to-Latin translations of medical books and it contains this word about 125 times – In Latin : Works of Constantinus Africanus, Volume 1, published at Basel in year 1536. Search the OCR'd text for the substring ANDALI, which will surface sandali OCR'd as fandali.ref (requires substring search) – a number that reflects the substantial role that sandalwood had in Arabic medicine. As offspring from Constantinus's translations, the word is frequent in the Salernitan School of Latin medicine writings of the 12th and 13th centuries – ''Collectio Salernitana'', Volume 2, year 1853, publishes Latin medicines authors of 12th & 13th centuries. Pages 81-386 is the compilation titled ''De aegritudinum curatione'', which has 40+ instances of SANDAL__. ''De aegritudinum curatione'' acknowledges that it has copied some of its content from Constantinus Africanus.e.g., ''Collectio Salernitana'', Volume 4, year 1856, publishes medieval Latin medicines authors. Search for SANDAL. The Table of Contents is placed at the end of the volume.e.g., Book, ''Liber de Simplici Medicina'' aka ''Circa Instans'', by Matthaeus Platearius (died c. 1160), in a manuscript dated perhaps early 13th century. A paragraph about medicinal ''sandali'' begins on the lower left of page number 125-126 which is image number 64. The manuscript is owned by Mertz Library.e.g.. Powder of sandalwood was put as an additive in medicines. The aroma was a key feature, but the Arabs believed it had medicinal virtues beyond the aroma, and their beliefs were adopted by the Latins. Many records are in Latin in the later-medieval centuries. Reflecting the late medieval popularity of sandalwood, the word is in late medieval Italian, Catalan, Spanish, French, and English, all spelling it with a 'd' as in sandal, all taking it initially from the Latin. The vast majority of sandalwood's medieval Latin & Latinate records are in medicine contexts, and the specific medicine usages were copied from Arabic medicine practices. (The Arabs for their part had copied from the medicine practices of the Indians for sandalwood). Modern dictionaries who have endorsed the conclusion that the medieval Latin name was from the medieval Arabic name include sandalo #3 @ Vocabolario Treccani on line in Italian. This dictionary says about the Italian sàndalo meaning sandalwood : ''It is from medieval Latin sandalum, which is from the Arabic ṣandal ; the Greek form σάνταλον (santalon) is not well documented.'' Treccani's motive for mentioning Greek is that a still-alive and erroneous old tradition says the word is documented in Greek in antiquity.ref, sandalo #2 @ ''Dizionario italiano : il nuovo De Mauro'', a concise dictionary compiled by Tullio De Mauro and other people. It says : for Italian sandalo when the meaning is sandalwood, the Italian came from medieval Latin sandalum which came from Arabic ṣandal, crossref ancient Sanskritic candana.ref, σάνδαλον @ ''Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität'', year 2014, lexicon of medieval Greek. Says medieval Greek ''sandalon'' meaning sandalwood came from Arabic ''sandal''.ref, sandal @ ''A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words'', by Yule & Burnell, year 1903. Says Arabic ṣandal was the source of the Latin & Greek word with meaning sandalwood.ref, santal @ ''Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales'', around year 2000. Says: modern French ''santal'' came from medieval French ''sandal'' which came from medieval Latin ''sandalum'' which came from medieval Arabic ''ṣandal''.ref, sandal-wood @ ''An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English'', by Ernest Weekley, year 1921. Says Western European word was from Arabic ṣandal.ref, sandelholz @ ''Deutsches Wörterbuch'' by FLK Weigand (died 1878) and others, 5th edition, year 1909. Says Greek & Latin word came from Arabic ṣandal.ref, ṣandal @ ''Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Europäischen (Germanischen, Romanischen und Slavischen) Wörter Orientalischen Ursprungs'', by Karl Lokotsch, year 1927. Says Greek σανδαλιον meaning ''sandalwood'' came from Arabic ''ṣandal''. Also says the Western European word came from Arabic.ref, sandelholz @ ''Arabische Wörter im Deutschen'', by Andreas Unger, year 2006ref, sandel- (sandelboom, sandelhout) @ ''Etymologisch Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal'', by Johannes Franck and N. van Wijk, edition year 1912 on page 568. Says Arabic ṣandal was the source for the word in Greek and Latin.ref, sandelhout @ Etymologiebank.nl : Gives quotations from four etymology dictionaries of the Netherlands language. Includes ''Nederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek'' by Jan de Vries, year 1971, who endorses the Arabic source for the European word.ref.
    Today's scientific or New Latin name for the sandalwood tree genus is "Santalum", with a letter 't', which is a wordform not found in Latin Europe until the 16th century. This is a Renaissance-era refashioning modelled after a Greek wordform santal__. The wordform with 't' was adopted by 16th-century Classicizing Latin Humanists. Those Classicizing Humanists include the Latin medicines writers Joannes Ruellius (died 1537), Jacobus Sylvius (died 1555) and Leonhart Fuchs (died 1566). Their classicizing agenda meant it would have been proper for them to spell it with 't' if it had been in use with 't' in antiquity. Thus, apparently, their motive for adopting 't' was they believed it was in Greek in late antiquity. The wordform santal__ with 't' with meaning sandalwood is not found in Greek until 12th or 13th century – see the previous paragraph in the refs labelled ref-1, ref-2, & ref-5. Greek of the 12th century was too late for 't' to be proper for the classicizing Latin agenda. In some Latin medicines books in the 1540s, a dead writer who had used the spelling with 'd' was republished with the spelling changed everywhere to 't' –  e.g. Latin medical writer Symphorien Champier died in 1539. Several medicines writings by him were republished as an aggregation in one volume in year 1522, in which, for the meaning "sandalwood", the spelling is consistently SANDAL__Book ''Practica nova in medicina ... De omnibus morborum generibus'', by Symphorien Champier, year 1522, republishing material published in earlier yearsref. Essentially the same aggregation was republished again in 1547. The 1547 edition's spelling is consistently SANTAL__Book ''IATRIKĒ PRAXIS: Practica nova in medicina ... De omnibus morborum generibus'', by Symphorien Champier, year 1547ref. A different medicines book by Symphorien Champier was first published in 1532 and its spelling is consistently SANDAL__Book ''Castigationes seu emendationes Pharmacopolarum'', by Symphorien Champier, year 1532ref. e.g. Book Text in ordinary typeface is written by Ioannes Mesue, while text in italic typeface is comments written by Jacobus SylviusDe re Medica, libri tres, by Ioannes Mesue, late 13th century Latin, annotated by Jacobus Sylvius (died 1555), edition year 1542. The medicines books of Mesue were printed repeatedly in late 15th & early 16th century, from which one can see that the original spelling in Mesue's books was sandal__. Jacobus Sylvius in this 1542 publication has changed Mesue's spelling from sandal__ to santal__..  
  47. ^ candy

    Many medieval Arabic dictionaries online – including Al-Jauhari's Al-Sihāh dated about 1003 – have قند @ Searchable Medieval Arabic Dictionaries @ ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.comقند qand defined firstly as the juice or honey of sugar cane. Secondly they define qand as this juice solidified. By Arabic grammar, qandī = "from qand, or of qand ". In medieval Arabic texts qand is a somewhat frequent word. But qandī is very hard to find; qandī does not show up in the text collections available via elsewhere on this pagenote #2 above. Although qandī is very rare and possibly completely non-existent in texts, qandī is usually preferred to qand as the parent of the European "candy" for phonetic and syntactic reasons. Candy's earliest dates in the European languages are in spelling candi in Italian-Latin medicines writings prior to year 1250 and they include the three books Salernitan medicine text ''De aegritudinum curatione'', 300 pages long, is a compilation by an anonymous compiler. It is generally dated about 1190s. Conceivably, maybe, some medicines recipes might have enhancement insertions of later date. Text has two instances of ''candi'' in medicines recipes. Text is in ''Collectio Salernitana'' Volume 2, year 1853 (pages 81-386) where ''candi'' is on pages 260 & 309.De Egritudinum Curatione , In Latin : ''Eene Middelnederlandsche vertaling van het ANTIDOTARIUM NICOLAÏ, met den Latijnschen tekst der eerste gedrukte uitgave van het ANTIDOTARIUM NICOLAÏ'', curated by Van Den Berg, year 1917. Search for Latin ''candi''. Date of the Latin is before 1250 and probably not much before 1250. Remarks on date of the Latin @ https://journals.openedition.org/medievales/2283 Antidotarium Nicolai , As printed at Lyon in year 1510, folio xix verso (i.e. page xix+1) has two instances of CANDI in medicines recipes. It indicates the CANDI is muchly the same as PENIDII (id est فانيد aka penide). Gilbertus's compendium is of the Salernitan School in content. Composition date assessed as probably the 1240s. Ref for date: archive.org/details/gilbertusanglic00hand Gilbertus's Compendium Medicinae. The word is in Italian-Latin prior to 1250 in the form zuchari candi (sugar candy) as well as just candi. Other early attestations in European languages include: French candi ≈ 1256 (this French is located in a compilation and translation of Italian-Latin medicine material); Italian-Latin çucari canti (sugar candy) = 1259; Italian candi = 1310, Italian zucchero candi = 1330s; Spanish candi = 1330-1343, Spanish açucar candio (sugar candy) = 1337-1348; Netherlands Dutch candijt = 1351, Netherlands suycker candy ≈ 1377, Netherlands candi = 1397; German kandith ≈ 1400, German sucker candigen (sugar candy) = 1445; English sugur candy ≈ 1420, English sukyr candy ≈ 1440. British Latin sucri candy ≈ 1390. Refs: candi @ ''Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources'' (DMLBS), year 2013. It quotes Gilbertus Anglicus (died c. 1250), who lived bulk of life in & near Italy and was educated in the way of doing medicine of the Salerno School. He is a Salernitan source, not a British source. DMLBS also quotes ''candi'' in John of Gaddesden, whose output was compiled from Continental Latin medicines texts.DMLBS, Lexicon ''Vocabolario Ligure'' by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, on page 216, quotes year 1259 Latin ''çucari canti''. The whole of the year 1259 text is in ''Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria'' Volume XXXVI, year 1906, on pages xxvi-xxx, at archive.org/details/attidellasociet36sociuoft Aprosio, candi @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)TLIO, ''Corpus OVI dell'Italiano antico'' is a searchable corpus of 13th-14th century texts in Italian. Search for ''candi''. Results include ''çucheri candi'' in a Latin-to-Italian translation of the Antidotarium Nicolai.Corpus OVI, candi @ Dictionnaire Étymologique de l'Ancien Français. It cites ''candi'' in Aldebrandin de Sienne's medicines book, which is French compiled and translated from Italian-Latin sources. Also cites French ''çucre camdi'' translating Latin ''zuchari candi'' in translating the Antidotarium Nicolai. Candi is a rarity in medieval French, as can be seen in the low quantity of citations at http://atilf.fr/dmf/ and at DÉAF.DÉAF, Medieval Spanish cande, candi, candil, candio @ ''Los arabismos del castellano en la Baja Edad Media'', by Felipe Maíllo Salgado, year 1998, on page 140-141Maíllo, kandij @ Netherlands Dutch etymologies by Nicoline van der Sijs and othersEtymologiebank, Book, ''Arabismen im Deutschen'', by Raja Tazi, year 1998 on page 259Raja Tazi, Book, ''Geschichte des Zuckers'', by Edmund O. von Lippmann, year 1890, on page 242, reports ''sucker candigen'' dated 1445 in LübeckGeschichte des Zuckers, candy #1 @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), year 1893. Cites English ''sugur candy'' dated 1420s-1430s in an English poem titled ''Cure Cocorum''.NED, ''Promptorium Parvulorum'' is an English-to-Latin dictionary dated about 1440. It has English ''sukyr candy'' translated as Latin ''sucura de candia'' (on page 484 in print edition year 1865).Promptorium parvulorum, candi @ ''Etymologische Untersuchungen auf dem Gebiete der Romanischen Sprachen'', by C.A.F. Mahn, year 1855, on page 47Mahn.
  48. ^ candy

    One short introduction to the history of sugar among the Persians & Arabs in the medieval period is on pages 20-25 in the book The Sugar Cane Industry: An Historical Geography from its Origins to 1914, by J.H. Galloway, year 1989. Another introduction is the chapter "The Origin and Expansion of Sugar Production in the Islamic World" in the book Sugar in the Social Life of Medieval Islam, by Tsugitaka Sato, year 2014. Both of those books say sugar cultivation spread from India into Iran and then went from Iran into the Arabic-speaking countries.
  49. ^ carat

    In the early records of the word carat in English, carat referred to the purity of gold, most often of gold coins, and it is only later on that it is seen additionally as a unit of weight. In English the earliest known for carat as purity of gold is 1469 – carat @ Middle English Dictionaryref: MED. The earliest known in English where the word was used as a weight is 1555 – carat @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), year 1893ref: NED, search @ ''Early English Books Online'' (EEBO). Has year 1555 ''carattes'' as a unit of weight for weighing rubies and pearls, in a book translated Italian-to-English (Italian author Pietro Martire d'Anghiera, English translator Rycharde Eden). EEBO also has year 1558 ''carattes'' as a weight in another Italian book translated to English (Italian by Alessio Piemontese, translation by Wyllyam Warde).ref: EEBO. The English with both meanings is traceable to Italian (via French). In the following paragraphs, most of the attention is put on the word's use in Italy in and around the 13th century. The aim is to affirm that the word in 13th century Italy had come from Arabic. Nearly all 13th century records in Italy are in Latin.
    In medieval Arabic, قيراط qīrāt was frequent with the meaning of a unit of weight (lots of instances at البحث عن قيراطAlWaraq.net). It had more than one definition as a unit of weight. The definition by reference to the weight of a gold dinar coin was common in the early centuries of Islam and was still mentioned in late medieval Arabic (A number of searchable medieval Arabic dictionaries mention this definition, as you can see from searching for القيراط in the dictionaries. The medieval dictionaries put the word underneath a rootword قرط.e.g., Medieval dictionary of Ibn Manzur says : القيراط جُزء من أَجزاء الدينار... وأَهل الشام يجعلونه جزءاً من أَربعة وعشرينe.g.). But during the middle- and later-medieval centuries the weight of the gold dinar coin varied across different Arabic government issuers. In and around the 13th century, gold dinars of different weights and sizes were in circulation at the same time, although the gold purity was almost always high (i.e. 23+ carats) – Article, ''The Dinar versus the Ducat'', by Jere L. Bacharach, year 1973. Says on page 84: The dinar had a traditional weight standard of 4.25 grams, but with the advent of Saladin's rule in Egypt (1171 AD) this tradition was dropped, and for the next several centuries the governments in Egypt issued gold coins of varying weights, while at the same time almost all issues had gold purity of 23+ carats.ref. Qīrāt in medieval Arabic was also a pricing term meaning 1/24th of the value of a gold dinar coin or a 1/24th part of anything – Paragraph for قيراط in Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon under rootword قرط. It quotes from ''Mṣb'' = The Miṣbāḥ dictionary by Al-Fayyoumi (died 1368). Al-Fayyoumi's dictionary's entry for قرط, containing القيراط, is in Arabic at http://ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.com/ ref, ḳīrāṭ @ E. J. Brill's ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'', First Edition, Volume 2, year 1927, on pages 1023-1024, reports medieval definitions of the Arabic ḳīrāṭ = قيراط qīrāt.ref.
    Arabic qīrāt was descended from ancient Greek keration, which anciently meant a small unit of weight. In medieval Greek, keration (plural: keratia) also meant 1/24th of the value of the Byzantine Greek gold coin and this meaning was in medieval Greek over many centuries including the 10th and 13th centuries – Book ''Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy'' by Michael F. Hendy, year 1985. Page 506 quotes ''keration'' in ''Book of the Prefect'' (aka Eparch) in 10th century. Page 536 (table 24) gives keration's role in Byzantine coinage about 1300. Search for ''keratia'' throughout Hendy's book. However, this search may serve up only six pages with the word at Books.Google.com, whereas the word is on many, many more pages.ref.
    For the medieval Latins, the word "at Wikipedia : Bezantbezant" (in medieval Latin in wordforms bisancius etc) meant any Arabic or Greek gold coin. It also meant a gold coin issued in the Crusader-controlled Levant in substitution for an Arabic gold coin. In Italian-Latin in Italy, and in Italian-Latin in the Crusader-controlled Levant in commerce documents, the word caratus | karatus | caractum has the meaning 1/24th of the money value of a bezant gold coin in years 1164, 1191, 1203, 1204, 1206, 1210, 1216, 1219, 1225, 1243, 1244, 1249, 1261 and later, and in about a third of these cases the bezant was issued by an Arabic government, about a third were issued by the Levant Crusader government, and a third were issued by the Byzantine government – Latin karatus/charatus @ ''Vocabolario Ligure'' [Liguria in Italy], by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, on page 224. In the quotations, ''perpero'' means the Byzantine gold coin, and ''bisanci'' means Arabic gold coins. The quote from year 1164, ''de bisanciis xlviii minus iii. karatis alexandrie'', is referring to Alexandria in Egypt and means bezants issued by the Egyptian government.ref , Book in Latin : ''Guglielmo Cassinese (1190-1192), tomo II'', year 1938, a book belonging to the publication series ''Notai liguri''. Page 2 has year 1191 ''dare promittit bis[ant]. sarracenales... xliii et caratos iii'', where one caratos means 1/24th of the money value of one Saracen bezant coin. Altlink :
    , Book in Latin : ''Notai Liguri del sec. XII e del XIII : Lanfranco (1202-1226)'' Volume #1, curated by Krueger & Reynolds, year 1951. Has year 1210 CARAT__ at Genoa on pages 268, 271, 286 & 290. Page 290 has: ''pro singula libra bisantium unum sarracenalem et caratos xviiii'' = ''for a single Genoese Libra monetary unit [is to be contractually exchanged] one Saracenal Bezant and 19/24 of one Saracenal Bezant''.ref , Book in Latin : ''Notai Liguri del sec. XII e del XIII : Lanfranco (1202-1226)'' Volume #2, curated by Krueger & Reynolds, year 1951. Has six instances of ''caratis'' or ''caratos'' at Genoa with dates 1216 and 1225 meaning 1/24th of a bezant. The bezants are ''bisantios... sarracenales de Acri''. Altlink @ https://notariorumitinera.eu/ ref , Book in Latin : ''Il cartulario del notaio Martino: Savona (1203-1206)'', curated by Dino Puncuh, year 1974. Wordform is ''caract_''. Page 181: ''in Alexandriam [Egypt]... bizantios sarrazinales LXII et XX caractos'', year 1203 or 1204.ref , Book in Latin : ''Notai liguri del sec. XII : Giovanni di Guiberto (1200-1211), tomo I'', curated by Krueger et al, year 1939. Has four instances of year 1203 ''caratulos'' meaning 1/24th of one bezant coin in notarized agreements involving sea-commerce in Eastern Mediterranean. Altlink :
    , Texts in Latin : ''Archives de l'Orient Latin, Tome II'', year 1884. Publishes year 1249 and year 1300 commerce documents by Genoa authors located in Eastern Mediterranean at Acre and Famagousta. Documents have KARAT__ meaning 1/24 of a bisant coin.ref , Book in Latin : ''Urkunden Zur Älteren Handels- und Staatsgeschichte Der Republik Venedig'', Volume 2, covering years 1205-1255, curated by Tafel & Thomas, year 1856. Search for ''kar.'' which is abbrev for ''karat''. The Greek gold coin ''perpero'' is abbreviated ''pp''. Hence ''pp xxx et kar. vi'' means 30 perperos and 6/24 of one perpero. Book has also karat and caratum.ref (kar. = karat). In 1266 in Italian there is maybe a usage for carat as referring to gold purity, but maybe not. With clear meaning as the degree of gold purity in gold coins, in Latin there is 20½ caratis circa 1260 (13th century Latin documents : ''Acta Imperii inedita seculi XIII: Urkunden und Briefe zur Geschichte des Kaiserreichs und des Königreichs Sicilien in den Jahren 1198 bis 1273'', curated by Winkelmann, year 1880. On page 766, the Sicilian ''augustalis'' or ''augustale'' coin is stated to be made of gold of twenty and one-half CARATIS of gold and the remaining metal of the coin is stated to be bronze and silver.ref, Article, ''Ueber die Goldprägungen Kaiser Friedrichs II. für das Königreich Sicilien und besonders über seine Augustalen'', by E. Winkelmann, year 1894. Search for Latin CARATIS. Winkelmann declines to put a date on this Latin. Others put date in 3rd quarter of 13th century, while others put it before the death of king Friedrich II who died in 1250. Altlink :
    ), and 20 karattis in 1311 (Book, ''Acta Henrici VII imperatoris Romanorum et monumenta quaedam alia medii aevi'', Part 1, year 1839, on page 97. Publishes a legislative act of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII (died 1313) which has ''viginti karattis ad aurum finum pro marcha'' = ''gold fineness at twenty carats for Mark coins'' (German Marks). Date 1311. This item is cited in Niermeyer's Lexicon of Medieval Latin. ref ), and 24 quaratis in 1327 (Book, ''Histoire de Dauphiné et des Princes qui ont porté le nom de Dauphins'', Tome Second, year 1722, page 214. Publishes a text dated 1327 having ''florenos de viginti quatuor quaratis auri fini'' = ''Florin coins of 24 carat gold fineness''. This item is cited in Du Cange's Glossary of Medieval Latin. ref ), and in Italian carati | charati in 1307 (Italian text ''Tractatus algorismi... Milan Trivulziana MS 90'', carrying written year 1307 and author's name Jacobo de Florentia (elsewhere spelled Jacopo da Firenze). The text includes a tabulation of different gold coins with the degree of fineness of gold in the coins. Search for CARATI & CHARATI. Text curated by Jens Høyrup, year 2007. ref , Book ''Jacopo da Firenze's Tractatus Algorismi...'', medieval Italian text curated and translated to English by Jens Høyrup, year 2007. Search for CARATI and CHARATI. The full book is downloadable at https://b-ok.global/ alt-ref), and Italian 21 carrati in 1324-1328 (''Corpus OVI dell'Italiano antico'' is a searchable corpus of 13th-14th century texts in Italian. It has wordforms charati | karati | carati | carrati. The corpus includes a text by Jacopo della Lana dated 1324-1328 having the word with meaning degree of purity of gold. ref ). Among the Latins, the above two distinct meanings both started in Italian commerce. In 14th-century Italian commerce a carato could also mean the twentyfourth part of anything – carato @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini. Has quotations from 14th century.ref, Book ''La Pratica della Mercatura'' by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, dated roughly 1340. Book has 547 instances of CARATI and 69 of CARATO. The meaning is the twentyfourth part of something. Especially the twentyfourth part of a coin.ref.
    Seaport of Marseille in the mid 13th century has the Latin wordform cairat__ meaning "carat". Marseille documents include year 1238 "cxi bisanciis et xvi cairatis sarracenatis Acconis" ''Documents Inédits sur le Commerce de Marseille au Moyen-âge'', Tome 1, curated by Louis Blancard, year 1884, on page 121 and also on seven other pages by search for substring ''cairat''(ref) meaning 111 bezants and 16 carats (carat = 1/24th of one bezant) of the bezant coins issued at Acre city (Acconis) in the Crusader-controlled Levant. Marseille-Latin wordform cairat__ and Catalan-Latin wordform quirat are closer to Arabic qīrāt in the wordform, compared to Italian-Latin wordform carat__. Catalan quirat has earliest reported record in 1315 – quirat @ Diccionari.cat, an online dictionary of modern Catalan. It copies the year 1315 date from published tomes about historical Catalan and Catalan-Latin.ref. 14th century Catalan quirat examples: Book, ''Colección de documentos inéditos del Archivo General de la Corona de Aragón'', Tomo 39, compiled by Bofarull, year 1871. Book has ''quirat'' on four different pages in the same document. Date 1315.year 1315, Book, ''Les Monedes Catalanes'' Volume 3, by Joaquim Botet, year 1911. Starting on page 311 and ending on page 418, search Volume 3 for 14th century ''quirat''.years 1338, 1356, 1362, 1370, and Book, ''Memorias históricas sobre la marina, comercio y artes de la antigua ciudad de Barcelona'' Volume II primera parte, curated by Antonio de Capmany, year 1779, reissued year 1962. Quirat(s) on page 322.1381. On the basis of the chronological order and the frequency of records, the word in Catalan was sourced from the word in Italian, notwithstanding that the Catalan wordform quirat shows independent contact with Arabs. In some of the above-linked Catalan examples, the meaning of quirat is gold purity degree, a meaning which was not in use in medieval Arabic; it went into Catalan from Italian. In Catalan in 1315 the meaning of quirat is a tax in Muslim jurisdictions, which is classifiable as being not the same word. The word that Catalan took from Italian is a word still in use in Catalan today, while the word that Catalan took directly from Arabic is dead in Catalan -- except that it affected the Catalan wordform. The next paragraph is about the historical context surrounding the start of the gold-purity semantics in late 13th century Italy.
    For five centuries before 1250, the States and kingdoms of Western Christendom did not issue gold coins, except for a few short-lived and minor issuances in Christian Iberia and Sicily-Naples (for details on the exceptions see Article, ''Gold coinage of Europe before 1300AD'', published by The Australian Numismatic Society Library, date 2012ref) (another minor exception is that gold bezants were intermittently issued in the Crusader-controlled Levant at Acre, 1140s-1250s). Silver was the metal of choice for money in the West in those centuries. Starting in 1252 in Republic of Genoa, 1252 in Republic of Florence, and 1284 in Republic of Venice, the northern Italian city-states started issuing 24-carat gold coins. These were well received, and then some other States followed their example, including France in 1290 and England in 1344. During the five centuries prior to 1252, gold coins were almost continually issued by the Arabs and the Greeks. The Arabic and Greek gold coins were well-known in the commercial Latin Mediterranean, because they were accepted as payments in international trade. The Arabic gold coins had multiple independent State issuers, and varied in their gold purity in time and place. In the 13th century in Egypt and Syria, they were generally 23- to 24-carat gold – Article, ''The Standard of Fineness of Gold Coins Circulating in Egypt at the Time of the Crusades'', by A.S. Ehrenkreutz, year 1954, 5 pagesref, Article, ''Quseir al-Qadim : a Hoard of Islamic Coins from the Ayyubid period'', by Cécile Bresc, year 2008. Says the gold coins in this particular hoard ''contains a percentage of fine gold of about 96-97 %''.ref, Article, ''Mamluk Monetary History: A Review Essay'', by Warren C. Schultz, in journal ''Mamlūk Studies Review'', Volume III, year 1999. On page 186 it reports that the reign of Baybars (years 1260-77) ''is characterized by gold coins of high purity''.ref. The generality of the coins of the 13th century Maghreb were of this purity as well – Book, ''The Numismatic History of Late Medieval North Africa'', by Harry W. Hazard, year 1952, section headed ''Metrology''ref. The two main sources of new gold for the Arab and Mediterranean trading regions in the 13th century were in Africa: The Niger-Mali area (carried north to the Maghreb) and the southern Sudan area – ''Mining, Metallurgy and Minting in the Middle Ages'' : Volume 2 : ''Afro-European supremacy, 1125-1225'', by Ian Blanchard, year 2001, on page 913. Some further info extractable by searching the book for word ''Maghreb''.ref, ''Mining, Metallurgy and Minting in the Middle Ages'' : Volume 3 : ''Continuing Afro-European supremacy 1250-1450'', by Ian Blanchard, year 2005. The book has a chapter titled ''Sub-Saharan Africa Gold Production and Trade 1250-1450''.ref. The gold coins issued by the Byzantine Greeks were 24-carat up until the middle of the 11th century, and their purity was reduced from then onward. Byzantine purity in the period 1220 to 1280 was 15-carat to 17-carat gold – Article, ''Byzantine Money: Its Production and Circulation'', by Cécile Morrisson, year 2002, a chapter in the downloadable book ''The Economic History of Byzantium'' published by Dumbarton Oaks, year 2002/2007. Figure 4 between print pages 912 and 913 is a graph that shows the percentage of gold in the 13th century Byzantine gold coins.ref. Minting and circulation of Byzantine gold coins much declined during the 13th century and completely ceased at mid 14th century – Chapter ''Byzantine Money: Its Production and Circulation'', by Cécile Morrisson, year 2002, in book ''Economic History of Byzantium'' by various authorsref, Book ''Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c.300-1450'', by Michael F. Hendy, year 1985ref. 13th-century Italian merchants on the whole did more commerce with Arabs than with Byzantines. But Italian trade with Byzantines was still substantial in the 13th century – Downloadable Book, ''The Economic History of Byzantium From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century'', year 2002/2007. In section headed ''Exchange, Trade, and Markets'', the book's chapters by Klaus-Peter Matschke and John Day show that commerce conducted by Italians in the Byzantine lands in the 13th century was substantial in volume and multifaceted, and many Italian merchants were involved.ref. As repetition, the Arabic qīrāt was 1/24th of an Arabic gold coin and the Greek keration was 1/24th of a Greek gold coin, and in 12th & 13th century Italy the word "bezant" meant both Arabic and Greek gold coins, and the Italian-Latin word carato in its early use meant 1/24th of the money value of both Arabic and Greek gold coins. Because the parent word of the Italian carato was longstandingly established in both Arabic and Greek, the Italian carato could have come from Arabic and Greek at the same time. When the meaning is "purity of gold", carato is better assigned more predominantly to Arabic (not Greek) because the 13th century Arabic coins generally were 23- to 24-carat gold while the Greek coin was not.
    The 12th-century Arabic-to-Latin translation of the Canon of Medicine of Ibn Sina (died 1037) by translator Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187) was influential in Latin medical circles. In the translation, Ibn Sina's Arabic قيراط qīrāt is always translated as Latin kirat, its meaning is a small weight unit, the word is used about 40 times in recipes for medicines, and Ibn Sina says: In Arabic, text searchable : القانون في الطب لابن سيناكل قيراط أربع شعيرات = In Latin : Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine translated by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187). Quote is taken from near the end of Book V.omnis kirat est iiii grana hordei = "all carats are four barley seeds". In the late 13th century another medicines book in Arabic-to-Latin translation has Latin kirat as a weight unit in medicines recipes – Book, ''Liber Aggregatus in Medicinis Simplicibus'', by Serapion the Younger, an Arabic-to-Latin translation. The translation's Latin medicine vocabulary is influenced by the vocabulary in Gerard of Cremona's translation of Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine. It has Latin ''kirat'' a dozen times as a weight unit in medicines recipes. The Arabic author was of the school of Ibn al-Wafid (died c. 1070) in Iberia.ref. Early in the 14th century in Latin in Italy a 3-page tract was written to clarify the definitions of the weight units in Latin medicines recipes. The tract invokes Ibn Sina's Canon as the principal authority for the definitions. The tract lists the Latin spellings karat, kirat, karatos''Tractatus Dini de ponderibus et mensuris'', by Dinus de Garbo, aka Dino di Garbo, aka Dinus Florentinus (died 1327). Printed as a chapter in some editions of Dinus's book of commentaries on Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine. The printed ''Auic.'' and ''Aui.'' and ''A.'' are abbreviations for Avicenna, i.e. Ibn Sina (died 1037). In this 3-page tract the authority of ''A.'' is repeatly cited.ref-1,  ref-2 Book Von Axel Bergmann. Aus dem Institut für Geschichte der Pharmazie der Philipps-Universität Marburg.Der TRACTATUS DE PONDERIBUS des Mondino de’ Liuzzi und andere metrologische Kleintexte des lateinischen Mittelalters, year 2008. It says in German on page 10: Actually, the ''Ponderibus'' of Dino del Garbo [died 1327] is nothing more than an editing of the ''Tractatus de Ponderibus'' of Mondino de’ Liuzzi (died circa 1326), who, like Dino del Garbo, studied medicine as a student of Taddeo Alderotti in Bologna. Book gives a critical edition which handles the medieval variants of the tract. The edition has Latin ''Karat vel kirat'' on page 110-111. The edition and its footnotes has more than 200 instances of the Latin string AVICENNA meaning Ibn Sina (died 1037).. It is okay to suppose that the wordform karat__ ousted the wordform kirat in Italian-Latin medicines recipes because phonetically karat__ was standard with the 13th century Italian merchants.
    The word is in late 14th & early 15th century French in the grammatical plural wordforms karas | karaz | caras | caraz | quaras | quarais | quaraiz | quarraz = "carats", meaning both the gold purity degree and a small weight unit – carat @ Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (1330-1500)ref, Book, ''Glossaire français du Moyen Âge à l'usage de l'archéologue et de l'amateur des arts, précédé de l'inventaire des bijoux de Louis duc d'Anjou dressé vers 1360-1368'', by Léon de Laborde, year 1872. Search for substrings quara, kara, and cara.ref, Book, ''Inventaires mobiliers et extraits des comptes des ducs de Bourgogne... Tome Second : 1379-1390'', compiled by Bernard & Henri Prost, year 1913. Search for substrings kara and cara.ref. Records in French or French-Latin are overall much later than in Italian-Latin except that one or maybe two isolated records are in French in late 13th century, both of which are in texts that show contact with Arabic sources and they have the word as a weight unit – carat @ ''Dictionnaire Étymologique de l'Ancien Français'' (DÉAF)DÉAF.
  50. ^ caraway + carvi

    Arabic الكرويا al-karawiyā or الكراويا al-karāwiyā = "caraway seed" is in medieval Arabic general-purpose dictionaries. It comes up as a spice in dozens of recipes in the 10th-century cookery book of Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq Medieval cookery book in English translation : ''Ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq's Tenth-Century Baghdadi Cookbook'', by translator Nawal Nasrallah, year 2007. Includes a glossary of the Arabic culinary words. The book has 90 instances of English word caraway.(ref), and in dozens of recipes in an anonymous Arabic cookery book of the 13th century (Book in English : ''Anonymous Andalusian Cookbook : The Book of Cooking in Maghreb and Andalus in the era of Almohads [13th century]''. Translated from Arabic by Charles Perry. Reformatted to PDF fileformat by Candida Martinelli, year 2012. Search for word CARAWAY.ref , Article, ''A Fragrant 13th Century Spice Box of al-Andaluz'', by Dar Anahita. In a certain Andalusian Arabic Cookbook dated 13th century, in its first eight chapters, having a total of 345 food recipes, caraway is a flavoring ingredient in 46 of the recipes.ref). The way to grow the plant is discussed in Ibn al-Awwam's 12th-century book on agriculture الكراويا @ Ibn al-Awwam's Kitab al-Filaha, in Arabic alongside translation to Spanish by Banqueri, year 1802, volume II, particularly Chapter XXVI article ii on pages 254-256(ref), and the plant is mentioned repeatedly in the 10th-century Arabic Book of Nabataean Agriculture كتاب الفلاحة النبطية @ AlWaraq.net. This book uses the wordforms الكراويا and الكرويا and كرويا.(ref). The seeds are used as a medicine in the medicine books of Al-Razi (died c. 930) AlWaraq.net : كرويا @ كتاب الحاوي في الطب – أبو بكر محمد بن زكريا الرازي(ref), Ibn Sina (died 1037) In Arabic : Ibn Sina's القانون في الطب. Search for الكراويا(ref), Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) Book : الجامع لمفردات الأدوية والأغذية - ابن البيطار. In the linked copy, كراويا is the subject of discussion on pages 723-724. Page 745 says كمون أرمني: هو الكراويا(ref), and many others. In medieval Arabic the name "Armenian cumin" was a synonym for karawiyā meaning caraway seed, as reported by Ibn al-Baitar Ibn al-Baitar's book on foods & medicines says:
    كمون أرمني: هو الكراويا
    and Ibn Maimoun (died 1204) A medicines catalog by بن ميمون Ibn Maimoun is in searchable format at ABLIBRARY.NET and it says
    [sic] كرويّه يقال لها أيضا الكمون الأرمينى [sic]
    . A reporter in medieval Persian says one of the exports of Armenia & Azerbaijan is karawiyā In English translation only : حدود العالم HUDUD AL-'ALAM, geography book in Persian by an unnamed compiler in year 982 AD, translated by V Minorsky, year 1937. The region of Armenia & Azerbaijan is the subject of pages 142-145 and within those pages the Persian ''karaviyā'' (i.e. karawiyā, meaning caraway) is mentioned as an exported product.(ref).
    It is assessed by today's botanists that the caraway plant is native in Northern Europe, and native in the Armenian Highlands, and not native in most Arabic-speaking areas. The medieval Latins adopted a number of culinary spices from the medieval Arabs, and adopted the Arabic names for them in a number of cases. A majority of these spices were from the Indies. A few were from plants native in the Mediterranean area. The better-known spice-names adopted as names by the medieval Latins from the medieval Arabs are: cubeb, curcuma, galangal, lemon, orange (medieval oranges were all bitter), saffron, sumac, tamarind, tarragon -- each discussed elsewhere on this page. The two spices saffron and sumac were commonly consumed by the ancient Greeks & Romans, but it is demonstrable that the two names saffron and sumac were adopted by the medieval Latins from medieval Arabic. The medieval Latin carui = "caraway" was taken from medieval Arabic as well, as argued in the following paragraphs.
    From Arabic al-karawiyā, 14th & 15th century Spanish had Search for ''alcarauea'' in the medieval Spanish texts at HispanicSeminary.orgalcarauea | ''alcarauia'' @ Spanish-Latin dictionary of Antonio Nebrija, first edition 1495, link goes to edition year 1513alcarauia | ''Diccionari del castellà del segle XV a la Corona d'Aragó'', year 2013, quotes ''alcarahueya'' in the year 1499 Spanish book ''Libro de Albeyteria''. The book was written in Catalan by Manuel Díez (died 1443) and translated to Spanish by Martín Martínez de Ampiés (died c. 1513).alcarahueya | Article ''Sobre El Léxico Aragonés :: Indice Léxico Y Documental : Mercaderías Entradas Por La TAULA DE FRAGA En El Ejercicio 1445-1446'', written by J.A. Frago, year 1979. Fraga is a town located on border between Aragon and Catalonia and its local speech has features of Aragonese and Catalan. Lexicon published in ''Actes del cinquè Col·loqui Internacional de Llengua i Literatura Catalanes'', year 1980, on page 424.alcarahuya | 15th century manuscript ''Tratado de la patología general'', also titled ''Tratado de medicina'', by anonymous author, has 3 instances of alcarabea, and 3 instances of alcaravea||alcarauea. Transcription of manuscript is published at HispanicSeminary.org. Facsimile of manuscript is at http://bdh.bne.es/bnesearch/detalle/bdh0000065095 alcarabea = "caraway". 14th & 15th century Catalan Book, ''Llibre d'establiments i ordenacions de la ciutat de València .I. (1296 - 1345)'', is a set of medieval texts, curated by Antoni Furió, year 2007. Alcarahuya is 3 times on page 411.alcarahuya | alcarauya, alcarauyia @ ''Vocabulario del comercio medieval. Colección de aranceles aduaneros de la Corona de Aragón (siglo XIII y XIV)'', compiled by Miguel Gual Camarena, year 1968alcarahuye + alcarauya = "caraway". The writing system in the medieval Latinate languages used one and the same letter for the two sounds /u/ and /v/. The word in today's Spanish is alcaravea. You can see the 15th century Spanish wordform alcarabea listed above. It signals that the 14th-15th century wordform alcarauea was pronounced ALCARAVEA at least sometimes. But you can also see the 15th century wordforms like alcarahuya, which are signalling a different pronunciation. Medieval Sicilian Italian has caruya | caruye = "caraway" with date before 1312 – caruya @ ''Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia'', by Girolamo Caracausi, year 1983, on page 163ref. Its pronunciation was maybe KAR-U-I-A or KAR-VI-A. Its wordform on its face -- caruya, caruye -- is foreign-looking and says it came from the Arabic karawiyā.
    Latin carui = "caraway" occurs dozens of times in the works of the Arabic-to-Latin medical translator Constantinus Africanus (died c. 1087) – In Latin : ''Opera Constantinus Africanus'', Volume 1, published at Basel in year 1536. The given OCR'd copy has 32 instances of OCR'd string ''carui''.ref ,  ref Book, Omnia Opera Ysaac, published at Lyon in year 1515, 900 pages. Nearly all of this book is output of Constantinus Africanus, and nearly all of Constantinus's output was translated from Arabic authors. The book's publisher attributed the original authorship of all of it to an Arabic author Isaac (Isaac Israeli, aka Isḥaq al-Isra’ili, died c. 932-955). Hence the Ysaac or Isaac in the book's title. The publisher was much mistaken about that. However, a more serious problem with this publication is it propagates some text insertions done in Latin by anonymous undated people sometime later than Constantinus Africanus. The insertions are mainly in the ''Practica'' chapters towards the end of the book. The edition at Basel in the late 1530s is generally preferable to the edition at Lyon in 1515.. The Latin word and wordform carui meaning "caraway" is easy to find from the 12th century onward. It is apparently entirely absent in Latin before Constantinus Africanus -- but there is a hurdle or complication involved in saying this. Ancient Greek karo | karon | karos, and ancient & early medieval Latin careum meant aromatic edible seeds and the name may have meant the caraway. In the ancient and early medieval records, the name is uncommon and the species it names is never clear. Dioscorides in Greek in the 1st century AD said "Karo[s] is a... little seed.... It has much the same nature as anise. The boiled root is edible as a vegetable." – Dioscorides ''Materia Medica'' in English, translated by John Goodyer and Tess Anne Osbaldeston, year 1655 and year 2000. Search for KAROS in Book 3 only. Dioscorides in Greek is at : archive.org/details/b21459162_0002 , having καρώ in Book 3 § 57, on page 70 (Wellmann edition)ref. Many aromatic seeds (including caraway) can be fitted to that statement within the botanical family at Wikipedia : ApiaceaeApiaceae. The Latin encyclopedia of Isidore of Seville (died 636) has no mention of caraway, though it has a chapter on cultivated aromatic edibles in which it mentions cumin, anise, corriander, fennel, dill, parsley, chervil, and lovage, all of which are plants in the Apiaceae family and have edible aromatic seeds, and the roots of around half of them are edible after boiling them for a while; In English translation : ''Origines'' by Isidore of Seville, translation by Barney et al, year 2006. Book XVII chapter xi on page 357 is about edible aromatic garden-grown plants (flavourful seeds and herbs).Isidore in English, In Latin : ''Origines'' by Isidore of Seville, book XVII chapter xi ''De odoratis oleribus''Isidore in Latin. The medicinal-botany book of Macer Floridus in Latin in France in the 11th century has no mention of caraway, though it mentions cumin, coriander, fennel, dill, chervil, lovage, celery seeds, fenugreek seeds, and others – ''Macer Floridus - De Viribus Herbarum'', a Latin medicinal-botany text dated 11th century. Curated by Choulant, year 1832.ref. The Latin agriculture book of Palladius (lived circa 400 AD) does not mention caraway, though it mentions cumin 7 times, coriander 8 times, and has fenugreek seeds, anise, fennel, dill, and some other Apiaceaes – ''De Re Rustica'' by Palladius, in Latin together with translation into modern French, year 1844. Packaged with ''De Re Rustica'' by Columella under book title ''Les Agronomes Latins''. Palladius copied somewhat from Columella.ref. The early medieval Greek agriculture book of Cassianus Bassus has numerous mentions for each of cumin, anise, fennel, dill, Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages has an intro to the aromatic seed ''Trachyspermum ammi'' aka ''Carum copticum'', a native in the Mediterranean area. Was known in Greek as ammi (ἄμμι, ἄμις, ἄμμιος). It is a member of the Apiaceae family.ammi (ἄμμι) seeds, nigella seeds, fenugreek, and others, and no mention of any karo akin to what Dioscorides mentioned – Cassianus Bassus's agriculture book was translated to Arabic in the 9th century. The 9th century Arabic with translation to modern Spanish : ''Edición, traducción y estudio del KITAB AL-FILAHA AR-RUMIYYA (Tratado de agricultura griega) de Qustus b. Askuraskinah (Casiano Baso Escolástico)'', by FJ Mariscal Linares, year 2015. Includes searchable indexes for plantnames.ref, Book in Medieval Greek : ''Geoponica sive Cassiani Bassi scholastici De re rustica eclogae'', curated by Beckh, year 1895. This is a relatively late version of ''Geoponica''. It has Greek καρναβαδιον KARNABADION, which is understood as meaning caraway. Back of book has index of Greek vocabulary.ref. The medicines encyclopedia of Alexander of Tralles, 6th century Greek, has no karo or caraway, though it has numerous mentions for cumin, coriander, fennel, lovage, ammi, nigella, etc – Alexander of Tralles's Greek side-by-side with German translation in edition by Theodor Puschmann was published in 1879 in two volumes. Volume 2 has a pages-index for the Greek vocabulary of the medicinal substances. The link goes to this index.ref. Symeon Seth is the author of a book on foods and medicines in Greek in the late 11th century. Symeon Seth's book has no karo, though it has talk about the Apiaceaes anise, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, parsley, and the non-Apiaceaes nigella, mint, etc – In Greek : The book on foods and medicines by Symeon Seth (died c. 1110), published under book title ''Syntagma de alimentorum facultatibus'', curated by Langkavel, year 1868.ref, Article in English: ''Complete list of foodstuffs in Symeon Seth’s SYNTAGMA DE ALIMENTORUM FACULTATIBUS arranged alphabetically in Greek'', by Alison Noble, year 2014, nine pages, published by Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Studies.

    Alison Noble translates Symeon Seth's Greek καρναβαδιον as English ''caraway''.
    . Symeon Seth and some other medieval Greek texts have καρναβαδιον karnabadion meaning caraway seed – καρναβαδιον @ ''Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität'', year 2014, a lexicon of medieval Greek. Cites καρναβαδι(ο)ν in medieval Greek authors, including Symeon Seth. The lexicon says the meaning is caraway.ref, Book ''La Scala Copte 44 de la Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris: Transcription'', curated by Henri Munier, year 1930, publishes a Greek-to-Arabic dictionary having a later-medieval date before year 1423. On page 135 on line 12 the dictionary has Greek καρναβαδιν = Arabic كراوية.ref (on line 12), In Latin : Carnabadum @ ''Synonyma Medicinae'' by Simon of Genoa, about year 1292. Says ''carnabadum .g. est carui'', which translates as ''carnabadum is a Greek word and its meaning is Latin carui''.ref. Karnabadion was a foreign name in medieval Greek and it corresponds to medieval Arabic قرنباد qarnabād | قرنباذ qarnabādh | qaranbād meaning caraway, which is documented in medieval Arabic with low frequency meaning caraway – medieval Arabic examples include In Arabic : Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) says قرنباد and قرنباذ is another name for كراويا. Says it on pages 723 and 668 in the linked PDF. ابن البيطار - الجامع لمفردات الأدوية والأغذيةe.g., Arabic author Ishaq al-Isra'ili (died c. 932; aka Isaac Israeli) says ''qarnabād'' means cultivated caraway seed. This info is reported by Nawal Nasrallah in her book ''Ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq's Tenth-Century Baghdadi Cookbook'', year 2007, on page 658, where spelling is قرنباد. Al-Isra'ili's book الأغذية ل الإسرائيلي is online searchable at ABLIBRARY.NET, where spelling is القرنباذ.e.g., قرنباد QURUNBĀD @ ''Supplement Aux Dictionnaires Arabes'', by Reinhart Dozy, Volume 2, year 1881, on page 340 of the year 1927 re-issue. It cites this word with meaning ''garden caraway'' in the Arabic medicines book ''Mostaʿīnī'' written by Ibn Baklarish around year 1100.e.g. (the word went into Arabic from Persian qaranbād). Hortulus by Walafrid Strabo (wrote in Latin, died 849, lived in Germany) is a short commentary on the virtues of miscellaneous ancillary garden plants, it mentions chervil, dill, celery seeds, mint, and some others, and does not mention caraway – Latin text ''Hortulus'' by Walafrid Strabo, about 10 pages long, is published as an appendix in the book ''Macer Floridus - De Viribus Herbarum'', curated by Choulant, year 1832ref. Herbarium of Apuleius, roughly 5th century Latin, does not mention caraway – In Latin : ''De Medicaminibus Herbarum'', by Apuleius, year 1537 edition, with annotations by Gabriel Humelberg. This publication has an index of plantnames at the end of the book. The index does not have caraway. A more recent publication of Apuleius, titled ''Pseudoapulei Herbarius'', is at http://cmg.bbaw.de/epubl/online/cml_04.php (it has Index Nominum Plantarum on page number 340).ref. From the above set of non-mentions, we can say that the caraway was not in widespread use in Latin or Greek before the time of Constantinus Africanus. The Latin agriculture book of Columella (died 70 AD) has one mention of a thing careum: "Dry flavorings... such as careum, cumin, fennel seeds, Egyptian anise". This word in Columella has been read as meaning caraway by some translators Book ''Les douze liures de Lucius Iunius Moderatus Columella'', year 1555. Translator's annotation on page 558 under the heading ''Annotation sur le quarante & neufiesme Chapitre''.(e.g.) and not by others ''De Re Rustica'' by Columella in Latin and modern French translation in book titled ''Les Agronomes Latins'', year 1844. French translation by Saboureux de la Bonneterie (died 1781) reviewed and edited by Désiré Nisard (died 1888). Latin on page 486 (lower righthand side) has ''careum, cyminum, semen foeniculi'', and the French translation is on the same page (upper righthand side).(e.g.). Pliny (died 79 AD) wrote: "Careum is an exotic plant, which derives its name from the country in which it was first grown, Caria [in southwest Turkey]; it is principally employed for culinary purposes." – Pliny's ''Naturalis Historia'', book XIX chapter 49, translated to English by Bostock and Riley, year 1855ref. The caraway plant does not grow natively in southwest Turkey. Pliny's "exotic" careum is liable to be something other than caraway because the Apiaceae family has hundreds of edible aromatic species and the few mentions of the careum in ancient texts do not give specificity. The Latin cookery book of Apicius, roughly 4th century AD, has recipes involving an undescribed flavouring called in Latin careum and carei, and it is often read as meaning "caraway seeds" and sometimes is read as "carrot seeds" – Book in Latin : ''De Re Coquinaria'' by Caelius Apicius, curated by CH Schuch, year 1855, year 1867. Search for CAREUM and CAREI. The curator Schuch, in footnotes on pages 66 & 105, suggests Apicius's CAREUM is best interpreted as carrot seeds.ref, Book in English : ''Apicius: Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome'', being Apicius translated to English by Vehling, year 1936. Search for CARRAWAY, which is translating Latin careum.alt-ref. Latin text Capitulare de Villis in France about year 800 has a list of useful garden plants to be grown, the list includes "cumin, rosemary, careium, chickpea..." and the careium is often read as meaning "caraway" – ''Capitulare de Villis'' : In Latin and English side-by-side. English translation by Loyn and Percival, year 1975, was originally published in the book ''Documents on Carolingian Government and Administration''.ref, ''Capitulare de Villis'' is in Latin in the book ''Capitularia Regum Francorum'' Volume One, curated by Alfred Boretius, year 1883, where ''careium'' is on page 90 on 3rd line, and it is translated to modern German in footnote #19 on the same page. The translation says the meaning is caraway.alt-ref. Reading careum | carei | careium as meaning "caraway" was controversial back in the 16th century Book, ''In Antidotarium Ioannis Filii Mesuae, censura. Cum declaratione simplicium medicinarum, & solutione multorum dubiorum ac difficilium terminorum.'' Written in year 1543 by Angelus Palea & Bartholomaeus, who were two monks in Italy. Under headword ''carui'' on page 60-61, this book says the ''caro'' in Dioscorides should NOT be read as caraway. Should be read as ''daucigenus'' = ''a sort of carrot''.(e.g.) and 19th century caraway @ ''A History of the Principal Drugs of Vegetable Origin'', by Friedrich Flückiger and Daniel Hanbury, year 1879. Says on page 305: ''The opinion that this plant [caraway] is the Κάρος of Dioscorides, and that, as Pliny states, it derived its name from Caria (where it has never been met with in modern times) has very reasonably been doubted.''(e.g.) and 20th century Article, ''The Carrot as a Food in the Classical Era'', by AC Andrews, year 1949 in journal ''Classical Philology'', on pages 191-192, gives citations for ancient Greek KARO & KARON and ancient Latin CAREUM. On page 192, it gives references to other articles, by which you can see a diversity of opinion about what these names named anciently. On other pages, the article is riddled with bad facts and idle speculations.(e.g.). The information basis for reading it as caraway is very slim, vague, and questionable, though it may be correct. If it were correct, it would not imply that it was the parent of the medieval Latin carui. From the phonetic point of view it would be an irregularity to produce the Latin carui out of the Latin careum | carei | careium. The first records of Latin carui are in Constantinus Africanus's translations and this is one sign that carui arrived from the Arabic.
    Constantinus Africanus's translations were influential among the Salernitan School of medicine writers of the 12th & 13th centuries. One of those was Matthaeus Platearius (died c. 1160). Platearius lived in southern Italy. He wrote: "Carui herba est et semen . in transmarinis partibus et sicilia reperitur copiose" = "Carui is a herb and seed. In overseas places and Sicily it is obtained abundantly." – ''Liber de Simplici Medicina'', aka ''Circa Instans'', by Matthaeus Platearius. Link goes to images of a manuscript dated perhaps early 13th century. Manuscript owned by Mertz Library. ''Carui'' is on the bottom right of page number 51-52, which is image number 27.ref, Book ''Liber de Simplici Medicina'', aka ''Circa Instans'', of Matthaeus Platearius, in an edition printed in year 1512. Has a paragraph headed ''De carui''.alt-link. His book's word "overseas" always means the Arabic-speaking lands. His book was translated to French in the 13th century. The 13th century French translation says: "Carui.... c'est la semence d'un[e] herbe qui creist outre mer" = "Carui is the seed of a herb that grows overseas" – Book, ''Le livre des simples médecines: Traduction française du Liber de simplici medicina dictus Circa instans, de PLATEARIUS, tirée d'un manuscrit du XIIIe siècle'', curated by Paul Dorveaux, year 1913, on page 55, last paragraph. NEEDLESS TO SAY, the medieval manuscript says carui and does not say carvi.ref. Which is discordant with the idea that this name was in continuance from the careium grown in France in the Capitulare de Villis.
    Constantinus Africanus lived in Italy and so did most of the writers of the 12th-13th century Latin records of carui. Italian medievally has it spelled carui = "caraway". Several points in this paragraph and the next paragraph below show that carui must be read aloud as CARUI and CARVI, both. Today's Italian has it always carvi. Today's Italian cavolo = "cabbage" is in medieval Italian as cauolo, caulo, kaolo, colo cavolo @ TLIO(ref), from Classical Latin caulis | colis = "cabbage". The medieval Italian-Latin carui was from the medieval Arabic karawiyā in the opinion of today's Italian dictionaries, those dictionaries including carvi @ Treccani.it, an online Italian dictionary with brief etymologiesTreccani, carvi @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini'' (''TLIO'') : Click on the button labeled ''Nota etim.''.TLIO, carvi @ Grande Dizionario della Lingua Italiana (''GDLI''), years 1961-2002, in volume 2 on page 820, says : Italian carvi was from medieval Latin and the medieval Latin was an adaptation from Arabic Karawia.GDLI, carvi @ ''Dizionario italiano : il nuovo De Mauro'', a concise dictionary of today's ItalianDe Mauro, carvi @ Garzanti Linguistica online. Garzanti Italiano is an Italian dictionary. It briefly defines words and gives brief etymologies.Garzanti, carvi @ Sapere.it, an online Italian dictionary with brief etymologiesSapere, carvi @ ''Gli arabismi nelle lingue neolatine: Con speciale riguardo all'Italia'', Volume 1 (of two volumes), by Giovan Battista Pellegrini, year 1972Pellegrini, carvi @ ''Vocabolario etimologico della lingua italiana'', by Ottorino Pianigiani, year 1907Pianigiani. Medieval Italian and Italian-Latin did not use a sound /w/ in any words (although it did have /u/ near /w/). Phonetically changing an Arabic /w/ to a medieval Italian-Latin sound /v/ has parallel examples elsewhere on the current page in the histories of the three words "average", "caravan" and "Vega" – those three words have records in the 12th-13th century in Italian-Latin. Medieval Italian-Latin dovana is another example of going from Arabic /w/ to Italian-Latin /v/. Some documents with dovana in medieval Italy : year Book, ''Raccolta di scelti diplomi pisani'', curated by Dal Borgo, year 1765. It has Latin dovana in a trade treaty of Pisa in year 1256 (on page 60). It has Italian dovana in a trade treaty of Pisa in year 1264/1265, in which the treaty's other party is emirate of Tunisia (pages 215 & 217).1256+1265, Book ''Vocabolario Ligure'' by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, on page 350, quotes Latin ''dovana'' at Carrara town, located 50 kilometers north of Pisa.1260, doganiere @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini. Quotes ''lo dovanieri della dovana'', year 1330, location Pisa.1330, Book ''Bandi lucchesi del secolo decimoquarto: tratti dai registri del R. Archivio di stato in Lucca'', curated by Salvatore Bongi, year 1863. Search for ''dovana''.1336+1346, Book ''I Diplomi Arabi del R. Archivio Fiorentino'', curated by Michele Amari, year 1863. Page 304-305 has six instances of ''dovane'' or ''dovana'' in a treaty agreement in Latin between the city-state of Pisa and the emir of Tunis, dated 16 May 1353. ''Dovana'' is also elsewhere in the book with medieval date.1353, In Italian : A maritime Statute enacted at the seaport of Ancona in Italy in 1397, published in ''Collection de lois maritimes antérieures au XVIIIe siècle'', Volume V, curated by Jean-Marie Pardessus, year 18391397. Dovana is synonymous with Italian duana | doana | dugana | dogana, whose earliest records in European languages are in Latin at seaports in Italy in 2nd half of 12th century as duana (Downloadable lexicon : ''Vocabolario Ligure'' by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001. Latin ''duana'' is at port of Pisa in year 1154, at port of Savona in year 1162, at port of Genoa in year 1203. Latin ''duana'' is on page 351-352. Latin ''doana'', ''dovana'', and ''dugana'' are covered separately on other pages.ref , duana @ ''Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia'', by Girolamo Caracausi, year 1983, on pages 212-214. Quotes Latin ''duana'' at the ports of Palermo and Messina in years 1170-1185. Gives a citation for Italian ''doana'' in a Venice author in year 1207.ref), and this came from Arabic ديوان dīwān.  The Italian duana | doana was the parent of the synonymous Spanish aduana | adoana ref At the Spanish text database search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español, Spanish records start in 1270s as doana and adoana and all early instances in Spanish are referring to duanas at Mediterranean seaports, especially the seaport at Seville. The Spanish speakers did not possess any Mediterranean seaport in Iberia until their military victories in the 2nd quarter of 13th century. The word has records at the following seaports in Italy with the following start dates in Italian-Latin: Pisa 1154, Savona 1162, Palermo 1170, Salerno 1174, Messina 1185, Genoa 1203, Venice 1207, Marseille 1210 (Marseille under influence of Genoa). The early Italian-Latin word was a word of marine commerce. Spanish borrowed many words from Italy in the domain of Mediterranean marine commerce in the years 1250-1350, which is the years just after the Spanish speakers got possession of some Mediterranean seaports. The Latinate syllable du- | do- for the Arabic dīw- is phonetically distinctive and it was a creation done in Italy and was transferred from Italian into Spanish a century afterwards. In a hypothetical scenario where ديوان dīwān had been transferred from Arabic into Spanish directly, a notional normal Spanish wordform would have had the syllable di- | de- and not du- | do-. ﴿. Another example is the 12th century Italian-Latin 12th century Crusader documents in Latin published under title ''Les archives, la bibliothèque et le trésor de l'Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem à Malte'', curated by Delaville Le Roulx, year 1883. On page 133 ''bedevinos'' and ''bedevinis'' (''qui habitant in tentoriis'' = ''who live in tents''), written in year 1178 in Jerusalem by Amalricus, vicecount of Naples. Page 239 has Index Verborum for ''Bedevini''.bedevini = 13th century Italian beddovini @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Originibeddovini = modern English "bedouins", spelled In Latin: ''Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi'', a chronicle of the Crusade of king Richard I of England in the Levant in 1189-1192. Published as Volume I of ''Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I'', curated by William Stubbs, year 1864. The Latin word ''Bedewin-'' is on pages 13, 262, 317, and 386.Bedewini by a Crusader chronicler from England in the Levant in the 1190s writing in Latin (he being from England, he had no problem with using the letter w). It was spelled most often in medieval Latin beduini (probable pronunciation: BED-U-INI). It was from Arabic بدوي bedawī(īn) | بداوي bedāwī(īn). Modern Italian ovatta = "wadding" (earliest known 1667/1674 – ovatta @ ''Grande Dizionario della Lingua Italiana'' (''GDLI''), years 1961-2002. For the start of datation of ovatta, GDLI cites the article ''Nuove datazioni di tecnicismi sei-settecenteschi'', by Andrea Dardi, year 1980.ref) came from French ouate = "wadding" (earliest known 1493 – reported at ouate @ Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicalesref), which is the same word as German watte = "wadding" (earliest known 1682 – watte @ Deutsches Wörterbuch von Grimm et al, year 1961 and earlier. Herkunft dunkel.ref).
    Medieval French had carui meaning caraway. The majority of its records are in medicine books influenced by Constantinus Africanus. That includes all of its French records before 1360 that I have seen. The word is uncommon overall in medieval French. One book with carui in French about year 1300 cites "Constantin" by name a half dozen times – Text called ''Euperiston'' (dated circa 1300) in book ''Anglo-Norman Medicine, Volume 2'', curated and annotated by Tony Hunt, year 1997. The word ''carvi'' is printed on page 166. NEEDLESS TO SAY, the medieval manuscript says carui and does not say carvi.ref. That book has also in French berberis, borage, cuscute, sene, which are botanical names that have their earliest records in European languages in Constantinus Africanus (each of them discussed elsewhere on this page). Writers and printers used one and the same letter for the two sounds /u/ and /v/ in all words until the later 17th century. Some 16th-17th century French books have the explicitly printed caruï, which signals that the medieval and early post-medieval French carui was pronounced caruï (KARU-I) at least sometimes. Examples of the printed French caruï meaning caraway: year Caruï occurs 4 times in annotations on page 558 in the book ''Les douze liures de Lucius Iunius Moderatus Columella des choses rustiques, traduicts de Latin en François, par feu maistre Claude Cotereau Chanoine de Paris, la traduction duquel ha esté soigneusement reueue & en la plupart corrigée, & illustrée de doctes annotations par maistre Iean Thierry de Beauuoisis'', year 15551555, Caruï occurs 3 times on page 289 in ''Les commentaires de M.P. André Matthiolus, medecin senois, sur les six liures de Pedacius Dioscoride. Traduits de Latin en François par M. Antoine du Pinet'', year 1605 edition. Book has both caruï and carui. This book was printed in year 1572 with same thing on same page, i.e. page 289. The 1572 edition is at :
    . After printers began distinguishing u from v in the late 17th century, a book printed in 1682 in French has "avec la ſemence de carui" ''La pratique de medecine avec la theorie'', by Lazare Riviere, year 1682 on page 348(ref); similarly a book in 1683 in French has "suivi... carui... genevre... carui... Name of a 17th century composite medicine (named from town-name Orvieto in Italy) l'orvietan... carui... A resin from a Tropical American tree (name came from a language of Tropical America) guaïac... carui... convient... carui " Book ''Le médecin françois charitable qui donne les signes & la curation des maladies internes qui attaquent le corps humain'', by J. Constant De Rebecque, year 1683(ref); and similarly in books in ''Pratique generale de medecine de tout le corps humain, de Michel Ettmuller. Traduction nouvelle. Tome Second.'' Year 1699.1699 and ''Traité de la matière médicale, ou L'histoire et l'usage des médicamens'', by Tournefort and Besnier, year 17171717. This shows the word being pronounced KARU-I. The medicines book Regime du Corps by Aldebrandin is a 13th-century French compilation and translation from 12th-century Latin books. Aldebrandin has the word spelled caroi in French Book ''Le Régime du Corps'', by Aldebrandin de Sienne, curated by Landouzy & Pepin, year 1911. Word ''caroi'' occurs three times.(ref), which again shows that the medieval carui was pronounced KARU-I at least sometimes; i.e., caroi shows that carui was not pronounced KARVI. Today in French it is carvi, which came from the Italian carvi.
    English "caraway" came from the medieval Latin & French carui pronounced in Latin & French as KAR·U·I & KA·RU·I. Late medieval English has it spelled carewy | carwy | carwey | carewey | carawaycaraway @ Middle English Dictionaryref. The spelling carui occurs in late medieval English medicines books – carvi @ Middle English Dictionaryref. The English "caraway" does not show classical Latin breeding: The letter 'w' was created in medieval northern Europe to represent a sound that did not occur in medieval Latin (except in Germanic names in medieval Latin), and the words of the English language with the letter 'w' are rarely of Latin descent.
    Today's international Latin botany name for the caraway plant is Carum Carvi. The carvi component of Carum Carvi is judged to be from medieval Arabic karawiyā intermediated by medieval Latin carui=KAR·U·I and late medieval Italian carui=KAR·VI. The modern Latin botany name carvi was used in creating the names of the organic chemicals "carvchemical suffix -one is used in the names of ketones and analogous chemicalsone", "carvechemical suffix -ol is used in the names of alcohols and phenolsol", and "carvacrol" (-acr- = "acrid"). The carum component of Carum Carvi was lifted by 16th-century taxonomists from the carum in a year 1516 Greek-to-Latin translation of Dioscorides's Materia Medica by translator Ruellius, where the translation had put Dioscorides's Greek karo[s] as Latin carum.
  51. ^ carob

    The medieval Arabic kharrūb = "carob" has forerunning documentation in the 3rd to 5th centuries AD in Syriac & Aramaic as ḥarrūbā = "carob" – Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon @ HUC.edu. Lexicon compiled by Steve Kaufman.Dictionary of Aramaic and Syriac. The medieval Arabic dictionaries have two or three Arabic wordforms: خرّوب kharrūb | خرنوب khurnūb | kharnūbDownloadable Book, ''Abu Hanifah Al-Dinawari's Book of Plants: An Annotated English Translation of the Extant Alphabetical Portion'', by Catherine Alice Yff Breslin, year 1986. Has Arabic ''kharrūb'' and ''khurnūb'' on page 214.Dictionary of Plants by Abu Hanifa al-Dinawari (died c. 895) , خرّوب under rootword خرب @ Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon (year 1874), online at ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.comخَرُّوبٌ underneath خرب @ Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon. The geography book by Al-Muqaddasi (died c. 995) lists the carob as a product that is rarely produced outside the Levant – In Arabic : ''Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum'', Volume III, year 1877, publishes Al-Muqaddasi's geography book. Has الخرنوب on page ١٨١ on line 9.ref, In English translation: ''Description of Syria including Palestine, by Mukaddasi circ. 985 A.D.'', translated by Guy Le Strange, year 1886. Carob on page 71.ref. The carob is associated specifically with the Levant in various other medieval Arabic authors – ref Search for الخرنوب الشامي in the medieval texts at AlWaraq.netالخرنوب الشامي @ AlWaraq.net , Search for الخروب الشامي at AlWaraq.netالخروب الشامي @ AlWaraq.net.
    No documentation of the word carob in Latin having a date before the 12th century has been found by me and I say reporters finding the contrary are in error about their documentation -- details omitted. A very early record in Latin is "arboribus de quarubiis" = "carob trees" in a Latin Crusader in the Levant believed correctly dated 1116-1137 – carruba @ Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia, by Girolamo Caracausi, year 1983, on page 162ref. French quarobles = "carobs" is in a Crusader in the Levant in the 1190s – Book, ''L'Estoire de la Guerre Sainte : histoire en vers de la troisième croisade (1190-1192)'', by Ambroise of Normandy, a Crusader in the Levant who wrote his chronicle in the 1190s in French. Link has medieval French and translation to modern French year 1897. The modern translation has ''caroubes'' on page 381, which is in translation of the medieval ''quarobles'' on page 117 line 4362.ref. Year 1263 in Sicily in Latin: "land on which are trees of carruba, almond, and fig" – carruba @ Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia, by Girolamo Caracausi, year 1983, on page 161ref. Year 1273 Occitan at seaport of Narbonne: "garrovas e prunas secas" = "carob pods and dried plums" – Book ''Ville de Narbonne: Inventaire des Archives communales... Série AA :: Annexes de la Série AA'', curated by Mouynès, year 1871. A toll tax tariff states its date as year 1273 (page 128), it is written in Latin and Occitan side-by-side, and it has Occitan ''garrovas'' on page 130.ref. Circa 1317 a Latin medicines book listed the Latin spellings karnub, carnub, karubia, carrubia, currubia and said it is synonymous with Latin xiliqua | siliqua''Pandectarum Medicinae'', by Matthaeus Silvaticus, date circa 1317, says ''carnub id est currubia vel xiliqua''ref. A Latin encyclopedia compiled in the 1240s used only the name siliqua for carob and it has two short chapters about carob pods & carob trees – In Latin : paragraph headed ''De siliqua'' in encyclopedia ''Speculum Naturale'' by Vincent de Beauvais (died 1264), in the section on fruits and juices (de arborum fructibus & succis). Vincent quotes from Isidore of Seville, Pliny, Dioscorides, and Galen on the properties of ''siliqua''.ref-1 , In Latin : paragraph headed ''De silere ac siliqua'' in encyclopedia ''Speculum Naturale'' by Vincent de Beauvais (died 1264), in the section on common uncultivated trees (de arboribus communibus, videlicet silvaticis, & agrestibus).ref-2. Siliqua was an old Latin name for carob pods and carob seeds, although the Latin siliqua also meant the pod of any legume. Carob has a small but significant number of records in classical Latin under this old name. The propagation of the carob tree is in the ancient Latin agriculture books of Columella (died 70 AD) and Palladius (lived c 400 AD) – In classical Latin plus translation to modern French : ''Les Agronomes Latins'', year 1844, publishes the agriculture books of Cato, Varro, Columella, and Palladius. Search for French word ''caroub'' and Latin word ''siliqua''. The Latin word ''siliqua'' meant any bean pod and seed husk, and often this did not mean carob.ref. The ancient Romans consumed the carob pods in several preparation ways, as described by Pliny (died 79 AD). Carbonized remains of carob pods have been reported at an archeological site of ancient southern Italy – Article, ''Carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua'', by I Batlle and J Tous, year 1997, on page 22, which is citing the article ''Carbonized food plants of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and the Villa at Torre Annunziata'', by FG Meyer, year 1980.ref. Because the Latins already had the name siliqua for carob, the Latin adoption of the Arabic name kharrūb seems unmotivated. I presume and believe there was a driver that drove the Latins to adopt the Arabic name, but I do not see what it was. In late-medieval sea-commerce by Italians, the carob pods were called car(r)ube | carobbe | carroba, they were transported in large sacks, and there are enough surviving records to show that the overall volume of trade in them was not very small – Texts in Latin : ''Actes passée à Famagouste de 1299 à 1301 par devant le notaire Génois Lamberto di Sambuceto'', curated by Desimoni, year 1894 in journal ''Revue de l'Orient Latin'' Volume 2. Has ''carrobarum'' six times. Page 125 ''sachos tercentos carrobarum'' = ''300 sacks of carob pods''. Likewise on page 134. But on page 284 it means ''carat''.ref, carruba @ TLIO, citing the early 14th century Venetian trade manual ''Zibaldone da Canal'' having Italian: ''C de li sachi de le carobe de Çepro'' = ''a hundred of the sacks of the carobs of Cyprus''ref, Book, ''La Pratica della Mercatura'', by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, about year 1340, curated by Allan Evans year 1936. Search for multiple instances of car[r]ub[b]e.ref, Chapter ''Economy'', by Nicholas Coureas, in book ''Cyprus: Society And Culture 1191-1374'', by various authors, year 2005. Page 108-109 is about the carob in the 14th-century Cyprus economy. It cites a few commercial records written in Italian-Latin in which carobs were put on a ship in Cyprus and exported.ref, Book, ''Tariffa de i Pesi, e Misure corrispondenti dal Levante al Ponente'', by Bartholomeo di Pasi [aka Paxi] da Vinetia, first printed in 1503, re-issued in 1540. Linked is 1540 edition, OCR'd. In the linked copy, eleven instances of ''carobbe'' are obtainable by searching for the substring ''arob''.ref, Book, ''Storia documentata di Venezia'' Volume III, by S. Romanin, year 1855, on page 383, has import-tax regulations at Venice in year 1338 having Latin ''caparis sinapi et carobis''ref, Book, ''La «pratica di mercatura» datiniana (secolo XIV)'', curated by Cesare Ciano, year 1964. Publishes an Italian commerce text dated around 1380. Has ''carube'' meaning carob pods on page 80. Text says that carob pods sell by the hundredweight and they discount 10 pounds per hundredweight for the tare. The complete book is downloadable at https://b-ok.global/ ref, Book, ''La pratica della mercatura scritta da Giovanni di Antonio da Uzzano'', written around year 1440, has a list of trade goods at the city of Pisa and the list includes ''Charubba di qualunque luogo''. In printed edition year 1766 on page 50.ref, Book ''Il libro della cucina del sec. XIV'', curated by Francesco Zambrini, year 1863. 14th century Italian cook-book mentions a food ingredient ''garobbi'' as an optional addition in a vegetable stew.ref.
  52. ^ check

    When borrowing a word from Persian whose last letter was ـه h , medieval Arabic changed the last letter to q or j in some cases. A few examples are given in Book, ''Remarques sur les mots français dérivés de l'arabe'', by Henri LammensLammens, year 1890 page 103 footnote 1. Another example is medieval Arabic نيلج nīlaj = "indigo dye" from Persian نیله nīlah with same meaning Johnson's Richardson's Persian-Arabic-English dictionary, year 1852, on page 1346. The dictionary marks a word with ''P'' meaning it is Persian, and/or marks it with ''A'' meaning it is Arabic. See P نیله and A نيلج .(ref). Another example is medieval Arabic بورق būraq = "sodium carbonate and similar salts" from Persian بوره būrah with same meaning Johnson's Richardson's Persian-Arabic-English dictionary, year 1852, on page 258. The dictionary marks a word with ''P'' meaning it is Persian, and marks with ''A'' meaning it is Arabic. See P بوره and A بورق .(ref). Those changed spellings are evidence that Persian terminal ـه h was pronounced ‘hard’ in medieval Arabic.
  53. ^   Empty note #53 keeps stable the numbering of the other notes.
  54. ^ cipher  ^ zero

    Based on the number of medieval manuscript copies that survive today, the most-often-read introduction to the Hindu-Arabic numbers in Europe in the medieval era was the one by Johannes de Sacrobosco written in Latin about 1230, about 20 pages long. Another popular one was by Alexander de Villa Dei, written in Latin about 1220, about 10 pages long. Both of them use cifra | cyfra for "zero" and they have it more than two dozen times each – In Latin : Sacrobosco's and Villa Dei's introductions are in the book ''A collection of treatises on the mathematics and subjects connected with them, from ancient inedited manuscripts'', curated by Halliwell, year 1841. Search for Latin cifra.ref, In Latin : ''Iohannis de Sacrobosco Algorismus Vulgaris'', published in book ''Petri Philomeni de Dacia in Algorismum vulgarem Johannis de Sacrobosco commentarius. Una cum Algorismo ipso edidit'', curated by Curtze, year 1897. Search for Latin cyfra.ref. In the English language from the late medieval period until the 2nd half of the 19th century, the name for zero was usually either "nought" or "cifre | cipher | cypher" – ref 1anought @ Middle English Dictionary , ref 1bcifre @ Middle English Dictionary , ''cipher'' in the year 1828 Webster's English Dictionaryref 2a , ''zero'' in the year 1828 Webster's English Dictionary. Compare it with noun ''cipher'' in same dictionary.ref 2b , Graph of frequency of ''zero'', ''nought'' and ''cipher'' in time intervals over the years from 1605 to 1955, in texts indexed by Google Books Ngram Viewer. A word's frequency in a time interval is expressed as a percent of all words in all indexed texts in the same time interval. Ngram Viewer shows that ''zero'' bypassed ''nought'' in popularity at about year 1870.ref 3. Nathan Bailey's English Dictionary in 1726 defined "zero" as "a word used for cypher or nought especially by the French" – ref''zero'' in the year 1726 Bailey's Dictionary. Samuel Johnson's English Dictionary in 1755 and 1785 did not include the word zero at all. Meanwhile, the use of "cipher" & "decipher" to mean "encrypt" & "decrypt" entered English in the 16th century, borrowed from French – New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), year 1893cipher @ NED , New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), year 1897decipher @ NED , Dictionnaire du Moyen Françaischiffre @ DMF , Dictionnaire du Moyen Françaisdéchiffrer @ DMF.
  55. ^ civet

    The statements of Al-Mas'udi and Shams al-Din al-Dimashqi about زباد zabād = "civet" were noted by civette @ ''Remarques sur les mots français dérivés de l'arabe'', by Henri Lammens, year 1890Henri Lammens, year 1890. Al-Mas'udi's 10th century geography book is in Arabic with al-zabād at In Arabic and French translation : مروج الذهب للمسعودي Al-Mas'udi's Prairies D'Or, year 1864, Volume 3 page 57 has الزباد on line 1 & line 2Ref. Shams al-Din al-Dimashqi's 14th century geography book is in Arabic with al-zabād at كتاب نخبة الدهر في عجائب البرّ والبحر, curated by Mehren, year 1866, on page ١٥٩ (159) on secondlast lineRef. Zabād is closely related in form to the Arabic زبد zabad = "foam" but is not necessarily derived from it.
  56. ^ abelmosk

    The "abelmosk" plant or "musk seed" plant is called Abelmoschus moschatus in today's botanical Latin. It is a native of Tropical East Asia. It requires a 9-month-long growing season an intro to growing abelmosk(ref). In Egypt it was in irrigated cultivation in the late 16th and early 17th centuries and that was when European botanists got specimens of it from Egypt and adopted the name from Egypt. The Italian-Latin botanist Prospero Alpini (died 1617) visited Egypt in the 1580s. He called the plant in Latin "Abelmosch", "Aegyptii Mosch", and "Bammia Muschata", where at Wikipedia in Arabic: ar:باميةبامية bāmiya is Arabic for at Wikipedia : Abelmoschus esculentusokra, a.k.a. Abelmoschus Esculentus, mosch is Latin for musk, Aegypti is Latin for Egypt, and Abel is an Italian-Latin representation of Arabic habb el- = "seed". Ref: Edition year 1629 book has headline ''Bammia Muschata'' on page 197De Plantis Exoticis by Prospero Alpini. The botanist Johann Veslingius visited Egypt around 1630. He wrote the name in Latin as "hab el mosch" in Book by Joannus Veslingius, year 1638. At page 65 is section headed ''De Ab el mosch''.De Plantis Aegyptiis Observationes et Notae ad Prosperum Alpinum, by Johann Veslingius, year 1638. The plant was called "''Ketmia Aegyptiaca'' @ The Gardeners Dictionary by Philip Miller, year 1735. It cites ''Tourn.'' meaning the botanist JP de Tournefort (died 1708) as the taxonomic originator of the name ''Ketmia Aegyptiaca''.Ketmia Aegyptiaca" by some other European botanists of the 17th-18th centuries. The abelmosk seed is small and the odor is mainly in the shell. In 17th-18th century Europe, the whole seeds were used as a room odorant and some people carried whole seeds in clothing. The odoriferous essence was extractable by steam distillation, a method well-known to perfume makers. Arabic حبّ المسك habb el-misk, literally "musk seed", meaning the aromatic seed of the abelmosk plant, has no reported record in medieval Arabic with this meaning. In the big collection of medieval Arabic texts at AlWaraq.net, the phrase or a variant of it occurs a few times, but the meaning is not this seed in the contexts. This seed is apparently not present under any other name in any of the better-known medieval Arabic texts that have lots of content about aromatic botanicals – more about that point is at elsewhere on this pageNote #153 below. Today's Spanish dictionaries have abelmosco = "abelmosk". No record of this occurs in Spanish until a time long after the word was brought to European botany from Egypt by Prospero Alpini (e.g. Book, ''Curso elemental de botánica, téorico y práctico'', by Casimiro Gomez Ortega & Antonio Palau, year 1785. In this book ''Linn.'' means Linnaeus (died 1778) and the book's Spanish word ''abelmosco'' is derived from the ''abelmoschus / abelmoschi'' used in botanical Latin in northern Europe in books by Linnaeus and others.Spanish year 1785). Therefore, Spanish abelmosco is from the modern Latin abelmoschus of Alpini and his followers.
  57. ^ coffee

    Book written by William H. UkersAll About Coffee, year 1922, chapter 1 "Dealing with the Etymology of Coffee" and chapter 3 "Early History of Coffee Drinking". This book reports: Coffee-drinking as we know it has its earliest reliable record in mid-15th-century Yemen; it arrived in Cairo in the early 16th; it became widespread in the Ottoman Empire during the 16th; and it arrived in Western Europe in the early 17th. All the coffee of the 16th and 17th centuries came from Yemen. Most of it arrived in Mediterranean markets through Egypt. The earliest importers into Western Europe were at Wikipedia : Republic of VeniceVenetians who used the word caffè (1615), from the Turkish kahve. Venetian sea-merchants at that time had predominance in all kinds of seaborne trade between the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Europe. This pushed their wordform caffè to prevalance in Western Europe. Derivatives from it are seen in today's German kaffee, Spanish café, etc. The English wordform coffee and Dutch koffie has an overall shape that reflects influence of the Venetian caffè.
  58. ^ cotton

    Book: The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages, by Maureen Fennell Mazzaoui, year 1981, "Chapter I: Cotton cultivation in the ancient and medieval world" and "Chapter II: The Mediterranean cotton trade 1100–1600".
  59. ^ crimson  ^ kermes

    Late medievally, crimson was in the wordforms: Italian chermisi | carmesi | cremisino, French cremesy | cramoisi | cramoisin, Spanish carmesi | cremesin | carmisin, English cremesyn | crimsin, Latin cremesinus | carmesinus, all referring to red color from cochineal-type cloth dye. Most of those wordforms have a Latinate suffix -ino | -inus. Parallelwise for the suffix: medieval Italian verzi @ TLIOverzi ➜ medieval Italian verzino @ TLIOverzino; medieval Italian arancio @ TLIOaranci ➜ medieval Italian arancino @ TLIOarancino; medieval Italian celeste @ TLIOcelest(r)e ➜ medieval Italian celestino @ TLIOcelest(r)ino.
    The Italian carmesi | carmisi is in Italian since around year 1300 (earliest at cremisi @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)TLIO is c. 1310-1320). That is a century earlier than the first for carmesí | carmesy in Spanish (earliest at Search for carmes* (with asterisk) @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE)CORDE is c. 1430). Italian carmesi came from Arabic qirmizī in the Eastern Mediterranean exclusively. Details about the Arabic and Italian records are coming up in the paragraphs below. Also below is an intent to show that the word in Spanish & Catalan came from Italian. Longstandingly everybody has agreed, correctly, the European word came from the Arabic qirmiz(ī). But there have been misconceptions and fogginess about the way it came from Arabic, which the following 18 paragraphs intend to clear up.
    A number of distinct scale-insect species yield similar but distinct red dyes. The distinctions are going to be relevant. All of them are cochineal insects and cochineal dyes in my terminology (another terminology uses the word cochineal more narrowly than I will be using it). Kermes cochineal is one of them. The Kermes insect is native in the Mediterranean region. It was used as a red dye by the Greeks and Romans of antiquity. In classical Latin the Kermes insect was called coccum, and by extension coccum | coccin(e)us meant rich red color – coccum @ Lewis & Short dictionary of classical Latin, year 1879ref, coccineus @ Lewis & Short dictionary of classical Latin, year 1879ref. As shown in the next paragraph below, the medieval Arabic qirmiz meant most often the insect which in today's English is called Armenian cochineal, being of the insect genus Porphyrophora, and not the genus Kermes. The Porphyrophora cochineal insects are not native in the Mediterranean region, and were not propagated alive there, and the question of how often they were imported as a dye into Latin Europe is surrounded with difficulties and lacks a good answer. The Porphyrophora cochineal insects in medieval trading came in two species, Armenian cochineal and Polish cochineal. The Armenian one lives in Armenia and Iranian Azerbaijan. The Polish one lives in Poland and Ukraine. The Polish and Armenian species have the same active dye chemical (carminic acid). The Kermes cochineal has a similar but distinct dye chemical (kermesic acid). Another similar but distinct cochineal in medieval trade was Lac cochineal, from insects native in India (having dye chemical(s) named laccaic acid(s)). The cochineal that is native in Mexico & Peru became the dominant cochineal in Europe before 1600 for two economic reasons: these insects contain ten times higher concentration of dye chemical (namely, carminic acid) and the insects were propagated and harvested with relative ease in Mexico & Peru. The cornerstone of the similar but distinct dye chemicals is anthraquinone (C14H8O2). The shade of an anthraquinone red can be changed towards orange or towards purple by mixing it with an acid (for orange) or an alkali (for purple) or a sulfate salt (cochineal @ ''The Cyclopaedia; or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature'', volume 8, year 1819, gives details on the coloring effects of numerous various additives added to Mexican cochineal in solution. These effects also happen when these additives are added to the other anthraquinone reds too.examples).
    The dictionary of Al-Sahib Ibn ʿAbbad (died c. 995; lived in Iran and Iraq) states: "قِرْمِزُ qirmiz is Armenian red dye" – الصاحب بن عباد : المحيط في اللغة. Writes: قِرْمِزُ صِبْغٌ أرْمَنِي أحْمَرُ. The linked website gives this. It also gives very similar statements about قرمز in other medieval dictionaries.ref. The dictionary of Ibn Sida (died 1066; lived in southern Iberia) states: "القرمز al-qirmiz is Armenian red dye. The dye is said to come from juice of worms living in scrublands. The word is Arabicized Persian." – Ibn Sida's dictionary says :
    القرمز: صبغ ارمني احمر يقال: إنه من عصارة دود يكون في آجامهم، فارسي معرب
    By Internet search for the above set of Arabic phrases, you can find in searchable format at several websites Ibn Sida's dictionary ابن سيده -- المحكم والمحيط الأعظم. The linked website's copy of Ibn Sida's dictionary was obtained from www.AlWaraq.net.
    . Ibn Sida's statement was copied into the dictionaries of Ibn Manzur (died 1312) and Fairuzabadi (died 1414) – قرمز @ search @ ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.comref, القِرْمِزُ fi القاموس المحيط للفيروزآبادي @ ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.comref. The geography book of Al-Istakhri (died c. 957; lived in Iran) gives information about the exports and commercial activities of many regions. Al-Istakhri says al-qirmiz dye is an export from the territory of what is now Republic of Armenia and adjacent Azerbaijan (medieval territory's capital town دبيل Dabīl = at Wikipedia : Dvin, capital of medieval emirate of ArmeniaDvin). Al-Istakhri does not mention qirmiz produced anywhere else. He says the qirmiz comes from worms and is used for dyeing wool – In Arabic in Volume 1 of ''Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum'' : The geography book by Al-Istakhri, curated by M.J. de Goeje, year 1870, reprinted 1927, القرمز on page ١٨٨ [page 188] on line 5ref. Al-Istakhri's info was replicated by Ibn Hawqal (died c. 988) and by Hudud al-'Alam (text compiled in 982) – In Arabic : Geography book of Ibn Haukal (aka Ibn Hawqal) curated by M.J. de Goeje, year 1873, having قرمز on last line of page ٢۴۴ [page 244], in Volume 2 of the series ''Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum''ref, Book in English only : حدود العالم HUDUD AL-'ALAM, geography book in Persian by an unnamed compiler in year 982 AD, translated by V Minorsky, year 1937. Translator's Preface says the book's compilation ''systematically utilized'' Istakhrî and many sections ''are practically a mere abridgement'' of Istakhrî. Sections concerning Azerbaijan & Armenia have Persian QIRMIZ twice. English CRIMSON on pages 142-143.ref. The geography book of Al-Muqaddasi (died circa 995; lived in Palestine, visited Iraq and Iran) has a chapter about the region of Azerbaijan & Armenia. Al-Muqaddasi in this chapter says that a special feature of this region is "its wonderful qirmiz worms" – Al-Muqaddasi's geography book is titled المقدسي البشاري : أحسن التقاسيم في معرفة الأقاليم . It is published in Arabic in ''Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum'', Volume III, year 1877, curated by M.J. de Goeje. In discussing the region in and near Azerbaijan, Al-Muqaddasi says that one of this region's notable products is العجيبة ديدانه قرمز = ''its wonderful qirmiz worms'' -- at linked page ۳۷۳ [page 373] at line 13.ref. He says Armenia & Azerbaijan "is without rival for... their qirmiz and their fabric patterns and their colors" – In Arabic : ''Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum'', Volume III, year 1877, curated by M.J. de Goeje, publishes Al-Muqaddasi's geography book in Arabic. It has قرمز ''qirmiz'' on pages 373, 380 and 381. On page 380 it says on line 8: ولا نظير لـ... قرمزهم وانماطهم وصبغهمref. Al-Muqaddasi says "al-qirmiz is a worm that comes out of the soil" and it is gathered in the vicinity of Dabīl town in Armenia – In Arabic : ''Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum'', Volume III, year 1877, curated by M.J. de Goeje, publishes Al-Muqaddasi's geography book in Arabic. The link goes to page ۳۸۱ [page 381] where Al-Muqaddasi says: دبيل.... وعندها يوجد القرمز وهي دودة تظهر في الارض تخرج اليها النسوان ينقرنهاref. The Armenian cochineal insect larvas feed underground on the roots of certain herbaceous plants. When the larvas change into adults they come to the surface to mate, and die soon afterwards. The cochineal-rich female adults were collected at the surface in the mating season in Armenia. (But in Poland it was necessary to dig up the soil to collect the Polish cochineal insects). A certain short text is attributed to Al-Jahiz (died c. 869; lived in Iraq), and the attribution to Al-Jahiz is maybe a false one, but anyway it is quotable as a medieval text by somebody: "Al-qirmiz of Armenia.... It is said about al-qirmiz that a herbaceous plant in its roots brings on the growth of a red worm." – الجاحظ : التبصرة بالتجارة
    He writes:
    القرمزي الأرمني المنير .... وزعم أن القرمز حشيشة تكون في أصلها دودة حمراء تنبت
    , كتاب التبصرة بالتجارة – الجاحظ. Searchable text has three instances of القرمزalt-link. In contrast to all the above authors, Ibn Al-Baitar (died 1248; lived near Mediterranean Sea coast) has a description of qirmiz and "qirmiz worms" that clearly means the Kermes cochineal and cannot mean the Armenian cochineal – الجامع لمفردات الأدوية والأغذية - ابن البيطارref (page 664). Ibn al-Baitar is in a minority among medieval Arabic authors in using the word with this meaning. Most of the medieval Arabic records of qirmiz are in authors located in Iraq and Iran. Medieval Iraq and Iran has numerous records of qirmiz, but whenever this qirmiz is described it means the Porphyrophora cochineal from Armenia & Azerbaijan. In other words there is no description from medieval Iraq or Iran of qirmiz meaning Kermes insect or Kermes dye. The Kermes insects feed pretty much exclusively on the sap of the young branches of two species of small Quercus trees that are native and commonplace in the Mediterranean rim region. Primarily the Quercus Coccifera, and secondarily the Quercus Ilex. But these two Quercus trees do not grow natively in Iraq or Iran as adjudged by today's botanists (Quercus Coccifera @ OakNames.org, a website of International Oak Society, a society devoted to the study of the trees of the genus Quercus. It has a list of all the nation-state territories containing any part of Quercus Coccifera's natural distribution territory.ref, Quercus Ilex @ OakNames.org gives the plant's natural distribution territory in terms of nation-statesref, Quercus Coccifera @ GRIN Global (a botany database). Under the heading ''Distribution'', it says the plant is native all around the Mediterranean Rim (excepting Egypt), and not native in Iraq nor Iran nor elsewhere.ref, Quercus Ilex @ World Checklist of Selected Plant Families ( http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ ). Says the Quercus Ilex plant's native distribution is South Europe and Turkey. Its distribution does not include Iraq or Iran. The same info for Quercus Ilex is at http://www.CatalogueOfLife.org ref, Search for the plant Quercus Coccifera at CatalogueOfLife.org. At the site's page for Quercus Coccifera, under the heading ''Distribution'', the site lists the places where the plant grows as a native species.ref, Quercus Coccifera @ Oaks of the World website. Under the heading ''Range'', says the Quercus Coccifera plant's range is the Mediterranean Region. This means the plant's range does not include Iraq. The website is written in English by Jean-Louis Hélardot. ref) and they have not been introduced there in non-tiny numbers. Therefore the Kermes insects were not gathered in Iraq or Iran. As a point of Arabic grammar, "relating to qirmiz " = "qirmizī ". Al-Razi (died c. 930; lived in Iran), in a book about medicine, has a bandage dressing with صوف قرمزي souf qirmizī = "wool dyed with qirmiz " – الحاوي في الطب – الرازيref. Al-Biruni (died c. 1050; lived in Iran), in a book about precious stones, says: "The color of the ruby stone is red.... It comes in various quality grades.... The most desirable is the pomegranate grade.... As an analogy, if you drop qirmizī blood [دم قرمزي] onto a polished silver plate you get the ruby color of the pomegranate ruby." – كتاب الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر - البيروني -- البحث عن قرمزي. Book is online in Arabic at numerous websites. (By the way, the book is in print in English translation by translator Hakim Mohammad Said, with English title ''Knowledge on Precious Stones'', year 1989, where qirmizī is on print page 30).ref (on page 20). Other examples of Arabic writers who mention qirmiz and whose books are at AlWaraq.net include: Al-Ya'qubi (died 897-898; born in Iraq, lived in Armenia and Iran, later lived in Egypt) اليعقوبي : البلدان
    Al-Ya'qubi writes: مدينة أسيوط وهي من عظام مدن الصعيد، بها يعمل الفرش القرمز الذي يشبه الأرمني = ''the town Asyut is among the biggest towns in Upper Egypt, there they make al-qirmiz carpets that are similar to the Armenian ones''.
    , Ibn Duraid (died c. 933; lived in Iraq) Ibn Duraid's dictionary has the statement : قِرْمِز، إنما هو دود أحمر يُصبغ به = ''qirmiz, indeed it is a red worm for dyeing with''. The dictionary is titled جمهرة اللغة لابن دريد.(Ref), Ibn Abd Rabbih (died 940; copied from Iraqi sources) ابن عبد ربه : العقد الفريد
    He writes: جُبَّة خَزّ قِرْمِز = a JUBBA garment of KHAZZ fabric with QIRMIZ dye
    Medieval records in the Armenian language show the name of the Armenian cochineal dye in the Armenian language was vortan garmir | vordan karmir, where garmir | karmir = "red" and vortan | vordan = "of worms" – Downloadable PDF : 3-page article ''Kirmiz'' by H. Kurdian, year 1941 in ''Journal of the American Oriental Society'' Volume 61ref, Article, ''Kirmiz'', by H. Kurdian, 3 pages, year 1941alt-link. Armenian writer Ghazar Parpetsi lived in the late 5th century AD and he wrote: "The valley of Ararat grows a sort of grass on which breed insects from which vortan is produced, used for profit and for gorgeous dyeing" – same ref; (Book in English translation: ''Ghazar P'arpec'i's History of the Armenians'', translated by Robert Bedrosian, year 1985. It contains an alternative English translation of the same sentence. Search it for the word WORMS.alt-ref). The Arabic geographer Ibn Hawqal (died c. 988) said about Armenia and adjacent Azerbaijan (includes the Azerbaijani provinces in today's Iran): "Throughout this country the Persian and Arabian languages are understood. The inhabitants also use the Armenian tongue and other tongues." – In English : ''The Oriental Geography of Ebn Haukal, an Arabian Traveller of the 10th century. Translated from a Manuscript'', by Sir William Ouseley, year 1800, on page 163. Note: Ouseley's manuscript differs in many places from De Goeje's much better Arabic edition of Ibn Hawqal published in 1873.ref – and essentially the same statement is in the geography book by Al-Istakhri (died c. 957) – Arabic book المسالك والممالك by الإصطخري al-Istakhri, in section headed أرمينية والران وأذربيجان. Al-Ikstakhri says: speech in Azerbaijan & Armenia & Arrān is Persian and Arabic; and the people of دبيل Dabīl city and its vicinity [in today's Armenia] speak Armenian; and people around برذعة [which is Barda city in today's Azerbaijan] speak الرانية ar-rānīa.ref.
    In medieval English and all western European Latinate languages in all of the relevant medieval centuries, the main name for the Kermes insects and Kermes dye was Late medieval English grain #6 @ Middle English Dictionary. Late medieval English ''grain'' had multiple meanings. The Middle English Dictionary gives a set of quotations for ''grain'' where its meaning is the Kermes dye. In order to see the quotations where grain means Kermes, you have to go to the SIXTH listed meaning for the word ''grain'' in the dictionary.grain | grana @ ''Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary of Historical Pigments'', year 2007grana | granum. That was true before and after the arrival of the word qirmiz. In medieval English and in all those medieval European languages, the word grain meant firstly what grain means today (edible seeds) and secondarily it meant today's Kermes.
    A Venice Italian merchant report titled Zibaldone da Canal dated probably about 1310-1320 (The book is published under the title ''Zibaldone da Canal : Manoscritto mercantile del sec. XIV'', curated by Stussi, year 1967. In the book, different chapters have different assessed composition dates, and some chapters have revisions after the chapter's basic composition date. date is complex) has one of the very early records in European languages for the word crimson and it occurs in the statement "Seda carmesì se pesa a Laiaça " cremisi @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)(ref: TLIO), which is translateable as "Crimson silk in the unit measurements of the seaport town of Laiaça in the at Wikipedia : Armenian Kingdom of CiliciaArmenian Kingdom of Cilicia", today's town at Wikipedia : YumurtalıkYumurtalık on the southeast coast of Turkey. Laiaça was also written Laiazo | Lajazzo by the medieval Italians. At this seaport with date of 1305-1307, a Venice merchant ship loaded goods onto the ship, with the goods itemized in Venice-Latin, and one of the items was a jacket made from çendato carmesi Book, ''Le Trésor des Chartes d'Armenie'', compiled by Victor Langlois, year 1863, being a collection of medieval documents by Latins on matters involving Cilician Armenia. Page 175 has ''çupam de çendato carmesi''. Venice Latin çupa(m) = Venice Latin zuppa(m) = Genoa Latin iupa(m) = Sicily Latin juppa(m) = a jacket garment.(Ref) (Book, ''Le Trésor des Chartes d'Armenie'', compiled by Victor Langlois, year 1863, on page 174 in footnote #7 gives the basis for the year 1305-1307 date. ref for date), where Venice-Latin çendato meant "cendal silk".
    In the 1330s in Italian the international merchant reporter Francesco Pegolotti has frequent mentions of trade in the grana dye at a wide variety of places in Europe. Pegolotti makes it clear that the dye he calls grana | grana da tignere was the Kermes dye. When Pegolotti writes seta chermisi | seta chermusi, where seta = "silk", he is talking about something different from grana, but he has no description. But once again it is notable Pegolotti's only mention of chermisi is in the context of trading at the seaport he calls "Laiazo in Armenia", and his only mention of chermusi is in trading at the nearby seaport of Famagusta on the island of Cyprus. Commonly in Pegolotti's time, internationally tradeable goods in Armenian Cilicia were brought to the market at Famagusta for re-export elsewhere (Book chapter : ''Famagusta and Levant Trade... : The Role of Famagusta as a Distribution Centre of Oriental and Local Merchandise to the West (1300-1340)'', in the book ''Medieval Famagusta: socio-economic and socio-cultural dynamics (13th to 15th centuries)'', by Seyit Özkutlu, year 2014r1, Book chapter : ''Les relations économiques entre Chypre et le royaume arménien de Cilicie d’après les actes notariés (1270-1320)'', by Catherine Otten-Froux, in the book ''Arménie et Byzance'', by various authors, year 1996r2). Pegolotti's book is at In HTML fileformat : ''La Pratica della Mercatura'' by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti (died c. 1347), curated by Allan Evans in year 1936Ref, In PDF fileformat : ''La Pratica della Mercatura'' by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti (died c. 1347), curated by Allan Evans in year 1936alt-link.
    The manuscript known as the Codex Cumanicus is a dictionary for its first 108 pages. Its date is put about 1330 as a physical manuscript and the original composition date is put a few years earlier or a few decades earlier ''Codex Cumanicus'' text was republished in year 1981 together with a new introduction in English by Louis Ligeti. The introduction describes how the text is dated.(ref for date). The Codex Cumanicus dictionary was written by an Italian author on the northern shores of the Black Sea. It consists of three columns of words, the first column being words in Italian-Latin, the second column being the corresponding words in Persian, and the third column the corresponding words in the Turkic language of the Cuman people, a people who lived on the northern shores of the Black Sea. A section of the word-list is headlined in Latin "merchandise pertinent to merchants". It has Italian-Latin word cremixi. Italian spelling cremixi was pronounced approx KREMISI; medieval Italian written letter 'x' was sound /s/ (classical Latin letter 'x' was sound /ks/ and was converted in Italian to sound /s/). Lots of later documents in Italian have cremex as a certain type of crimson dye, and Italian cremixi = cremexi = cremixino = cremexile = "dyed with this crimson dye"; e.g. two dozen instances of Italian-Latin cremex(i) | cremexili from 2nd half of 15th century are in Book, ''L'Arte Genovese della Seta nella normativa del XV e del XVI secolo'', by Paola Massa, year 1970. Published in ''Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria'' Nuova Serie Volume X Fasc 1 (1970). Pages 209-238 dated 1465 & 1466 & 1479 have two dozen instances of substring CREMEX for dyeing silk.Ref. The Codex Cumanicus translated the Italian-Latin cremixi as Persian cremixi, which represented Persian qirmizi. On the line immediately above cremixi, the Codex Cumanicus has Latin virmilium (English vermilion) translated as Persian surg, which is Persian سرخ surkh = "red". Codex Cumanicus is ''Codex Cumanicus'' edition year 1880 curated by Géza Kuunonline.
    Italian glossary article CREMISI @ TLIO, linked above, quotes from five early documents with the word in northern Italy between 1310 and 1350 and it is noteworthy that in each document the word is an adjective attached to silk cloth. In Sicily in Latin with dates between 1350 and 1393, luxury goods inventories have two dozen instances of carmisino | carmixino | carmixina | charmisino and in all instances the word is an adjective attached to silk cloth – ''Inventaires de maisons, de boutiques, d’ateliers et de châteaux de Sicile (XIIIe-XVe siècles)'' Volume II [of six volumes], by Bresc-Bautier & Bresc, year 2014. Searchable.ref: Bresc-Bautier. The adjective meant "dyed with a certain kind of red dye".
    Italian merchant Giacomo Badoer (died 1445) was a trader in Constantinople in the late 1430s and he kept account books. He bought cremexe dye in Constantinople for resale in Italy. He also bought seda cremexi meaning silk dyed with this crimson dye. He wrote that cremexe dye and cremexi silk arrived at Constantinople from across the Black Sea from Trabexonda (aka at Wikipedia : Trebizond, a kingdom that existed from 1204 to 1461. The kingdom's headquarters was in the city of Trebizond on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.Trebizond aka at Wikipedia : today's Trabzon city on the Black Sea in TurkeyTrabzon, the largest seaport on the southeast shore of the Black Sea) – Book, ''Il Libro dei Conti'', by Giacomo Badoer, written in 1436-1440, published in 1956. This book has the word ''cremexe'' on 81 different pages. It has word ''cremexi'' on 42 pages. It has word ''Trebexonda'' on 39 pages. The link at Google Books allows searching for ONLY A FEW SHORT SNIPPETS.ref-1, Book, ''Il libro dei conti di Giacomo Badoer : Complemento e indici'', by Giovanni Bertelè, year 2002. It publishes complementing info and word indices for Giacomo Badoer's ''Il Libro dei Conti''. It has word ''cremexe'' on 19 pages. It has word ''cremexi'' on 13 pages. It has word ''Trabexonda'' on 34 pages. Google Books allows searching for ONLY A FEW SHORT SNIPPETS from it.ref-2. Which effectively means the dye came from Armenia.
    A mid-15th-century treatise about the silk industry in Florence, by an anonymous Florentine author, includes prices for dyed silk cloths. The silk cloths dyed with chermisi are more expensive than the silk cloths dyed with grana''L'Arte della Seta in Firenze: Trattato del secolo XV'', by an anonymous 15th century author, curated by Girolamo Gargiolli year 1868. Prices of dyed silk cloths on pages 100, 101, 102, and 112. Dyeing costs on page 78. The last page of the 15th century treatise is page 124 and the rest of the book is 19th century commentary.ref (pages 100-102). This 15th century treatise uses the word grana about 30 or 40 times. It makes it clear on page 109 that grana means the Kermes cochineal. It uses the word chermisi about 90 or 100 times. Despite that frequency of use, you have to read between the lines to deduce that its chermisi means the Porphyrophora cochineal. It says chermisi minuto dye is twice the price (per unit weight) compared to chermisi grosso dye; and it says chermisi minuto yields twice as much color by unit weight than chermisi grosso does – ''L'Arte della Seta in Firenze: Trattato del secolo XV'', by an anonymous 15th century author, curated by Girolamo Gargiolli year 1868ref (pages 32 and 109). Consistent with that, an Italian merchant Giovanni da Uzzano conveys the following three points in a merchandise book dated around 1440 written in the Florence region: (1) five weight units of the chermisi minuto is equivalent to ten weight units of the chermisi grosso for the same dyeing power, and (2) when the chermisi dye is on the silk there is no distinction between minuto and grosso, and (3) there is a distinction between chermisi dye and grana dye upon finished silks, and the silks dyed with chermisi sell for substantially more money than the silks dyed with grana – ref: ''La pratica della mercatura scritta da Giovanni di Antonio da Uzzano'', dated 1442, published year 1766, where page 116 has the headline : ''In che modo si fà lo saggio del Chermisi minuto e grosso''. In the text, Uzzano's ''denari 5'' means a very small unit of weight (ref denaro @ TLIO).page 116-117, ''La pratica della mercatura scritta da Giovanni di Antonio da Uzzano'', dated 1442, published year 1766. Prices of dyed silk cloths are given on pages 171 and 107 where silks dyed with chermisi are far more expensive than the other dyed silks.page 171, ''La pratica della mercatura scritta da Giovanni di Antonio da Uzzano'', dated 1442, published year 1766. Various dyed silk cloth prices are on page 107. Compare the chermisi against the grana.page 107. The cochineal was sold as dried insects, the Polish Porphyrophora insect is much smaller than the Armenian Porphyrophora insect, the Polish has a higher concentration of dye chemical per unit weight, the main dye chemical is identical in the Polish and Armenian insects, Italian minuto = "small, fine, minute", grosso = "big". Therefore today's readers interpret the qualifier minuto as Polish cochineal and grosso as Armenian cochineal. In reinforcement of this reading, an Italian merchant in Azerbaijan dated 1510-1514 has cremesi grosso at an Armenian-speaking town "Alangiachana", a place he says is two days journey [A different Italian traveller, namely Caterino Zeno, dated early 1470s, says town ''Alangiacalai'' is two days journey north above ''Tauris''. ''Tauris'' is Tabriz city. Published in English translation in ''A Narrative of Italian Travels in Persia in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries'', translated by Charles Grey, year 1873.north] from Tabriz city. He says: "In this town there is a great quantity of cremesi grosso" – ''Viaggio d'un mercatante, che fu nella Persia'' is a text by an unnamed Italian merchant. It is in Ramusio's voyages collection Volume 2, year 1559, where text on page 87+1 says: ''In queste ville nasce anche gran quantità di cremesi grosso.'' In first & last chapters, the unnamed author gives the dates of his voyage. English translation year 1873 on page 192 at archive.org/details/narrativeofitali00greyrich ref, The website Bibliotecaitaliana.it has all of Ramusio's collection ''Navigazioni e Viaggi'' in searchable format in one big text file, which is 12 megabytes as text and 16 megabytes as html. At the linked page at Bibliotecaitaliana.it, wait 15 or 20 seconds for the page to load the megabytes and execute a formatting script. Then search for the phrase ''cremesi grosso''.alt-link. A trade document at Florence Italy in year 1441 has four barrels of "cremisi minuto" imported from Germany for use in silk clothmaking at Florence – Book ''Die deutsche Einwanderung nach Florenz im Spätmittelalter'' by Lorenz Böninger, year 2006 on page 260, cites ''cremisi minuto'' in year 1441 in a document kept in ''Archivio di Stato, Firenze'' (= ''ASF''). The document's ''cremisi minuto'' was transported to Florence from Nürnberg. Also page 260 cites ''cremisi tedescho'' in year 1486 in a commerce document kept at Florence in Archivio di Stato, Firenze.ref (on page 260), and in the same ref you can get a citation to a trade document at Florence in 1486 having item "cremisi tedescho", where tedescho means "German". A book about dyeing written at Venice in 1548 has the phrase "chremesino menuto & todescho" = "crimson of the small & German kind" – Book, ''Plictho de larte de tentori che insegna tenger panni, telle, banbasi et sede'', by Giovanventura Rosetti, year 1548, which is the first edition. Book has no page numbers. On the linked page, if the last line of the 2nd paragraph does not contain the phrase ''chremesino menuto & todescho'' then go to the other linked copy.ref, Book, ''Plictho de larte de tentori che insegna tenger pani, telle, banbasi et sede'', by Giovanventura Rosetti, year 1560 edition. Book has no page numbers. The quote is on the very last line of the linked page, where the spelling is ''CREMESINO MENUTO & TODESCO''.alt-link. Which means the cochineal from Poland. It arrived in Italy through the intermediation of German-speaking merchants. The same dyeing book in 1548 says in Italian: "grana or Kermes" comes in three grades and "the grana of Armenia" is one of the ones in the best grade, and a few sentences later it says "the best grade is collected on the ground" [interpret: Porphyrophora is best grade], and it says the other grades are "collected on trees" (i.e. they are the Kermes scale-insects on Quercus trees) – ''Plictho de larte de tentori'', by Giovanventura Rosetti. The link is the year 1560 printing. About five pages after the start, there is a paragraph headed ''Capitolo della grana ouer Kermes''. It says about this dye that ''la miglior de tutta si è quella che è raccolta di terra'' and it says the lesser grades are ''raccolta in arbori piccoli'' and it says ''veramente la grana de Armenia è nel numero della bona''.ref. The qualifiers minuto and grosso are only scarcely in other records. One of the scarce other records is that a trader from Venice bought cremisi grosso at Aleppo at the end of the 14th century, as reported at Book, ''Storia documentata di Venezia'' Volume III, by S. Romanin (died 1861), reprint year 1912 on page 342. For ''cremisi grosso'' dated late 14th century, the book cites its source on page 341 footnote #2, and is an unpublished manuscript at Venice labelled ''Cod. Cicogna N. 1232''. I cannot tell from the terse words of the citation what this source actually is, although surely I think it is genuine.Ref. It is reasonably inferable that the cremisi grosso at the Aleppo market was transported there from Armenia. Another one of the scarce instances is "cremexe grosso et menudo" in year 1482 in a list of commodities regularly bought by Venice merchants at Constantinople – Article ''Les marchands vénitiens à Constantinople d'après une TARIFFA inédite de 1482'', by Alessio Sopracasa, year 2011, 170 pages, in journal ''Studi Veneziani'' Volume LXIII pages 49-220. Cremexe grosso on page 75.ref.
    A decree of the Senate of the city of Venice in 1457 restricted the silk industry in Venice to using only four different dyes for dyeing silks red, and the four were: cremisi, grana, lacca, and verzino, where cremisi meant Porphyrophora cochineal, grana meant Kermes cochineal, lacca meant Lac cochineal, and verzino meant Asian brazilwood – Book, ''The Silk Industry of Renaissance Venice'', by Luca Molà, year 2000. Chapter 5: ''Dyeing''. Venice decree of year 1457 on page 115. Note: this author deliberately uses the English name ''kermes'' to mean the Porphyrophora cochineal. The name he uses for the Kermes cochineal is ''grain''.ref. Local guild regulations of the silk industry in a number of towns in 15th century Italy show that the Porphyrophora dye was frequently used to dye silks; and the silk industry used Kermes frequently too, but Porphyrophora was preferred to Kermes for dyeing silks in 15th century Italy – Book, ''The Silk Industry of Renaissance Venice'', by Luca Molà, year 2000. Chapter 5: ''Dyeing'', starting page 107. Note: this author deliberately uses the English name ''kermes'' to mean the Porphyrophora cochineal. The name he uses for the Kermes cochineal is ''grain''.ref. Cochineal dyes in general were used on silks and woolens, not on linens nor cottons. But the woolen industry of 15th century Italy almost never used the Porphyrophora cochineal, and some woolens guilds prohibited it – same ref. The Kermes cochineal was preferred for wool. Notice that in all of the above Italian sources, the chermisi/cremisi dye is used on silk and only silk.
    An Italian merchant book published in 1503 has cremese dye distinct from grana dye. It has cremese listed as merchandise that is regularly bought in Constantinople by traders who resell it in Italy. In particular they bring it from Constantinople to named towns in Italy having a silk cloth industry – ''Tariffa de pexi'', by Bartholomeo di Paxi [aka Pasi] da Venetia, year 1503. It says ''cremese'' purchased at Constantinople is carried to Venice, Florence, Milan, Bologna, Lanzano (i.e. Lanciano), and Ragusa (Dubrovnik). Each of those towns had a silk industry in the later 15th century with the exception of Ragusa. Ragusa was an entrepot seaport which would have re-exported the ''cremese'' by sea.ref, Book ''Tariffa de i Pesi'' by Bartholomeo di Pasi [aka Paxi] da Vinetia, year 1540 republication. Republishes the year 1503 edition with many spelling changes. Search for substring CREME in order to find cremese.alt-link. The word cremese occurs more than a dozen times in this book, while the word grana meaning Kermes dye occurs about 70 times, and in some sentences the cremese and grana dye products are in the same sentence (e.g.)The book says in Italian: "From Venice to Milan is brought... grana, pulverized grana, cremese, indigo.... From Constantinople to Bologna is brought... cremese, grana of ‘‘‘Romania’’’ [means Balkans Kermes], wax, camlet cloth.... From Constantinople to Florence is brought... grane, cremese, fine camlets...".. The book also has cremesini. While the cremese is dye merchandise, the cremesini is an adjective on cloth merchandise and the cloths are silks.
    Spanish in the late 15th century had the following wordforms meaning cloths dyed crimson, in the usual case, and in a few other cases meaning crimson paint color: cremesí, cremesyn, cremesin, cremesina, carmesi, carmesí, carmisi, carmisyn, carmisin, carmesino, carmesines, carmesín. All of those have the letter 's'. Not included in that list is Spanish carmin, carmín, carmini which will be discussed separately in a later paragraph because its history is much different. All the wordforms with the letter 's' are very rare in Spanish before the 15th century, probably fully non-existant before year 1400, and are uncommon before the late 15th. The Spanish search the CORDE databaseCorpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE) has no example of it before 1400. CORDE's early records in Spanish are in the form cremesin | cremesyn circa 1400, a wordform that on its face is qualified to be straight from the Italian cremesina | cremisino. French has cremesin in 1342 (cramoisin @ ''Dictionnaire du Moyen Français''. It quotes year 1342 ''veluyel fin, cremesin'' in French royal expense accounts.ref, Book ''Nouveau recueil de comptes de l'argenterie des rois de France'', curated by L. Douët-d'Arcq, year 1874. It has ''cremesin'' on page 26, and ''cremasin'' on page 28, and the year 1342 date is on pages 20 & 36.alt-ref), which is 60 years earlier than the first known Spanish cremesin. French has cremesy in 1352 (cramoisi @ ''Dictionnaire du Moyen Français''. It quotes year 1352 ''fin velluau cremesy'' in French royal expense accounts.ref, Book ''Comptes de l'argenterie des rois de France au XIVe siècle'', curated by L. Douët-d'Arcq, year 1851, having cremesy on page 287alt-ref), which is 80 years earlier than the first known Spanish carmesí and 150 years earlier than the first known Spanish cremesí. Sicilian-Latin has year 1350 carmisino and 1355 carmixino ''Inventaires de maisons, de boutiques, d’ateliers et de châteaux de Sicile (XIIIe-XVe siècles)'' Volume II, by Bresc-Bautier & Bresc, year 2014, on pages 436, 438, 446(ref), which are 100 years earlier than the earliest known Spanish carmisin | carmesino. I have already mentioned that Italian carmesi by a Venice author in 1307 and another Venice author about 1310-1320 are 120 years earlier than the first known Spanish carmesi. The earliest reported for Catalan carmesí | carmesina is 1398-1399 Year 1398-1399 Catalan book ''Lo Somni'' by Bernat Metge has ''vestit de vellut pelós carmesi'' (''dressed in piley crimson velvet''). This item is quoted at CARMESÍ @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by Alcover & Moll, year 1962, online at https://dcvb.iec.cat/. It is the earliest known for CARMESÍ in Catalan. (ref). In England, draps de cremosyn is in Anglo-Norman French in 1402 The English parliament in year 1402 prohibited persons of non-noble rank from wearing ''draps de cremosyn''. The law was written in French. ''Draps de cremosyn'' is translatable as ''cloths of crimson'' but in context it means silk cloths and its ''cremosyn'' is a dye used on silks. The law is printed in ''Rotuli Parliamentorum'' [Rolls of Parliament], volume III, page 506.(ref) and cremesyn | crymesyn starts in English in 1416 cremesin @ Middle English Dictionary(ref), which is about the same starting date as in Iberia.
    The driver of the word into France, Sicily, Catalonia, Spain and England was silk cloths made and dyed in Italy. The silk cloth industry greatly expanded in northern Italy in the 14th century and continued expanding in the 15th. Very little silk cloth was made in Iberia or in France in the period 1300-1450, and the very little that was made was of lower quality than the silk cloth exports of Italy – Chapter ''Silk in the Medieval World'', by Anna Muthesius, in book ''The Cambridge History of Western Textiles'' Volume 1, year 2003, on page 340ref, Book, ''The Silk Industry of Renaissance Venice'', by Luca Molà, year 2000, pages 21-23 summarizes the scale of the silk industry in Iberia and France in the 14th and 15th centuriesref. The late medieval European word was closely associated with silks to such a degree that draps de cremosyn (1402 England, link above) is definitely translatable as "crimson silks" (not crimson cloths) and velvette cremesyn (1420 England) is definitely translatable as "crimson silk velvet". The large market share of the Italian producers of silks in 14th-15th century western Europe, considered together with the chronological order of all the word's records, and the word's medieval semantics (especially in Italian the differentiation from grana dye), imply that it is exclusively the Italian carmesi | chermisi | cremisi that came from the Arabic qirmiz(ī). The word in all the other European languages descended from Italian. In saying this, I am excluding the wordforms lacking the letter 's', i.e., excluding carmine | carmín | carmini, which descended from a different rootword and will be discussed in a later paragraph.
    In Latin and Italian the written 'ch' was pronounced /k/. I mentioned the feeding habits of the Porphyrophora and Kermes cochineal insects in two earlier paragraphs. This paragraph is about the historical meaning of the name Chermes | Kermes and in particular the paragraph shows that in Europe in the early 16th century the biological meaning for Chermes | Kermes was Porphyrophora and it was not Kermes. In the ancient Greek medicinal botanist Dioscorides, cochineals were called coccus and coccus baphica where Greek baphe = "dye" – In an English translation, Dioscorides says: ''KOKKOS BAPHIKE is a little shrub full of sprigs, to which cling grains like lentils which are taken out and stored. The best is from Galatia and Armenia, then that from Asia and that from Cilicia, and last of all that from Spain.... That in Cilicia grows on oaks [and this coccum on oaks is] similar in shape to a little snail.''ref. In year 1540 Antonio Musa Brasavola wrote in Latin: Other people believe the coccus in Dioscorides is our chermes.... But I dissent from such opinion, because Dioscorides says it grows on woody shrubs, whereas it is herbaceous plants from which our chermes arises.... Our chermes grows underground.Book, ''Examen Omnium Syruporum'', by Antonius Musa Brasavolus, year 1540 edition. Says on page 44 : ''herba autem est, ex qua nostrum chermes ortum habet: Coccus autem infectorius nascitur ex frutice.'' Has more to say about chermes on pages 45-48. Says on page 48: ''Nostrum autem chermes... sub terra nascitur'', which is correct for Porphyrophora and cannot mean today's Kermes.ref. In that statement, Brasavola is saying chermes means Porphyrophora and does not mean Kermes. Brasavola on the same page also says the coccus in Dioscorides is the grana dye, not chermes. In year 1541 Jacobus Sylvius wrote in Latin: Chermes is dug up commonly in Poland from the root of a herb similar to Saxifraga; it [chermes] is different from coccus baphicaBook : ''Methodus Medicamenta Componendi'', by Iacobus Sylvius aka Jacques Dubois, year 1541, year 1548, page 107. His Latin botanical ''bipinnellæ'' translates to today's Saxifraga genus & today's Anagallis genus & similar herbs.ref. In that statement, chermes means Porphyrophora while coccus means Kermes. In year 1543 a medicines book by monks Angelus Palea & Bartholomaeus says in Latin: Chermes or Kermes, or charmes etc, designates grana dye, and that much is expounded by everybody. However, a multiplicity of types of grana are used by dyers and fullers. But there are two principal types of grana, one of which is absolutely just called grana dye and this one is alternatively called coccus.... The other grana is called grana chermes or simply chermes, and not called absolutely just grana.... The grana dye with the cognomen chermes is only used to dye silk. And this grana is found on the roots of certain herbaceous plants.Book ''In Antidotarium Ioannis Filii Mesuae, censura. Cum declaratione simplicium medicinarum, & solutione multorum dubiorum ac difficilium terminorum.'' Year 1543, 1546, on page 30. The book's preface indicates the authors were two Franciscan monks who lived near Rome.ref. In the late 1540s botanist Pierre Belon was talking about Kermes cochineal when he said about the Greek island of Crete: The revenue from the scarlet grain named Coccus baphica is very great in Crete.... Small trees of Coccus, from which the inhabitants collect the scarlet grainTravel book in French, ''Les Observations...'' by Pierre Belon. Pierre Belon visited the Eastern Mediterranean lands in the years 1546-1549 and published his observations in 1553. Search text for word Coccus. His phrase ''arbre(s) de Coccus'' means today's Quercus Coccifera tree(s).ref. In the early 1550s botanist Pietro Mattioli was talking about Porphyrophora cochineal when he said: True Chermesinum is gathered from the roots of certain herbaceous plantsBook in Latin : Petrus Matthiolus's Commentaries on Dioscorides, year 1554 edition (enlarged from earlier editions). Chapter headlined COCCUM INFECTORIUM. Matthiolus says: ''Chermesinum vero, quod est pimpinellae radicibus decerpitur''. One definition for ''pimpinella'' is elsewhere in the same book. The 16th-century plantname ''pimpinella'' was attachable to plants in the Saxifraga family and similar.ref, Year 1558 Latin edition of Petrus Matthiolus's Commentaries on Dioscorides, on the page situated between page 515 and 517alt-link. However, Pietro Mattioli at the same time proposed that the name Chermes would be validly usable to designate the Mediterranean coccus dye insect, meaning today's Kermes. He had a deliberate technical reason for this. More exactly, he had a technical reason for rejecting the established Latin name coccus. The details involve the fact that Mattioli and practically all 16th century botany & taxonomy experts wanted Dioscorides's names to be the foundation for standardized terminology, and the fact that Dioscorides said the best "coccus" came from Armenia and Galatia in the uplands of Turkey. Dioscorides also said some coccus looked like lentils while others looked like little snails. Dioscorides's coccus was glaringly ambiguous in Mattioli's reading of it. Therefore Mattioli took the position that the Latin name coccus was too ambiguous to be a technical name for Kermes. Mattioli put forth an erroneous rationale for why Chermes would be an acceptable replacement name for CoccusBook in Latin : Petrus Matthiolus's Commentaries on Dioscorides. Chapter headlined COCCUM INFECTORIUM. Link is year 1554 edition.ref, Year 1558 Latin edition of Petrus Matthiolus's Commentaries on Dioscorides, on page 515alt-link. This semantics by Mattioli for chermes was new. It caused some confusion (In Latin : The works of Leonhart Fuchs (died 1566), volume 1, year 1566, see page 50 and search the whole book for CHERMES.e.g.), yet it was quickly accepted by many taxonomy and botany scholars. The botanist Johann Bauhin (died 1613) did not like it, and he aired an argument against it across several pages (''Historia Plantarum Universalis'' by Johann Bauhin, Volume 1, pages 107-114, year 1650pages 108 and 113), although in the end he did not reject it. The international Latin botany community of that era wished for standardized meanings for their plantnames and insectnames. They got part of their wish into reality by not only standardizing on Dioscorides but by standardizing on Matthioli's interpretations of Dioscorides. Matthioli's unnatural definition of Chermes is the only fountainhead for this definition for Chermes in the nature books, I believe.
    In conclusion and review of all the foregoing, the Italian carmesi | chermisi | cremesi at its onset meant specifically and exclusively the Armenian cochineal, in light of the following eight summary points: (#1) Armenian cochineal is what the Arabic qirmiz(ī) referred to most often in medieval Arabic texts; and (#2) Armenian cochineal in Italy was necessarily an import from the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea, and involved contact with easterners who used the word qirmiz(ī); and (#3) Italian traders expanded their overall activity in the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea in the 13th & early 14th century (details omitted) and this included expansion in their trading with the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, and we have three independent records of Italian merchants importing silk cloths dyed with carmisi | chermisi from Armenian Cilicia in the early 14th and these are among the very earliest records of the word in a European language, and another of the earliest records comes from an Italian on the farther shores of the Black Sea; and (#4) the Porphyrophora dye is chemically behaviorally different from the Kermes dye, and hence medieval Italian traders and dyers had a motive to have distinct names for these two dyes; and (#5) the Polish Porphyrophora was called "chermisi minuto" and this was appropriate because chemically as a dye it is practically the same thing as the Armenian Porphyrophora; and (#6) the Kermes cochineal in Italy generally did not come from Arabic-speaking places, rather it generally came from places on the north side of the Mediterranean Rim, including Greece and Languedoc (illustrations)Francesco Pegolotti circa 1340, linked above, has a list of major source-places for grana dye and at the top of the list are the Greek islands and the southeast side of Adriatic Sea, and Pegolotti has also southeast France in his list. The anonymous mid-15th-century Italian treatise about the silk industry in Florence, linked above, says grana dye comes from near Lisbon in Portugal and from Spain, northwest Africa, southeast France, and "many other places". The Tuscany merchant Uzzano in 1440-1442, linked above, names grana dye sourced from Corinth in Greece and from Provence in southeast France and some other named places. and moreover the Kermes cochineal was collected on the Mediterranean rim from time immemorial and it had longstanding names in Italian, and there was no motive for Italians to adopt a foreign name for Kermes in the 14th century; and (#7) in Italian the name grana continued to be the most frequently used name for Kermes cochineal for three centuries after the arrival of the name chermisi into Italian, and during these centuries the two names continued to be semantically distinct in authors who were aware of the distinction between Kermes and Porphyrophora; and (#8) post-medievally, in breach of vernacular usages, mid 16th century bookish scholars followed Matthiolus in rejecting the name coccus and adopting the name chermes to designate Kermes.
    In late medieval Latin there was a medicinal drink called "Alchermes confection". It was a drink containing cochineal crimson dye plus varying other ingredients. Its early records in European languages are in Italian-Latin medicines books influenced by Arabic medicine. The drink named alchermes | alkermes is frequent in Europe-wide Latin medicines books of the 16th century. These books frequently state that the originator of it was "Mesue". The Latin name "Mesue" is pronounced ME·SU·Eh. It literally referred to the medical writer Ibn Māsawayh (died c. 857; lived in Iraq). But some books of a much later composition date circulated in Latin with this author's name as a Definition at Wikipedia : Pseudepigraphypseudepigraph. The Latin "Mesue" books were among the most widely read medical books in Latin in the century starting in 1471, as evidenced by how frequently they were reprinted by printing-press. The most widely read of the Latin "Mesue" books is a pharmacy book with the Latin title Grabadin, commonly alternatively titled Antidotarium. It has the Latin phrase "confectio alchermes" and has a recipe for the confection (Link goes to a copy of the ''Grabadin'' published in 1513 ref ). The composition date of the Latin Grabadin is put in the late 13th century. A handful of pages of its text are in two physical manuscript fragments date-assessed late 13th (Book, ''Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts at the University of California, Los Angeles'', by Mirella Ferrari, Richard H. Rouse, year 1991, on page 117ref , Auction catalog item : ''Bifolium from an extremely early manuscript - of Mesuë the Younger, Grabadin''. Has a photo of a page of the bifolium. Says the manuscript date is 13th century. Auction was by Bloomsbury Auctions in London W1 UK on 09 Dec 2015.ref ). Five dozen manuscripts of it survive from the 14th and 15th centuries (Article ''L'electuaire, un medicament plusieurs fois millenaire'', by Liliane Plouvier, year 1993. It says on page 107 : 65 manuscripts of the Antidotarium of Mesue of the 13th-15th centuries were identified by researcher Ingrid Klimaschewski-Bock and the 65 are cataloged in an appendix of the book ''Die 'Distinctio Sexta' des Antidotarium Mesuë'', by Klimaschewski-Bock, year 1987. ref ). It was first printed in 1471. The following is a mid-16th-century edition of the Grabadin / Antidotarium where extra paragraphs of annotations about alchermes have been added by commentators on Mesue: In the linked edition, the text by Mesue is in larger typesize; and annotations by Christophorus de Honestis (died c. 1392) and others are in smaller typesize; and annotations by Jacobus Sylvius (died 1555) are in the italic typeface. Alchermes is on page 79+1.Opera Mesue. The Latin Grabadin was done in Italy, everyone agrees, though complexity and uncertainty exists about other aspects of the authorship. The title word Grabadin was a word sourced from Arabic, and so was the word alchermes.
    Corresponding to the Italian-Latin alchermes confection, the Spanish language had the synonymous confection alquermes. Earliest known in Spanish is 1493 Book of laws : ''Las pramaticas del Reyno: Recopilacion de algunas bulas'', printed by printer Miguel de Eguya, year 1528. In a regulation of apothecaries, it has text ''confaciones deleytables, assi como de germis alquermes & otros cosas semeiantes : & confaciones amargas''. Which is on page ''fo. LXXXVI''. The previous page has a preamble saying the law is issued in the name of king & queen Fernando & Isabel. {[Year was 1493]}.(ref). It has been used in Spanish only spottily since then. The word is in Spanish in 1554 in the Italian-Latin wordform "confection Alchermes" Spanish medicines writer Andrés Laguna lived in Italy from 1545 to 1554. In 1554 he completed a book in Spanish which has the statement ''confection Alchermes, aquella muy cordial''. The book is mainly about Dioscorides's Materia Medica.(ref). By reason of the late 15th & 16th century historical context of its emergence in Spanish, it is impossible that alquermes could have entered Spanish from Arabic. The number of words that Spanish borrowed from Arabic in the 15th-16th century is almost nil and Spanish had no practical basis for borrowing this word from Arabic in the 15th-16th century -- no known basis in contact with Arabic medicine, or in borrowing a new use for kermes from Arabs. Spanish medicine of the 15th-16th century borrowed many words from Italian-Latin medicine (including the word elsewhere on this pagealcali : note #23 above). Spanish also borrowed words from vernacular Italian. The database of medieval and early post-medieval Spanish texts at alquermes @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE)CORDE is not all-encompassing, but it is big enough to be roughly representative. Anyone who looks at CORDE can see that today's Spanish etymology dictionaries are without a basis in Spanish for their claim that the Spanish alquermes came from the Arabic of Iberia. It came from the Italian-Latin of "Mesue" and his followers.
    This paragraph is about the history of the medieval Spanish word carmin, which is the parent of the post-medieval English word carmine. In the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe, the market for cochineal dyes was heavily dominated by the imports of cochineal from southern Mexico and Peru Book, ''Cochineal Red: The Art History of a Color'', by Elena Phipps, year 2010(illustrations). The Mexican cochineal insect is an Americas native. Chemically the dye it produces is the exact same as in the Armenian cochineal. The chemical is called carminic acid. English "carmine" commences as a dye-name and color-name in English in the late 17th century –   ref  The "carmine" dye is mentioned as a painter's colorant in year 1685 in an English book about the practices of colouring, the book titled Polygraphice by William Salmon, enlarged edition 1685, online at http://Books.Google.com. "Carmine" is mentioned as a dye in an English medical book in year 1692 and the same William Salmon is the author, and it is online at Early English Books Online Search @ EEBO. William Salmon's book says: ''Carmine, to wit, Grana Nostra, doth tinge or Dye Silk''.(ref).

    The year 1893 New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (carmine @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principlesonline) gives a set of quotatations of early records in English for the word "carmine" meaning the colorant. The earliest quotation it gives is year 1712 in a medical book that was a French-to-English translation (1694 French carmin – Histoire generale des drogues, by Pierre Pomet, year 1694ref). This start date for "carmine" in English is about 300 years later than the start date for "crimson" in English.
    . In 18th century English it meant cochineal imported from the Spanish-speaking Americas, nearly always mordanted, and the use of the mordant was usually part of the practical meaning of carmine. With same meaning, carmín was frequent in 17th century Spanish – ref: search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE) text databaseCORDE. Carmín was well established in Spanish before it shows up in modern French. In medieval French there was a rare charmin, on record about 1165 and about 1200 – Book, ''Early Blazon: Heraldic Terminology in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries'', by Gerard J. Brault, year 1997. Glossary entry for word ''charmin'' on page 140. Has citations for this word in poem ''Roman de Troie'' by Benoit de Sainte-Maure about year 1165 and in poem ''Folque de Candie'' by anonymous author about year 1200.ref – and the medieval meaning of this was a red colorant used to emblazon shields & escutcheons, and, as discussed below, it was a mineral-rock, and it was not any kind of cochineal. Medieval Italian had a rare carmen | charmen material, having an instance in 1361, inscrutable in its context in 1361 – carmen @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Originiref. But that word disappeared from French and Italian and was absent from those languages for centuries until it re-appeared in the modern era borrowed from the Spanish carmín in the late 17th century meaning the Mexican cochineal. But the word was not rare in medieval Latin. A Latin dictionary dated 13th century says: "carminium, synopide idem" = "carminium is the same as sinopia" – ref: carminium @ edition of the ''Alphita'' dictionary within Volume 3 of the five-volume ''Collectio Salernitana'', year 185413th century Salernitan Alphita dictionary. Sinopia was a reddish pigment from a composite mineral whose reddish color comes from iron oxide. Sinopia was a red ochre. The red ochres and sinopia were unearthed in a range of shades of red; Book, ''The Materials of Medieval Painting'', by Daniel Varney Thompson, year 1936, on pages 98-99, has introduction to red iron colorants, red ochres and sinopia. Another intro to sinopia is https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinopia. Sinopia was commonly used as a red colorant in medieval Europe.intro to sinopia. In medieval Italian, sinopia was also spelled sinobia (SINOBIA is a merchandise item in the book ''La Pratica della Mercatura'', by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, dated around year 1340e.g.). A Latin text about paints and coloring dated roughly approx early 12th century says: "carminium, i.e. cinobrium" = "carminium, it is cinnabar" – ref: In Latin and in English : ''De coloribus et artibus Romanorum'' by a pseudonymous Eraclius, aka Heraclius, published in ''Original Treatises, Dating from the XIIth to the XVIIIth Centuries, on the Arts of Painting'', curated & translated by MP Merrifield, year 1849, Volume 1, on pages 238-239De Coloribus et Artibus Romanorum by Eraclius (for dating it: Article, ''A New Manuscript of Heraclius'', by JC Richards, year 1940 in journal ''Speculum''. It discusses the date of ''De coloribus et artibus Romanorum'' by Eraclius. The date is complex. For the edition curated by Merrifield (year 1849), some parts of the text are dated approx 11th century and other parts are dated approx 13th century.ref). Cinnabar was a red mineral that was grinded and used as a red colorant in paint. The same Latin text by Eraclius in a surviving variant manuscript uses the spelling sinobium (not cinobrium) Merrifield's 1849 edition on page 239 in editor's footnote #12 quotes the variant manuscript labelled 'S'. See also Merrifield's footnote on page 238 footnote #3.(ref) which suggests that sinopia (not cinnabar) was intended by the author. The same Latin text later says: "carminium fit de albo et ocro" = "carminium is made from white and ochre" – Text ''De coloribus et artibus Romanorum'' by a pseudonymous Eraclius aka Heraclius, published in ''Original Treatises... on the Arts of Painting'', year 1849, Volume 1, on page 253 in Latin, and page 252 in English translationref. Which more explicitly indicates sinopia (not cinnabar) was what was intended. The white colorant in that quotation is best understood as white calcium mineral –  details The 12th century Latin text by Eraclius says: ''The species of white [colorants] are White Lead, Lime, and Alumen.'' When Eraclius uses the word white, it can mean any of those three. The name "Lime" here means either and both calcium carbonate and calcium oxide. Red ochre, aka sinopia, has good compatibility with lime. Red ochre mixed with lime is still in use today for coloring exterior walls. A text in Italian at around year 1400-1410 says: "A red colour called light CINABRESE.... is made from the finest and lightest sinopia; it is mixed and ground with... a white made of very white and pure lime." – It is the text of Cennino Cennini (died c. 1427) with English translation by MP Merrifield, published in English under book title ''A treatise on painting written by Cennino Cennini'', year 1844. Cinabrese is on page 22 and other pages.ref.. The same text by Eraclius elsewhere recommends carminium paintwork to be trimmed (i.e. edged, edge-highlighted) with White Lead – ''De coloribus et artibus Romanorum'' by a pseudonymous Eraclius, aka Heraclius, published in ''Original Treatises, Dating from the XIIth to the XVIIIth Centuries, on the Arts of Painting'', Volume 1, year 1849, on page 257 (in Latin) and page 256 (in English translation)ref. Another Latin text about making colorants and colored materials dated 12th century has carmin & carminum & carmineus meaning a red colorant for paints, and a red color, and it does not mean cochineal because the text describes the carminum as made by mixing a red mineral-rock colorant with a white mineral-rock colorant, the red being cinnabar (details: hover)The 12th century Latin text says: ''In vermiculo si misceas album fiet carminum'' = ''Into vermilion if you mix white it will make carminum''. Vermiculo in that quotation cannot mean a cochineal because elsewhere in the text the vermiculo colorant is prepared for use as a paint by washing and grinding it in water and then discarding the water, implying the colorant is not soluble in water. Cochineals are soluble in water -- their solubility increases when the pH of the water is non-neutral. The 12th century text uses the word vermicul__ 18 times. By looking at the 18 usages it is clear vermicul__ means the mineral vermilion, aka cinnabar, aka mercury sulfide, aka HgS, which is not soluble in water. When cinnabar is grinded very fine and rinsed with water, its rich red color is improved. The grinding of cinnabar in water was medievally recommended for preparing cinnabar for use as a paint colorant. Cennino Cennini (died c. 1427) says about preparing cinnabar as a painting artist's colorant: ''Grind cinnabar with clean water as much as you can -- if you were to grind it for twenty years, it would be the better and more perfect'' – Book in English, ''A Treatise on Painting written by Cennino Cennini'', translated by Merrifield, year 1844, translating the Italian ''Libro dell'Arte'' of Cennino Cennini (died c. 1427). On page 23 under the heading ''Of the properties of a red pigment called cinnabar (vermilion).''ref. The 12th century Latin text elsewhere says that in general you get white paint colorant from either White Lead (aka lead carbonate) or Lime (aka calcium carbonate). In experience with mixing paints, "cinnabar is incompatible with lime.... Cinnabar is inimical to lime", as reported by Merrifield (year 1846). Cinnabar is compatible with White Lead. Hence the album = "white" in the above-quoted Latin sentence is readable as album plumbum = "White Lead". So the quoted sentence ''In vermiculo si misceas album fiet carminum'' means: carminum is made by mixing white lead into cinnabar. – ref: Book in Latin, ''De Diversis Artibus'', by Theophilus Presbyter, plus English translation by Robert Hendrie, year 1847. Link goes to page 416, where it says : ''In vermiculo si misceas album fiet carminum''. More instances by searching whole book for substring CARMIN.Addenda to Theophilus Presbyter's De Diversis Artibus. The Addenda to Theophilus Presbyter's De Diversis Artibus says in Latin on another page: "if you mix some sinopia with white it will be carmineus color" – Book in Latin, ''De Diversis Artibus'', by Theophilus Presbyter, plus English translation by Robert Hendrie, year 1847. Link goes to page 414 where it says : ''si misceas cum albo parum sinopli erit carmineus color''. More instances by searching whole book for substring CARMIN.ref. Another Latin text about colorants, with date probably 11th century, date certainly no later than 12th century, says the following about the outer edge or trim on a paint job: "Pink color is trimmed [i.e. bordered and edged] with carum minium and White Lead; it is trimmed darker with carum minium, and trimmed lighter with White Lead." – ref: Text ''Mappae Clavicula'' in the Phillipps-Corning manuscript version is dated late 12th century. One of its sections has the heading ''De Mixtionibus''. This section occurs in a separate text, ''De Coloribus et Mixtionibus'', which is dated 11th century or early 12th century at latest. The linked late-12th-century ''Mappae Clavicula'' incorporates the earlier ''De Coloribus et Mixtionibus''.De Coloribus et Mixtionibus (in Mappae Clavicula). The same text also says that carum minium is trimmed lighter by rubeum minium, where the rubeum minium, literally "red Minium", can only be just Minium, aka Red Lead, aka Pb3O4, a red mineral powder that was used as a colorant in paints. Next, there is a 14th century Latin compilation text which is mostly derived from the earlier Latin texts quoted above, and it says the same things that they say, except it repeatedly spells it carominium and carominum (instead of carminum or carum minium). It spells it carominus when it says in Latin: "If you mix white with sinopia, it will be carominus" – ref: Article ''Liber de Coloribus Illuminatorum Siue Pictorum from Sloane Ms. No. 1754'', by DV Thompson, year 1926 in journal ''Speculum''. Latin carominium or caromin(i)us is on pages 284, 288, 290 & 306, and is translated to English nearby. Text says ''carominium id est sinobrium'' (copied from Eraclius). It says ''vermiculum'' is made by heating mercury and sulfur together.Liber de Coloribus Illuminatorum sive Pictorum , Article, ''Liber de Coloribus: Addenda and Corrigenda'', by D. V. Thompson, year 1926 in journal ''Speculum'', Volume 1 #4, pages 448-450. Declares transcription corrections: ''p. 284, line 34, for carominius read carominus.... ; p. 290, line 33, for Carominium read Carominum''corrigenda , Two articles. First article is ''Liber de Coloribus Illuminatorum Siue Pictorum from Sloane Ms. No. 1754'', by Daniel Varney Thompson, year 1926. Second article is ''Liber de Coloribus: Addenda and Corrigenda'', by D. V. Thompson, year 1926alt-link. Another 14th-century compilation text about artist's paint materials says in Latin: "If you wish to make carminium, mix white with cinaprio [i.e. cinnabar] and you will have it" – ref: ''Liber Diversarum Arcium'' is a 14th-century text. It says in Latin : ''Si vis carminium facere, misce album cum cinaprio, et habebis.'' The ''Liber Diversarum Arcium'' is on pages 739-811 as an appendix in ''CATALOGUE GENERAL DES MANUSCRITS DES BIBLIOTHÈQUES PUBLIQUES DES DEPARTEMENTS PUBLIÉ SOUS LES AUSPICES DU MINISTRE DE L'INSTRUCTION PUBLIQUE : TOME PREMIER'', year 1849Liber Diversarum Arcium (this text in its next paragraph has the kermes cochineal under the name grana). A glossary of painter's color terms done in year 1431 was compiled and derived from the above-quoted texts. It says in Latin: "Carminium is a red color, an alternative name for cinnabar or sinopis; others say it is made from white colorant and ochre mixed together.... Sinopis is a red which can be obtained in different ways" – ref in Latin: ''Original Treatises, Dating from the XIIth to the XVIIIth Centuries, on the Arts of Painting'', Volume 1, year 1849. Mrs Merrifield's intro talks about the date and authorship of this Table of Synonyms. She notes that this Table of Synonyms has much confusion, and its compiler Jehan Le Begue (died 1457) cannot have been well practiced in the subject. Synonyms for ''sinopis'' are idiosyncratic or erroneous.Table of Colorant Synonyms of Jehan Le Begue. In the above texts, carmin | charmin | carminum | carmineus | carminium | carum minium | caromin(i)um | carominus are wordform variants of one word. It is in use for approximately two centuries before the earliest record of carmisi(n) in any European language. Spanish has carmin in year 1326 where it is a colorant used in paint and it is not necessarily a cochineal-type colorant; and on further investigation it is not a cochineal. None of the 12th to 15th century instances of the word are using the substance to dye cloths. They are using it as a red paint colorant. They mention the carmin(-) in the same sentence as the coloring minerals Azurite, Ceruse, Minium, and Tutty, as well as cinnabar and sinopia. Its red color comes from cinnabar or sinopia, not cochineal. The source-word for it cannot be the Arabic qirmiz because, firstly, the phonetics are wrong : one cannot derive CARMIN from QARMIZ phonetically. Secondly, the semantics are wrong. Thirdly, the contexts in which the early Latin carmin(-) are located do not contain anything suggesting that the word could have been borrowed from any Arabic source. In documents in Spanish collected at CORDE, Spanish has carmin | carmini | carmín as a red paint colorant, not cochineal or probably not cochineal, in 1326, 1403, 1487, 1508, and later. Spanish carmín is possibly cochineal in the 1490s, though it is uncommon until the late 16th century. French charmin | carmin has no attestation as a colorant of any kind in the Dictionnaire du Moyen Français, 1330-1500 – search @ Dictionnaire du Moyen Français, 1330-1500ref. No known instance anywhere in western Europe has the word carmin(-) unambiguously meaning any cochineal-type dye until 16th century Spain. Etymologically speaking, the 16th century Spanish carmin | carmín meaning cochineal-type dye may be assessed as either: (1) the same word as the 12th-15th century carmin(-), with a somewhat-related new meaning for the word; or else (2) a different word than the 12th-15th century carmin and the same word as carmesin, with a contraction in the word's form. Option (1) is a better assessment than option (2). Which is to say that English carmine is not a word of Arabic ancestry.
  60. ^ curcuma

    Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248) reported that كركم kurkum is a plant root that is brought from the Indies and it produces a saffron-like yellow dye and the root is akin to ginger root. What that means is the Curcuma Longa root, aka turmeric, which is the meaning of kurkum in modern Arabic. (Curcuma Longa root is an orange color after you grind up the root, but the dye imparted by this orange root is a yellow color.) Ibn al-Baitar also reported that kurkum can alternatively mean the yellow dye of the root of the Mediterranean-native plant Chelidonium Majus – At AlWaraq.net : كركم @ ابن البيطارref, At Al-Mostafa.com : كركم on page 724-275 : الجامع لمفردات الأدوية والأغذية - ابن البيطارalt-link, Ibn al-Baitar in translation to German : Heil- und Nahrungsmittel von Ebn Baitar, aus dem Arabischen Uebersezt von Joseph Sontheimer, anno 1842, volume 2, on page 370. For KURKUM, Sontheimer's text differs slightly from the Arabic text at AlWaraq.net.alt-ref.
    The medical books by Al-Razi (died c. 930) and Ibn Sina (died 1037) have a recurring دواء الكركم dawāʾ al-kurkum = "medicinal preparation involving kurkum", which was a confection of multiple ingredients, and one of its ingredients was kurkum, but neither Al-Razi nor Ibn Sina describes what the kurkum is – In Arabic : search الكركم @ Al-Razi's ''Kitab al-Hawi fi al-Tibb'' @ AlWaraq.netref, In Arabic : Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine : Text searchable at AlWaraq.net.ref. Al-Razi and Ibn Sina were translated from Arabic to Latin in the late 12th century with this medicine put into Latin as diacurcuma and curcumaIn Latin : Medical works by Al-Razi in translation by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187), printed edition year 1544. Includes ''Liber ad Almansorem'' by Al-Razi. In this book on page 121 is Latin ''venae de curcuma'' meaning ''veins of curcuma'', which was mistranslating عروق الكركم which was meant as ''roots of kurkum'' (whatever kurkum is).ref, Book in Latin : Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine translated by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187), published in 16th century with annotations by Andrea Alpago Bellunensis (died 1521). Search for the substring CURCUM.ref – which are the earliest records for the word curcuma in Latin. One century later, the ingredient curcume and the confection diacurcuma are in more medicines recipes in Latin, but again without a description of the plant – Latin medicines author ''Mesue'' is dated late 13th century. The link is print edition year 1549, 1558. This edition comes with extensive commentaries on Mesue's medicines written by later Latin writers. The commentaries are printed in smaller typeface or in italic typeface. Search for curcuma & diacurcuma.ref. Some description of curcuma is in the medicines book of Serapion the Younger, which is an Arabic-to-Latin translation with 13th century date in Latin. Serapion the Younger says curcuma is a root used as a dye and as a medicine, but Serapion the Younger says further that curcuma means the Chelidonium Majus root – In Latin : The subsection headed ''De Virz'' in Serapion the Younger's aggregation of commentary from many commentators about medicines. Serapion the Younger says ''curcuma'' is a type of ''virz | uirz'', where the Latin virz/uirz was a transcription of Arabic ورس ''wars | wirs'', which named more than one type of dyestuff.ref-1, In Latin : Subsection headed ''De Curcuma'' in Serapion the Younger. Has quotes from ancient Greek writers about what was called ''chelidonion'' in ancient Greek, which means today's plant chelidonium. This is effectively saying curcuma is chelidonium.ref-2. The Latin medicines dictionary of Simon of Genoa in the late 13th century reproduced Serapion the Younger's curcuma definition – curcuma @ ''Synonyma Medicinae'' by Simon of Genoa. One of this dictionary's main sources for medicines vocabulary is the medicines book of Serapion the Younger.ref.
    In the 14th century the merchant Pegolotti in Italian has curcuma | corcumma listed as an item in the drugs & spices trade. He does not describe what it is, but historians interpret it in the context as meaning the Curcuma Longa root because it is listed alongside medicinal imports from India: Pegolotti has corcumma | curcuma listed alongside Medievally in Latin & Italian, the main thing called costus was an aromatic bitter root imported from India, and it has the botanical name Saussurea Costus today. The medieval botanical name cost__ was also attached to certain other aromatic medicinals that were imported from the Arabs and from the Indies. Bitter costus was totally unrelated to sweet costus. costus, Turpeth is a tropical plant. It grows natively in southern India. Its roots were used in medieval medicine. turpeth, Pegolotti's Italian word squinanti translates as 16th & 17th century English ''Squinanth Rush'' and ''Squinant'', which translates as today's English CYMBOPOGON, which is a grass genus encompassing multiple fragrant grasses. lemongrass, and cloves – Book in Italian : ''La Pratica della Mercatura'', by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, dated about 1340, curated and annotated by Allan Evans, year 1936. Allan Evans has a note in English about the meaning of ''curcuma'' and ''corcumma''.ref, curcuma @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini'', year 2011. Quotes Pegolotti and declares the word in Pegolotti means Curcuma Longa.alt-ref. The same interpretation goes for Italian word churcuma in a drugs & spices list of a merchant in Italy around year 1440, because the word's placement is beside medicinal botanicals imported from India – Book, ''La pratica della mercatura scritta da Giovanni di Antonio da Uzzano'', written circa 1440. As printed in year 1766 on page 19 it has the text: ''Chebuli, cetrini, churcuma''. Chebuli is the chebula myrobalan, also known as Terminalia Chebula. In the context, ''cetrini'' means the yellow myrobalan, known as Terminalia Citrina. The Terminalia myrobalans were dried fruits from India.ref. The same goes for curcuma in an apothecary's product list written in Latin in Germany around 1450-1499, where Latin curcuma is in a section for Indian aromatics, whereas the same document has Latin celidonia in a section for European leafy herbs – Text in Latin : ''Die Frankfurter Liste: Beitrag zur mittelalterlichen Geschichte der Pharmacie'', curated by FA Flückiger, year 1873. Text is a 6-page list of elementary medicines to be stocked in an apothecary shop. Celidonia is on page 10 and Curcuma is on page 11.ref. In 1536 in Italy the medicines writer Antonio Musa Brasavola wrote: Regardless of whether the info in Serapion the Younger is valid or not, the yellow root called curcuma at Venice is in the ginger family and is nothing like Chelidonium – Book in Latin : ''Examen omnium simplicium medicamentorum, quorum in officinis usus est'', by Antonius Musa Brasavolus, year 1536, year 1537. Curcuma is discussed on pages 262-263. The author resided at Ferrara town in northeast Italy.ref. Medicines writer Angelo Palea in Italy in 1543 wrote: A mix-up in meaning between Curcuma root and Chelidonia root has happened with the name curcuma, and alternative names are available that do not have the mix-up – curcuma @ ''In Antidotarium Ioannis Filii Mesuae, censura. Cum declaratione simplicium medicinarum, & solutione multorum dubiorum ac difficilium terminorum.'' Written in year 1543. The book's preface indicates the authors were Angelus Palea and Bartholomaeus, two Franciscan monks living near Rome.ref. The mix-up was because the late medieval Latins had borrowed the Arabic word kurkum to name the Curcuma Longa root —which was a product that came to the Latins exclusively from the Arabs and ultimately from the Indies— but meanwhile among the Arabs the meaning "Curcuma Longa root" for kurkum had the status of an improvised secondary meaning, improvised from the pre-existing meaning of "Chelidonium Majus root".
    In the English language the word's early records are in medical books that are taking it from Latin, and two instances in English from at or before 1425 are in the Middle English Dictionary at termerite @ Middle English Dictionaryref and curcuma @ Middle English Dictionary.ref. In Spanish the early records are at about year 1500 in Latin-to-Spanish translations of Italian-Latin medical books – ref: Search for ''curcuma'' in late medieval and 16th-century Spanish medical texts collected at HispanicSeminary.org. The Spanish word ''corcoma, carcoma'' is unrelated. In one of the texts at HispanicSeminary (text labelled ''CMY'') it looks like ''curcuma'' means the unrelated ''corcoma, carcoma''.Library of Old Spanish Medical Texts at Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies.
  61. ^ damask

    In Italian and French, the word for damask is the same as the word for Damascus city. In late medieval English, Damascus city was often written "Damask". Early records in Britain for "damask", "damask rose", "damaskeen", etc, and "damson" and "prunes of Damask" are in damask cloth @ Middle English DictionaryMED--1, 15th century English damasyn = damascene plum = damson plum @ Middle English DictionaryMED--2, damask, etc, @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), year 1897NED, Damascus @ ''Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources'' (''DMLBS''). At linked page, you have to first click on the label DMLBS.DMLBS--1, damascenus @ ''Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources'' (''DMLBS''). DMLBS uses abbreviations to name its medieval sources and these are defined at http://www.dmlbs.ox.ac.uk/web/dmlbs%20bibliography.html DMLBS--2, and wardrobe possessions of Damask or damasq[ue] cloth occurs 25 times in ''Inventory of the Goods and Chattels belonging to Thomas, Duke of Gloucester'' in year 1397, published in ''The Archaeological Journal'' Volume 54 pages 275-308, year 1897. Inventory written in Anglo-Norman French.Duke of Gloucester in year 1397. The late medieval European "damask" textile was decorated, and costly, and usually of silk. The textile-name damask is present in the 14th century in French, English, Catalan, Italian, and Latin, and it seems to be absent before the 14th. You can find a small number of sporadic instances before the 14th where somebody in Europe refers to a product from Damascus city (for instance, a garment of silk from Damascus is mentioned in a French poem in late 12th century). But those instances are separable from the word damask that arrives in the 14th. As you can see in examples to be quoted below, the 14th-century name was applicable to types of decorated metalwork, as well as types of decorated textiles. At the time of the name's arrival among the Latins, Damascus was one of the biggest cities of the Mediterranean region and had one of the highest standards of living. Numerous medieval Latin and Arab writers who visited Damascus noted the high quality of its workshops for silks, and metals, and glass, and they admired the adjacent expanse of irrigated horticulture. However, they do not report a textile nor design style called "damask". The Arabic medieval dictionaries do not have دمشق dimashq (Damascus) for any kind of textile or design style – دمشق @ Searchable Medieval Arabic Dictionariesref. The geographers Al-Idrisi (died c. 1165) and Al-Muqaddasi (died c. 995) said Damascus is notable for production of silk brocades, but they did not mention a name "damask" in that connection – Muhammad al-Idrisi's description of Damascus is quoted in English translation in ''A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers by Guy Le Strange'', year 1890, on page 239-240. Al-Idrisi's geography book titled نزهة المشتاق is in Arabic on the Internet at multiple websites.ref, Book in English : ''Description of Syria including Palestine, by Mukaddasi circ. 985 A.D.'', translated by Guy Le Strange, year 1886, on page 70. Al-Muqaddasi says Damascus is notable for ديباج dībāj = ''silk brocade''. You can get this statement by Al-Muqaddasi in Arabic on page 181 line 1 at archive.org/details/bibliothecageogr03goej ref. The Italian travelers Nicolo Poggibonsi in the 1340s and Simone Sigoli in the 1380s visited Damascus and wrote about goods made there (including "the best silks in the world", said Sigoli), and they did not mention a damask fabric nor damask design-style – Book, ''Libro d'oltramare di Fra Nicolo da Poggibonsi'', Volume TWO, edition year 1881. Search for ''Damasco'' meaning Damascus.ref-1, Book, ''Viaggio al Monte Sinai di Simone Sigoli'', edition year 1843. Sigoli visited Damascus in 1384. Search for ''Damasco'' meaning Damascus. On page 61 Sigoli says that in Damascus they make a great quantity of silk cloths of all styles and colors, the most beautious and best in the world.ref-2, Book, ''Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen-âge'', by W. Heyd, year 1886, Volume 2 on page 458alt-ref. Apparently the name was not in use in Arabic for a textile nor design style. The arrival of the name in European languages coincided with an expansion of silk-making in Italy in the 14th century. Very little silk fabric of any kind was made in Latin Europe before then. Most of the silks of the medieval Latins, before the 14th century, were imported from the Arabs and the Byzantines. The 13th and 14th century silk-making industry in Italy was influenced by models and methods of the Arab and Byzantine silk industries, which had been in the business for centuries before the industry got going in Italy in the 13th – Chapter ''Silk in the Medieval World'', by Anna Muthesius, in book ''The Cambridge History of Western Textiles'' Volume 1, year 2003. Lucca and Venice in the 13th century had growing silk cloth-making industries, but none before the 13th. Silk cloth-making much expanded in northern Italian towns in the 14th. Related info from Anna Muthesius is in her book ''Studies in Byzantine and Islamic Silk Weaving'', year 1995. Ref. In 14th century Europe the word damasco | damascha | domascho | damaschino = "damask, damasked" in many cases meant "decorated in a certain style", yet the definition of the style is hard to find in writing. Examples in Italian or Italian-Latin documents: year 1365 "a bishop's hat of taffeta silk, white, with decorations of domascho"; 1367 "one tambourine drum of damaskino brass"; 1376 "a silver jug having work in domaskino mode.... a gilded silver jug having work in Domasco"; 1381 "six small damaschino vases"; 1400 "a priest's robe of gilded cloth of damasco"; 1403 "a robe of blue domaschini cloth"; 1412 "cloth of damaskino silk"; 1451 "a candle-stick of damasco"; 1456 "a hand-washing basin of damaschi worked in gold and silver"; 1458 "a basin of brass damaschi without silver" – ''Inventaires de maisons, de boutiques, d’ateliers et de châteaux de Sicile (XIIIe-XVe siècles)'' Volume II [of six volumes], by Bresc-Bautier & Bresc, year 2014. Search for substrings DAMAS and DOMAS.ref, Book, ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001. Downloadable as PDF files. Search in the Latin section for the substrings DAMASC and DOMASC.ref, damasco @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Originiref. In Catalan documents in 1370 and 1417, candlesticks have obra de domàs = "damask ornamental work" – domàs @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by Antoni Maria Alcover (died 1932) and Francesc de Borja Moll (died 1991)ref; and in Catalan in 1413 a textile is brocaded a la damasquina = "in damask fashion" – damasquí @ ''Diccionari català-valencià-balear'', by Alcover & Moll, year 1962ref. In French in 1381, a small basin of copper is "ouvré d'oevre de Damas" = "worked in damask work" and the same document in 1381 has a Christian Cross icon made of gold "ouvreé en la façon de Damas" = "wrought in damask fashion" – Book, ''Inventaire du Mobilier de Charles V, Roi de France [died 1380]'', curated by Jules Labarte, year 1879. The book publishes a big inventory that has dozens of inventory items of ''euvre de Damas'' or ''façon de Damas'' meaning damask ornamental work.ref. More French documents from late 14th & early 15th century are quoted at ''Glossaire français du Moyen Âge à l'usage de l'archéologue et de l'amateur des arts, précédé de l'inventaire des bijoux de Louis duc d'Anjou dressé vers 1360-1368'', by Léon de Laborde, year 1872. Glossary for word ''damas'' on page 243 has a set of medieval quotations. In addition, year 1360-1368 ''ouvrage de Damas'' and ''lettres de Damas'' are on pages 28 & 34 & etc.ref + damas @ ''Glossaire Archéologique du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance'', Volume One, by Victor Gay, year 1887, on pages 535-539. This glossary has lots quotations for damask in the 15th & 16th centuries, and almost none in the 14th, and none before the 14th. In contrast, the same glossary has lots of quotations in the 13th & 14th centuries for certain other luxury textiles names.ref. A 19th century historian of medieval European textiles says about the medieval damask textiles: Great was the variety of these precious textiles.... In the 14th and 15th centuries the two expressions "drapes of Damask" and "damask" were applied to two different sorts of textiles, the first expression indicating their true or supposed provenance [in Damascus], and the second indicating the design in which they were decorated''Tissues précieux en Occident, principalement en France, pendant le moyen âge'' [two volumes], by Francisque Michel, year 1854, in Volume 2, on page 214 and page 218-219ref. The name is apparently an Italian coinage meaning "decorated in a style associated with the Middle East and Damascus". Compare it with 16th-century Italian arabesco = "arabesque design style done in Italy and elsewhere".
  62. ^ elixir

    An Arabic technical dictionary titled مفاتيح العلوم Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm = "Keywords of the Sciences" is dated late 10th century. It defines الإكسير al-iksīr as "a preparation which, when cooked together with a molten body, turns the molten body into gold or silver or into some other body of white or yellow color" – Book in medieval Arabic plus footnotes in Modern Latin : مفاتيح العلوم ''Mafâtîh al-olûm'', explicans vocabula technica scientiarum tam Arabum quam peregrinorum, auctore Ahmed ibn Jûsof al-Kâtib al-Khowarezmi. Curated by G. van Vloten, year 1895. الإكسير on page ٢٦٥ (265) on line 9.ref ; ''Dictionary of Scientific Biography'' at Encyclopedia.com : Has biography of Ibn Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Al-Khuwarizmi, the author of ''Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm''ref for date. A representative example of a medieval Arabic alchemy text that uses the word al-iksīr repeatedly is In Arabic : ''Arabische Alchemisten: II. Ǧaʿfar Alṣādiq, der sechste Imām'', curated by Julius Ruska, year 1924. Word الاكسير is on print pages 114-116 (equals PDF pages 114-116), and is on Arabic print page 4 which equals PDF page 184, and is on PDF page 183 and some other pages. Medieval manuscript declares the author is Ja'far al-Sadiq (died 765 AD), but there is reason to believe this is a falsehood.Ref, which is by an pseudonymous author who pre-dates Ibn Al-Nadim (died 995). Many dozens of medieval instances in other Arabic texts are at search @ AlWaraq.netالإكسير @ AlWaraq.net. Medieval Arabic got this word from an ancient Greek word that anciently meant a dry powder, and it has a couple of records in medieval Arabic in that sense – elixir @ ''Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe'', by R. Dozy and W.H. Engelmann, year 1869, on page 259ref.
  63. ^ erg & hamada

    Johnson's Richardson's Arabic-to-English dictionary in year 1852 gives numerous very different meanings for Arabic عرق ʿerq and one of the meanings is "a long sand-hillock.... barren ground" – عرق @ Arabic-to-English dictionary by Francis Johnson, year 1852, incorporating a year 1777 dictionary by John Richardsonref. Reinhart Dozy's year 1881 Arabic-to-French dictionary gives one of the meanings for عرق ʿerq to be "a hillock or ridge of sand, a transient ridge of sand, a succession of ridges of loose sand in the desert" – عرق @ ''Supplement aux Dictionnaires Arabes'', by Reinhart Dozy, year 1881, volume 2ref. Dozy's dictionary has حمّادة hammāda meaning "a big and rocky and sterile plateau" – حمّادة @ ''Supplement aux Dictionnaires Arabes'', by Reinhart Dozy, year 1881, volume 1ref. Dozy's references for those meanings are in texts of authors in North Africa mainly, and they include 19th century Western European travel-writers in North Africa. A travel book written in English in 1853 has 41 instances of word hamadah meaning "vast, elevated stretches of stony desert" in Libya and northern Niger – Book, ''Narrative of a Mission to Central Africa Performed in the Years 1850-51'', VOLUME 1, by James Richardson, year 1853ref, Book, ''Narrative of a Mission to Central Africa Performed in the Years 1850-51'', VOLUME 2, by James Richardson, year 1853ref. In English today the words "erg" and "hamada" are restricted to technical geomorphology contexts, with a few exceptions in travel writers. Information on what the English words mean is at at Wikipedia : Erg (landform)ref, at Wikipedia : Hamadaref, Textbook: ''Climatic Geomorphology'', by Mateo Gutiérrez (year 2001, 2005)ref. The time of entry of the words into French is put in the mid to late 19th century at Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicaleserg @ CNRTL.fr, Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicaleshamada @ CNRTL.fr.
  64. ^ sabkha

    One formal definition for English word sabkha is at Chapter 3: Sabkhas, Saline Mudflats and Pans, in book ''Evaporites : Sediments, Resources and Hydrocarbons'', by John K. Warren, year 2006Ref, and a different formal definition for English word sabkha is at Article, ''Playa, playa lake, sabkha: Proposed definitions for old terms'', by Peter R Briere, in Journal of Arid Environments, year 2000Ref.
  65. ^ fenec

    In medieval Arabic فنك fenek | fanak could be any mammal species whose pelts were used to make fur coats for humans. Most often these were species of the weasel family. فنك @ ''Supplement aux dictionnaires arabes'', by Reinhart Dozy, year 1881, Volume 2, on page 285. Dozy's source abbreviations are defined in Volume 1, available at same website.Dozy's Supplement , alfaneque @ ''Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe'', by Dozy and Engelmann, year 1869, on pages 102-104Dozy & Engelmann's glossary , fennec @ ''Dictionnaire Étymologique Des Mots Français D'Origine Orientale'', by Marcel Devic, year 1876, on pages 118-119Devic.
  66. garble ^ a  ^ b

    For medieval Italian-Latin garbellare = "to sift" and garbello = "a sieve", a set of records at the seaport of Genoa is in Book, ''Vocabolario Ligure'' by Sergio Aprosio. Downloadable as several PDF files. Covers medieval Latin garbel__ on page 419. Ligure means Liguria province, whose chief city was Genoa.Aprosio's Vocabolario Ligure, year 2001. The set includes Latin verb garbellare at Genoa in year 1191 where the sifted matter was mastic resin; and the set has noun garbellum at Genoa in year 1259 as a thing in an apothecary's shop (for sifting drugs). At the seaport of Marseille in 1269 garbellare = "to sift" occurs in a context where the sifted matter was kermes red dye – garbellare @ Du Cange's Glossary of Medieval Latin. In the glossary's quotation from year 1269, the ''grana... pro pannis tingendis'' means kermes red dye.ref. At the seaport of Pisa in 1321 gherbellare = "to sift" and ghierbello = "a sieve" are sifting spices, drugs and resins – ref: garbel @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini'' (TLIO), a lexicon of 14th century Italian. It lists six headwords containing the stem GARBELL__. It gives medieval quotations for each headword.garbel__ @ TLIO. In Italian with date around 1340 the word occurs more than two hundred times in a sea-commerce handbook, Francesco Pegolotti's La Pratica della Mercatura, where the use contexts are quality-control of spices, drugs, dyes, and resins, and it is spelled both garbell__ and gherbell__Book ''La Pratica della Mercatura'', by Francesco Pegolotti (died c.1347), in Italian, with annotations in English by Allan Evans, year 1936ref. At the seaport of Valencia in Catalan about year 1315 the use contexts of garbellar = "to sift" were the removal of chaff matter from kermes red dye, henna dye, cumin seeds, and anise seeds – Book, ''Llibre d'establiments i ordenacions de la ciutat de València .I. (1296 - 1345)'', being a set of medieval texts, published in 2007, curated by Antoni Furió. It has wordforms garbellar, garbellat, garbellador, garbellada, garbell. Note: Medieval Catalan ''grana'' meant kermes red dye. On pages 64 and 99 the sifted substances are kermes red dye and cumin seeds and anise seeds.ref, grana @ ''Vocabulario del comercio medieval'', by Miguel Gual Camarena, year 1968. It quotes from ''Valencia urbana medieval a través del oficio de Mustaçaf'', estudio y edición de textos, by Francisco Sevillano Colom, year 1957.ref, alquena @ ''Vocabulario del comercio medieval'', by Miguel Gual Camarena, year 1968ref. Catalan in the 14th century had also noun garbell = "a sieve" – Book, ''Llibre d'establiments i ordenacions de la ciutat de València .I. (1296 - 1345)'', curated by Antoni Furió, year 2007, has noun ''lo garbell'' on page 389 in a text dated year 1340e.g. 1340.
    In light of the early use contexts in the Latinate languages involving spices etc, and in light of the Mediterranean seaport locations where the early Latinate records are found, the inference is made that the commonplace Arabic word غربل gharbal = "to sift" (and Arabic غربال ghirbāl = "a sieve") entered Italian & Catalan merchant vocabulary from the Mediterranean-wide sea-commerce in spices, drugs, colorants, and resins. Good background information on sea-commerce by Italians in Arabic-speaking cities is in Pegolotti's Mercatura, linked above. The 14th-century Catalans based at Valencia and Barcelona were active in the Mediterranean-wide sea-commerce in much the same way as the Italians. A concise introduction to sea-commerce by Catalans is in article Article by MT Ferrer, year 2012 in journal ''Catalan Historical Review'', volume 5, pages 29-65"Catalan Commerce in the Late Middle Ages".
    French garbeler | grabeler = "to sift spices & drugs", never frequent in French, has early records in French in wordform garbel(l)er in 1393-1394 and garbeller in 1453-1457 in commerce documents that are talking about sifting culinary spices – Article ''The French vocabulary in the archive of the London Grocers' Company'', by William Rothwell, year 1992, where vocabulary item GARBEL(L)ER is on print page 34. Altlink : jstor.org/stable/40617578 (print page 34).ref, garbeler @ Dictionnaire du Moyen Français. Quotes from ''Les Affaires de Jacques Coeur'' 1453-1457. Jacques Coeur (died 1456) was a financier for importing goods from the Eastern Mediterranean, including pepper. His documents include ''poivre net et garbelle'' = ''pepper clean and sifted''.ref. In French its wordform grabeler commences later than its wordform garbeler. The late arrival of the French records makes it obvious that the French word came from the Italian & Catalan word. In German in 1420 there is gerbelieren = "to cleanse wares from impurities", a scarcely seen word in German, clearly coming from the Italian gherbellare''Arabismen im Deutschen: : lexikalische Transferenzen vom Arabischen ins Deutsche'', by Raja Tazi, year 1998, on page 243ref. In Spanish there is an uncommon and late garbillo = "a sieve". Its uncommonness in Spanish is shown by the CORDE Spanish text corpus, which does not have it in medieval Spanish, and rarely has it in post-medieval Spanish. One of the first records in Spanish is year 1509 Spanish garbelladura in a translation of an Italian-Latin medicine book. Therefore, the word in Spanish came from the Italian & Catalan.
  67. ^ garble  ^ garbage

    In English and/or Anglo-Norman French around year 1400 all of the following words referred to the sifting removal of stalks & roughage & impurities from spices: garbel, garbel[l]age, garbelen, garbelinge, garbalour, garbelure, garbellable, ungarbled – search @ Middle English Dictionaryref. An Act of Parliament in year 1439, written in English, applying to English seaports where spices were offered for sale, says any spices not "trewly and duely garbelyd and clensyd" were subject to "forfaiture of the said Spiceries so yfound ungarbelyd and unclensyd" garbelen @ Middle English Dictionary(ref). Garbled meant that the parts of the spice plant that were not part of the spice were removed. Garble was also used as a noun for the refuse removed by garbling; e.g. an Act of Parliament in English in 1603-04 says: "If any of the said Spices... shall be mixed with any Garbles..." garble @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, year 1901(ref). The verb garbel[l][er] = "to sift" and nouns derived from it are in documents of the London Grocers' Guild written in French in London in 1393-1394 – Book ''Facsimile of First Volume of MS. Archives of the Worshipful Company of Grocers of the City of London, A.D. 1345-1463'', PART ONE, curated by Kingdon, year 1886. Wordforms include garbele, garbelle, garbeler, garbellez, garbellage, garbellure, garbelure, garbelour, garbellour, garbellable[s].ref-1, The link has PART TWO of the facsimile named in the other link. PART TWO has wordforms garbell, garbalour & garbeled on page 179.ref-2. A garbel[l]our, also 1393-1394, was an official of the London Grocers' Guild who could enter a shop or warehouse to view spices & drugs, and garble them, to check them for compliance with rules against having cheaper stuff mixed in with them. The most prominent use context of this garbeler | garbel | garble was sifting the spices & drugs brought to England from the Mediterranean Sea. The word in England was from Italian & Catalan garbellar(e), which was from Arabic gharbal = "to sift". The early history of the Italian & Catalan word is at note #66 above.
    Meanwhile, the English "garbage" has its first known record in 1422, in London, and its early meaning was the low-grade yet consumable parts of poultry such as the birds' heads, necks and gizzards – ref: garbage @ Middle English Dictionary. In the 16th century, "garbage" meant the entrails of butchered animals, both the entrails parts that humans eat and the parts that humans don't eat. In the 17th century, "garbage" was almost always the entrails that humans don't eat. Definitions from 16th & 17th century English dictionaries are at The website ''Lexicons of Early Modern English'' has a text-searchable collection of dictionaries that were written in the 16th & 17th centuries. Search for GARBAGE.Ref. In the early 18th century, Nathan Bailey's English Dictionary defined garbage as "the entrails, etc., of cattle", and defined garble as "to cleanse from dross and dirt", and defined garbles as "the dust, soil or filth separated by garbling" – Bailey's English dictionary year 1726 editionref. Nathan Bailey says the parent of garbage is garble, together with the suffix a definition of English suffix ''-age''-age. Most English dictionaries today do not endorse Bailey's opinion. They say instead the parent of garbage is unknown. The low-grade edible parts of poultry does not make a tight match with "sifted matter". The possibility that garble is the parent of garbage cannot be excluded, so long as the parent of garbage is unknown.
  68. ^ garble versus cribell

    In late ancient & early medieval Latin, there was cribr__ = "a sieve + to sieve" and also a less-used cribell__ = "a small or fine sieve + to sieve finely" – Search for cribr* and cribel* (with asterisk) in the online corpus of early medieval Latin texts at http://www.monumenta.ch/. Use the search box at the lower-lefthand corner of the linked page.ref, Lewis & Short's Latin-to-English dictionary, year 1879, has headwords for the verb ''cribello'', the noun ''cribellum'', and the noun ''cribrum''.ref. The Latin begot medieval Italian crivello @ TLIOcrivello + crivellare @ TLIOcrivellare = "a sieve + to sieve". An Italian-Latin document in year 1314 has: "Pulvis non gherbellatis cum crebellis artis.... Foret cribellatum...." = "Powder not sieved with a closely-spaced sieve.... To be sieved...." – Book, ''Statuti dell'Arte dei Medici e Speziali... di Firenze'', curated by Raffaele Ciasca, year 1922. Pages 1-53 prints a year 1314 Latin statute that regulates medics & apothecary operators & spices grocers in Florence. It has ''gherbellatis'' on page 36. It also has cribellando, cribella, cribellatum, chribellatum, cribellare.ref. On first thoughts it is hard to believe that gherbellat_ and cribellat_ are not from the same rootword. But most dictionaries today endorse the judgement that the Latin cribellum was not the parent of Italian gherbello and Catalan garbell. Part of the reasoning for this judgement is that phonetically for the letter r in the context of any consonant χ and any vowel ε, a mutation from χrε to χεr within Latinate was rare. In view of its rarity, if a person thinks he has an example of it, he has a heavy onus to show that he is not mistaken. (14th-century Italian Chermona for Cremona is documented). (Transposition in the other direction was not rare. In note #66 above, French wordform grabeler was a mutation from the earlier French garbeler.)
    Another negative point, totally separate from the above, is that the late ancient Latin cribell__ is not connected etymologically with the Arabic غربال ghirbāl + غربل gharbal = "a sieve + to sieve". Late Ancient Aramaic & Syriac has ˁrbl @ Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon @ HUC.edu. Cites this word in Aramaic sources of the early centuries A.D., including the Peshitta Bible. Lexicon compiled by Steve Kaufman, around year 2015.ܥܪܒܠܐ ʿarbalā = "a sieve + to sieve", which cannot come from Latin cribellum because of the consonant letter ʿayn at the start of the Aramaic word. Aramaic ʿarbalā is the same word rootwise as Arabic gharbal + ghirbāl. Strong equivalences exist between the Aramaic letter ʿayn and the Arabic letter ghayn. The Aramaic alphabet has fewer letters than the Arabic alphabet and one of the reasons why is that the Aramaic letter ʿayn maps to the two Arabic letters ʿayn and ghayn. Aramaic has no letter ghayn.
  69. ^ gazelle

    Albert of Aachen in the early 12th century was a chronicler of the First Crusade. He said gazela is a type of horse and he said it is an Arabic word – In Latin : Chapter VII of ''Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis'' (''History of the Expedition to Jerusalem'') by Albert of Aachen, who is also known as Albert of Aix and as Albericus Aquensisref. Albert of Aachen did not personally go on the Crusade to the Levant; his Crusade chronicle was based on oral reports to him. This can explain why his gazela is a type of horse. Ambroise of Normandy personally went to the Levant in the Third Crusade in the late 12th century. Writing in French, Ambroise listed gacele as a type of deer – Book, ''L'Estoire de la guerre sainte'', by Ambroise of Normandy, edition year 1897, ''gacele'' on line 10548, on page 282ref. Jean de Joinville personally went to the Levant in the Seventh Crusade in the mid 13th century. Writing about it later in French, Joinville said a gazel is similar to a wild goat – In medieval French : Jean de Joinville's account of the Seventh Crusade. Joinville says: ''une beste sauvaige que l'on apelle gazel, qui est aussi comme uns chevreus''.ref. Two more texts in French dated late-13th-to-early-14th century with gasele | gazele | gaçelle = "gazelle" are cited at Dictionnaire Étymologique de l'Ancien Françaisgazele @ DÉAF. The dictionary makes heavy use of abbreviations to name the medieval texts. The two relevant abbreviations for the two texts are : MoamT and MPolRustB. A third text, the text labelled SiègeBarbP, does not have gazele except as a late insertion in a certain copy. The DÉAF abbreviations are defined at http://www.deaf-page.de/bibl_neu.php ref. Albertus Magnus (lived in Germany, wrote in Latin, died in 1280) wrote a book about animals in which he says "damma-type deers... are called algazel in Arabic" – Book ''De animalibus libri XXVI. Nach der Cölner Urschrift. Zweiter Band, Buch XIII-XXVI'', by Albertus Magnus, curated by Hermann Stadler, year 1920. Page 1375 lines 12-14 is a description of the ''damma'' animals and it fits well to the gazelles. Page 1375 line 15 says ''arabice vocatur algazel''.ref. Late medieval Iberia has a few records for Spanish search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español (CORDE), where, with medieval date, with meaning gazelle, there is one Spanish text with algazel and one with gazelas. Unrelatedly, the Arabic writer Al-Ghazali (died 1111; lived in Khorasan) was translated to Latin in late 12th century and his name was spelled Algazel in Latin and Spanish.algazel | gazela or Spanish-Latin Book, ''Picatrix : The Latin version of the Ghāyat al-Hakīm'', curated by David Pingree, year 1986. Most of this book is a translation of the Arabic book ''Ghāyat al-Hakīm''. The Latin contains eight instances of ''algazel'' meaning gazelle.algazel. The word is scarcer in Spanish than in French. Today's Spanish gacela probably descends from the French and French-Latin, by reason of wordforms and chronological order and the scarceness of records in Spanish.
  70. ^ imala vowel shift in 'gazelle' and other words

    Jean de Joinville participated in a Crusade war expedition to the Levant in the mid 13th century. He wrote a report in French about the expedition, in which he mentions hunting wild gazelles in the territory of today's northwestern Israel. In Arabic both medievally and today the spelling of the word for gazelle is غزال ghazāl. But the common local pronunciation in the Levant today is mostly GHAZEL and GHEZEL. It is proveable that ghazāl was pronounced GHAZEL in medieval Arabic as well. This pronunciation is the reason why it was that Jean de Joinville's word was gazel not gazal. The medieval Arabic pronounciation of the spelled ā as the sound e was frequent and is well documented. This Arabic pronounciation phenomenon is discussed in the early Arabic grammar book by Sibawaih (died c. 796). Sibawaih called it the إمالة imāla vowel pronunciation shift. It is still called that today. Imala is discussed in some other medieval Arabic language books. But the best concrete evidence for the medieval imala pronunciation comes from large numbers of medieval documents in which Arabic words are written down phonetically in non-Arabic alphabets. There are two kinds of these documents. The second kind is documents in non-Arabic languages. The first kind is documents in the Arabic language written in non-Arabic alphabets by non-Muslims whose native language was Arabic and whose use of the non-Arabic alphabet was keeping up a tradition in religion.
    Medievally the Arabic pronounciation of the spelled ā as sound e was dependent on consonantal contexts -- for example it usually did not occur when Arabic letter q or gh or r was adjacent to the ā, and usually did occur when letter b or z was adjacent to the ā. There are guidelines for when it occurred but they are complicated by exceptions and by variances by geographical location. Sibawaih (died c. 796) said there were variances among speakers in the same location. Sibawaih also said that the imala vowel shift on pronouncing ā could occur “when the vowel in the syllable adjacent to the ā is i or ī ” Book ''Arabic Linguistic Thought and Dialectology'', by Aryeh Levin, year 1998. The book has more than 55 pages that contain the word imala OR imāla OR ʾimāla. It has more than 100 pages that contain the word Sībawayhi OR Sibawayhi OR Sībawaihi.(ref). One crude first approximation to some guidelines, together with some 13th century examples, together with references for further reading in English, is at Article, ''Simon of Genoa as an Arabist'', by Siam Bhayro, year 2013, 15 pages. Gives examples of Arabic words spelled phonetically in Latin in Simon of Genoa's Medical Lexicon of the late 13th century. Also gives references to books with more info about the Medieval Arabic imala vowel pronunciation.Ref.
    The following are words gathered from the collection here on this page where (#1) the Arabic spelling was and is with ā, and (#2) the Arabic pronunciation was and is mostly with e, and (#3) the medieval Western European languages borrowed the word from Arabic, and (#4) the Western European word has always been spelled and pronounced with e: aubergine, benzoin, bezoar, civet, elemi, gazelle, julep, Vega, and the medicinal botany names berberis, alkekengi, azedarach, chebula, cubeba, emblic, metel, mezereum, ribes, sebesten, zerumbet.
  71. ^   Empty note #71 keeps stable the numbering of the other notes.
  72. ^ giraffe

    Concerning the giraffe, Al-Mas'udi's 10th century Arabic together with 19th century French translation is in مروج الذهب للمسعوديchapter 33 of Al-Mas'udi's Marūj al-Dhahab (French title: Prairies d'Or). Al-Mas'udi cites the book about animals by Al-Jahiz.
  73. ^ giraffe

    Early records for the Italian giraffa are quoted in the giraffa @ ''Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini'' (TLIO)TLIO lexicon. The book Written by Berthold LauferThe Giraffe in History and Art, year 1928, has a chapter headed "The Giraffe among the Arabs and Persians" and a chapter headed "The Giraffe in the Middle Ages [among the Latins]". As a small addition to that book's information, one of the first records in French is that a French traveller in year 1396 saw five giraffes in a zoo in Cairo and he spelled the name in French as giraffa Book, ''Le saint voyage de Jherusalem du seigneur d'Anglure'', by Ogier VIII, Seigneur D'Anglure, who visited Cairo and Jerusalem in 1395-1396. Print year 1878 on page 62.(ref), thereby borrowing the Italian giraffa and not borrowing the Arabic zarāfa.
  74. ^ hashish

    Book The Herb: Hashish versus medieval Muslim society, by Franz Rosenthal, year 1971, on pages 6-14, gives a list of medieval Arabic texts that talk about حشيش hashīsh = "hashish". The list's earliest texts are 13th century.
  75. ^ hashish

    A British traveller in the countryside near Antakya in northwestern Syria in 1798 wrote: "Country cultivated with Hashīsh, a kind of flax" Book, ''Travels in Africa, Egypt, and Syria, from the Year 1792 to 1798'', by William George Browne, year 1806 on page 448(ref). In that sentence, Hashīsh means "hemp to be used as a textile fiber", which is one of the meanings of hashīsh in Arabic. A German narrative about the Arabian Peninsula in the 1760s, translated to English in 1792, says: "The lower people are fond of raising their spirits to a state of intoxication. As they have no strong drink, they, for this purpose, smoke Haschisch, which is the dried leaves of a sort of hemp" Book, ''Travels through Arabia, and other countries in the East'', by Carsten Niebuhr, year 1792, Volume 2, page 225. Translated from Niebuhr's German ''Beschreibung von Arabien'', year 1772.(ref). More early quotations are at hashish @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (''NED''), year 1901NED.
  76. ^ henna

    Henna has been in use in the Mediterranean region since antiquity. In classical Latin the name for henna was cyprus @ Latin-to-English dictionary by William Whitaker, year 2006cyprus (ancient Greek kupros). Cyprus remained the most frequently used name for henna in medieval Latin. Hence late medieval English has a few instances of cipre @ Middle English Dictionarycipre meaning henna. Latin in the 13th & 14th centuries has a few instances of the name henne (pronunciation: hen-ne) meaning henna – Henne @ Matthaeus Silvaticus's medicines book, early 14th century Latin, says: Arabic ''henne'' is Greek ''ciprus'' and is Latin ''alcanna''. He has copied the word ''henne'' from the Arabic-to-Latin translation of Serapion the Younger's medicines book. Serapion's book says in Latin: Arabic ''henne'' is Latin ''alcanna''.e.g. – but this was a rarity in medieval Latin, and this name is not known in French until 1541 henné @ Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales(ref) and not in English until circa 1600. Today's English dictionaries say that the English name "henna" came directly from the Arabic ḥinnāʾ because the early English records are in travelers' reports from the Middle East – ref: henna @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (''NED''), year 1901NED.
  77. ^ alkanet

    The active dye chemical in both alkanet dye and henna dye is a naphthoquinone derivative (at Wikipedia : Alkanninalkannin in alkanet, at Wikipedia : Lawsonelawsone in henna) and the two dyes are similar in several ways. The name alcannet has records in late medieval English where it clearly means today's alkanet dye – alkannet @ ''Middle English Dictionary''. The quotations include circa year 1425 ''puluis of alcannet... putte it in a quart of comon oile, and þe oile schal become rede to liknez of blode'', which unmistakeably is the powder of the root of the Alkanna Tinctoria.Ref. Latin year 1363 The surgery book of Guy de Chauliac in Latin, dated 1363, written in Franceradix alcannae maybe means the alkanet root; and the same maybe goes for Latin circa 1450-1499 ''Die Frankfurter Liste: Beitrag zur mittelalterlichen Geschichte der Pharmacie'', curated by F.A. Flückiger, year 1873, publishes a 6-page list of elementary medicines to be stocked in an apothecary shop, written in Latin in Germany. The manuscript is date-assessed as late 15th century. ''Radices alcanne'' is at list item #83 on page 8.radices alcanne. But in medieval Latin the earlier and the much more common meaning of alcanna was "henna". In mid-12th-century in Latin in southern Italy, the medicines book of Matthaeus Platearius has alcanna, though without a good plant description Book, ''Liber de Simplici Medicina'' aka ''Circa Instans'', by Matthaeus Platearius (died c. 1160). Link goes to images of a medieval manuscript. Alcanna is on the lefthand side of page number 33-34 which is image number 18.(ref). A better early example is Gerard of Cremona's late-12th-century Arabic-to-Latin translation of Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine, where In Arabic : حنا @ Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine, BOOK 2. The word's spelling is حناء and حنّاء in other copies of this book.Ibn Sina's Arabic hināʾ = "henna" was translated as In Latin : Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine, as translated by Gerard of Cremona (died c 1187) and annotated by Andreas Alpagus Bellunensis (died 1521)Latin alcanna. Simon of Genoa's Latin medicines dictionary, dated about 1292, has alchana or alcanna meaning "henna" alcanna @ SimonOfGenoa.org. Relatedly, the LSJ dictionary of Ancient Greek, which is online at https://LSJ.gr/, says Greek κύπρος KYPROS meant henna and κύπρινος KYPRINOS meant a medicinal oil infused with flowers of henna. This Greek is mentioned by Simon of Genoa's dictionary under the medieval Latin headword alcanna.(ref). Late 13th century Latin medicines book of Mesue has Collected medicine works of Mesue, with commentaries added by later medicines writers, in edition year 1549/1558. The book has dozens of instances of the Latin wordforms ''alchanna'', ''alcanna'', ''alchannae'', ''alchannæ'', ''alchanne''. The meaning is henna. In some cases it is the henna plant's flowers that are used, while in other cases it is the leaves.alchannæ de Mecha = "henna from Mecca", meaning henna from west side of Arabian penninsula. Phonetically in parallel to the Latin alchanna, the Prophet Mahommed's name often was spelled in medieval Latin Machometus, which was pronounced near MAKOMETUS, and it was also spelled Macometus and Machomet Book: ''The Pseudo-historical Image of the Prophet Muhammad in Medieval Latin Literature: A Repertory'', by Michelina Di Cesare, year 2011(medieval Latin examples). In the Arabic alphabet there are two letters h, one like a Latin and English h, and the other with a stronger sound, and the h of محمد Mahommed and of الحنّاء al-hinnāʾ is the strongly pronounced letter h, which helps explain why it got rendered as letter 'c' or 'ch' in medieval Latin. This Latin originated in Italy. In Italy in Latin, and Italian, if it had been written hanna there would have been much tendency to pronounce it "anna" (still true in Italian today). The often weak and disappearing pronunciation of the sound /h/ in Latin, especially in Italy, is noted in introductions to the sounds of Latin Sound /h/ in chapter ''The sounds of Latin'' in book ''A Companion to the Latin Language'', year 2011(e.g.). Medieval Italian had alc(h)an(n)a meaning clearly "henna" in some cases, and probably it meant "henna" in all cases – ref: alcanna @ Tesoro della lingua Italiana delle Origini (TLIO)TLIO, Italian ''alcanna'' means henna in book ''Liber Serapionis aggregatus in medicinis simplicibus : Nel volgarizzamento toscano del Codice Gaddiano 17'', curated by Maria Elena Ingianni, year 2013, on page 231 and other pages. This book is a 14th-century Latin-to-Italian translation of a 13th-century Latin book, which was translated from an Arabic book of the school of Ibn al-Wafid (died c. 1070).Italian Serapion, ''La Pratica della Mercatura'', by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, dated around year 1340, curated by Allan Evans year 1936. Search text for ''alcana'' and ''alcanna''.Pegolotti. Medieval Catalan had alquena = "henna" – ref: Gual Camarena's Vocabulario del comercio medieval. This was not in medieval Spanish. The Spanish wordform was alheña | alfeña = "henna". Medieval Spanish has practically no example where an Arabic sound h was converted in Spanish to Spanish sound k (examples come from Catalan); and medieval Spanish has no record of alcana or alcaneta meaning henna or alkanet – ref: Maíllo Salgado year 1998 on Book, ''Los Arabismos del Castellano en la Baja Edad Media'', by Felipe Maíllo Salgado, year 1998 edition, discusses ''alcana'' on pages 223-224. Medieval Spanish documents contain ''alcana'' as a word, but its meaning is nothing like henna and it is not related to the Arabic word for henna.page 223+''Los Arabismos del Castellano en la Baja Edad Media'', by Felipe Maíllo Salgado, year 1998 on page 224page 224, and Book, ''Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l'arabe'', by R. Dozy and W.H. Engelmann, year 1869. Page 14 summarizes how the Arabic letter ح h was rendered in transferring it into Spanish & Portuguese medievally. Page 83 has a Spanish word ''alcana'' whose meaning has nothing to do with henna or alkanet.Dozy & Engelmann year 1869, and Book, ''Contribución a la fonética del hispano-árabe y de los arabismos en el ibero-románico y el siciliano'', by Arnald Steiger, year 1932Arnald Steiger year 1932. 13th century French medicine has alcanne = "henna", which was borrowed from the Italian-Latin alcanna = "henna" – Book, ''Le Régime du Corps'', by Aldebrandin de Sienne, dated mid-13th century, curated by Landouzy & Pepin, year 1911. Aldebrandin de Sienne translated medicines material from Latin to French. His French word ''alcanne'' occurs twice and it translates medicinal Latin ''alcanna''.ref-1, Book, ''Le livre des simples médecines : Traduction française du Liber de simplici medicina dictus Circa instans, de PLATEARIUS, tirée d'un manuscrit du XIIIe siècle'', curated by Paul Dorveaux, year 1913. 13th-century French ''alchane'' on pages 19-20 is translating Platearius's 12th-century Latin ''alcanna''.ref-2. Alcannet = "alkanet" was formed from alcanne | alcanna = "henna" with the Latinate diminutive suffix -et__ appended in Italian or French. 15th century French has arquenet | arquenete = "alkanet" – Citations are under the dictionary headwords ARQUENET and ORCANÈTE @ Dictionnaire du Moyen FrançaisDMF. Parallelwise phonetically, 14th century Italian has alcali @ TLIOarcali = "alkali" and alchimia @ TLIOarchimia = "alchemy". Italian today and for many centuries has Arganetta is defined in ''Dizionario delle scienze naturali'', year 1831 on pages 422-423. This dictionary also mentions arganetta under ''Ancusa dei tintori'' on page 151.arganetta = "alkanet", which is the same word with /k/ changed to /g/ (/k/ changed to /g/ is often seen in Italian word histories).
    The alkanet dye plant, today's Alkanna Tinctoria, was in use in the Mediterranean region as a dye since antiquity (was called anchusa in classical Latin). Alkanet had several names in medieval Arabic – Under the headword الشنجار al-shinjār, the dictionary of Fairuzabadi gives five names for alkanet : الشنجار al-shinjār (مُعَرَّبُ شِنْكار shinkār), خس الحمار khas al-himār, الكَحْلاء al-kahlāʾ, الحُمَيْراءَ al-humayrāʾ, and رِجْلَ الحَمَامَة rajl al-hamāma.ref, In each of Ibn Sina (died 1037) and Ibn al-Baitar (died 1248), the name for alkanet is both شنجار shinjār and خس الحمار khass al-himār ref. None of the medieval Arabic names for alkanet is related to the Arabic al-hinnāʾ = "henna".
  78. ^ hummus

    With meaning chickpeas, the Arabic dictionaries spell it حِمَّص himmas but the people pronounce it HOMMOS, said Henri Lammens, who lived in Beirut in the 19th century – on page 93 in footnote #1Remarques sur les mots français dérivés de l'arabe, by Henri Lammens, year 1890, on page 93. It was pronounced HOMOS in Egypt in the 18th century – On page LXXI, item 368 says Latin ''cicer'' (meaning chickpea) is called ''homos'' in ArabicFlora Aegyptiaco-Arabica, by Peter Forskal, year 1775, on page LXXI (in Latin). Nowdays in Syria in International Standard Arabic on television, the city حمص Homs is commonly pronounced HIMS, but in Syria in vernacular Arabic it is pronounced HOMS.
  79. ^ jar

    An assessment which is mentioned in some dictionaries, and which I will argue for, is that Spanish jarra = "jar" went into Spanish from Italian & Catalan, and it did not go into Spanish from Arabic. The grounds for this assessment can be broken up into at least a half a dozen points:
  80. ^ jar

    "Jar" in the Middle English Dictionary has Quotation set #4 under the word OLIVE at Middle English Dictionary has a quote involving ''jarres'' of olive oil. Quotation set #4 is a set for olive oil.jarre year 1418 and plural jarre @ Middle English Dictionary. Quotes a Latin document in England having ''iii jarris olei''jarris year 1421. The jars hold olive oil in both of those cases. In years 1427 & 1430 & 1435-1436, jarre(s) occurs in the context of taxes on imported goods at the seaport of Southampton, where the jarres hold olive oil most often, and other times hold dried date fruits or ginger – Book, ''The Port Books of Southampton'', written in French at Southampton in years 1427-1430, curated & annotated by Paul Studer, year 1913. Search for JARRE.ref-1, Book ''The Local Port Book of Southampton for 1435-36'', curated by Brian Foster, year 1963. Written in Norman French at Southampton. It has ''jarres de oyle'' on four pages. It has seven pages with ''jarres'' or ''jarre'' or ''jares'', meaning jars. Concerning the historical context : ''At this time Southampton's [seaborne] trade was dominated by aliens, and in particular by Italians.''ref-2. Those goods were brought to England by sea directly from the Mediterranean. In English this word jar was rare until the 17th century. The 17th century English jar had the usual meaning of a large earthenware jar holding imported oil, the oil used primarily as fuel for oil-lamps. This can be seen from a search for jar | jarr | jarre | iar | iarre at Site has a collection of dictionaries from the period 1450-1702. Most are dictionaries that translate words between English and other languages.Lexicons of Early Modern English and also New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), published in 1901Jar in NED and EEBO is ''Early English Books Online''. At EEBO the word is obtainable by search for : iar* or jar*. But that search will return a huge number of unwanted instances of semantically unrelated words where the meaning is ''a discord'', ''to conflict'', ''dissonant and jarring''. A proximity search for (iar* or jar*) near (oyl* or oil*) will eliminate unrelated words.EEBO. In Britain in the 15th to 17th centuries, oil-lamps were overall not often used, because the oil was too expensive. Usage increased in the 17th century despite the expense. Olive oil was the most-often-used type of oil in the oil-lamps until late 17th century. The olive oil came to Britain by sea directly from southern Spain firstly and southern Italy secondly. In the 15th & 16th centuries in Spanish, the word jarra | jarro was frequent and had wide applications – search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Españolref. In 15th century French, jarre existed and meant a jar for oil, but it was rare (details omitted). In the 16th & 17th centuries in French the word was still rare. The above information makes it likely that the word in English came primarily from Mediterranean sea-commerce directly and was not primarily from French.
  81. ^ jasmine

    Some medieval Arabic dictionaries say the Arabic word ياسمين yāsimīn = "jasmin" came from Persian – ياسمين @ لسان العرب and other medieval dictionaries at ArabicLexicon.Hawramani.comref. For verifying that those dictionaries are correct about that, there is a problem with looking into Persian itself, because so little writings of any kind survive from ancient or early medieval Persian, and because later medieval Persian has much taken from medieval Arabic. However, ancient Chinese writings indicate the jasmine plant and its fragrant flower oil was in use in ancient Iran, with the ancient Iranian name being in Chinese texts as approximately ye-si-min. The information about Iran from China, from ancient and early medieval Chinese sources, is in jasminum & jasmine on pages 329-332Sino-Iranica... with special reference to the history of cultivated plants, by Berthold Laufer, year 1919. The ancient Iranian name is also mentioned in Greek by Dioscorides (died circa 90 AD) – New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED), year 1901jasmine in NED.
  82. ^ jasmine

    Jasmine under any name is scarce in late medieval Latin texts. In late medieval Latin medicine, vegetable oil aromatized by jasmine flowers was sold as an aromatic medicinal product and this was called by a Latin name sambacus | zambacca | zambach, which came from Arabic zanbaq = "oil containing jasmine flowers". Crossref botanical elsewhere on the current pagesambac elsewhere on the current page. One of the very few instances of the name jasmin in medieval Latin is in the Arabic-to-Latin translation of the medicines book of Serapion the Younger (later 13th century Latin) and then derivatively in the medicines book of Matthaeus Silvaticus (early 14th century Latin). Serapion and Matthaeus say iesemin is an Arabic word synonymous with sambacusBook in Latin : Serapion the Younger's aggregation of commentary from many commentators about medicines. Book was translated from Arabic. Book says in Latin: ''iesemin id est zambach''.ref, In Latin : iesemin @ ''Liber Pandectarum Medicinae'' by Matthaeus Silvaticus, dated about 1317. Matthaeus says he is quoting from Serapion.ref. In Spanish and Catalan, jasmin's first records are in the 14th century but it is rare until the 15th. The flowers of jasmin are in several Spanish poets in the early 15th. The 15th-century Spanish wordform is usually jazminsearch @ ''Corpus Diacrónico del Español''. Searching for jazmin will not find jazmín. Searching for jazm?n will find both jazmin and jazmín. Searching for ja?m?n* will find jazmines, jaymines, jasmin, jazmín, but not jassemin.ref. In Italian, the jasmine flowers have documents in the 14th century in the wordform gelsominogelsomino @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Originiref. During the 16th century the plant was common in gardens in western Europe, including England. A botany book in English in 1597 said correctly that the plant was unknown to the ancient Greek botanist Dioscorides – John Gerarde's Herball, year 1597, page 747.
  83. ^ jird

    The word Jird is rare in the European languages until the 20th century. One early record is the following English from the book Observations Relating to Several Parts of Barbary and the Levant, year 1738 (and translated to French 1743): "The Jird and the Jerboa are two little harmless animals which burrow in the ground.... All the legs of the Jird are nearly of the same length, with each of them five toes; whereas the fore-feet of the Barbary Jerboa are very short and armed only with three." – ''Travels, or, Observations Relating to Several Parts of Barbary and the Levant'', by Thomas Shaw, year 1738, on page 248ref.
  84. ^ jumper

    The juppa was a kind of jacket in the late medieval period in all Western European languges. The word's earliest Western record, year 1053 southwestern Italy, has iuppa merely named in a list of valuable goods at an abbey, with many of the other goods made of silk – Book, ''Codex diplomaticus Cavensis'', Volume VII, year 1888, on page 198. The book publishes medieval documents from an abbey at the town of Cava in southwestern Italy.ref. The next earliest, year 1101 southeastern Italy, involves a gift of a silk iuppa''Codice Diplomatico Barese'', Volume V, ''Le pergamene di San Nicola di Bari, Periodo normanno (1075-1194)'', curated by F. Nitti, year 1902. The volume has ''iuppa serica'' on page 58 on line 25.ref. Northern Italy in 1157 has Latin "iupam meam de cendato" = "my jupa of cendal silk" – Book, ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, on page 472. Quotes Latin ''iupa'' at Genoa in year 1157 in ''CGS.1'' = ''Cartulary of Giovanni Scriba, volume 1''.ref. It is relevant that practically all the silk cloths of the Latins were imported from the Byzantines and the Arabs at that time; i.e., the Latins did not make silk cloth in the 11th-12th centuries (excepting a negligible quantity in Latin Sicily 12th century). In northern France, the word's earliest or 2nd earliest record is in the 1170s or 1180s in a ballad in which a Christian princess is described as wearing "a purple-ish jupe well-made of Muslim workmanship" – The ballad ''Partonopeus de Blois'', by anonymous author in 1170s or 1180s, has the two rhyming lines: ''Ele a une jupe porprine / Bien faite à oevre sarasine''.ref. Around year 1190 in French, two ballads about the Crusades wars have brocaded jupes worn by Muslims – ''La Chanson d'Antioche'' is dated circa 1190. It has ''jupes d'orfrois'' (brocaded jupes) worn by Muslims on the battlefield.ref-1, Ballad ''La Conquête de Jérusalem'', also known as ''La Chanson de Jérusalem'', is dated circa 1190. It has 3 instances of ''jupe'' worn by a Muslim emir or sultan. One of the instances says in French: ''Of precious stones was the jupe closed [by buttoning]''.ref-2. Other records of a somewhat early date in Latin and Italian and French include: instances where the juppa garment was banned or restricted at monasteries because it was considered too luxurious, instances where it was buttoned in front with jeweled buttons, instances where it was an item in a Last Will and Testament, instances where it was being worn on a battlefield, instances where it was worn by Muslims, instances where it was said to be made in the Orient, and instances where it was made of silk – Du Cange et al., Glossarium mediæ et infimæ latinitatisjupa @ Du Cange (Latin J pronounced Y), Book, ''Women's Costume in French Texts of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries'' by Eunice Rathbone Goddard, year 1927, 263 pages. Has a section about the word ''Jupe'' and quotes late 12th century texts.jupe @ Goddard 1927 , Book, ''Arabismi Medievali di Sicilia'', by Girolamo Caracausi, year 1983, ''iuppa'' on pages 258-260iuppa @ Caracausi 1983 , ''Inventaires de maisons, de boutiques, d’ateliers et de châteaux de Sicile (XIIIe-XVe siècles)'' Volume II [of six volumes], by Bresc-Bautier & Bresc, year 2014. Search for substring JUPP. Volume II has three dozen instances in Sicily in 13th and 14th centuries. In most cases it is explicit that the juppa is made from silk. In other cases it is explicit that the juppa is made from linen.juppa @ Bresc-Bautier 2014 , Book ''Vocabolario Ligure'' [Liguria province in Italy], by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001. It has a set of quotations for 12th and 13th century Latin ''iupa'' on page 472. The same page has also sets of quotations for ''iupon__''.iupa @ Aprosio 2001 , giubba @ Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Originigiubba @ TLIO , jupe @ Dictionnaire Étymologique de l'Ancien Français, year 2013. Gives list of early records of French ''jupe''.jupe + jupel @ DÉAF. Later-medieval Spanish has the word commonly as aliuba | aljuba and in some cases the person who wears it is an Arab Muslim and in other cases the wearer is a Spanish Christian, and the garment is in the luxury class. Dozens of medieval Spanish examples at search @ Corpus Diacrónico del Español. Search results include: Anno 1284 ''ponien los moros las mangas delas aliubas ante los oios'' = ''the Moors put the sleeves of their jubbas in front of their eyes''. Anno 1411 ''rey de Granada... que le envió el rey de Fez una aljuba de oro'' = ''king of Granada... who sent the king of Morocco a jubba of gold'' -- meaning the garment had gold metal threads embroidered.CORDE. Medieval High German has the word borrowed from French – jope, joppe, juppe @ ''Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch'', year 1866ref. This medieval European garment was a man's and a woman's jacket. The shape of the jacket is not clear in its early records in medieval Europe – early records were studied by Goddard (year 1927), linked above. It may have been short in length. Later, in the 14th century the shape may have been like the pourpoint jacket (Article, ''Creating and Patterning a late 14th century Pourpoint, Part 1'', with photos, by website ''Clothing the Past''.pictures of 14th century pourpoint).
  85. ^ jumper

    Examples of joupe as a jacket in late medieval English are at joupe @ The Middle English Dictionary (same dictionary has also the related jupon @ Middle English Dictionaryjupon). Jupe continued in use in Scots English as late as the mid-19th century, meaning jacket – jupe @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (''NED''), year 1901NED. In standard written English in the 16th-17th centuries, online at Early English Books Online (''EEBO''). Search for English jupe. Results include a year 1648 Italian-to-English translation in which the king of Sweden wears ''a Jupe of perfumed leather, with a gray Hat on his head''. Some of the other results are French-to-English translations of French ''jupe'' meaning a woman's dress.EEBO and Two words, JUP and JUPE @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (''NED'')NED you can find a handful of records for jupe | juppe | jup meaning a jacket and another handful meaning a woman's dress. But the word was scarcely used at the time. In the 17th-18th centuries, the wordform jupe got mostly replaced by a new wordform jump. In a German-to-English dictionary in year 1716, the German juppe, whose meaning was "jacket", was translated as English "a jupe, jacket, or jump, a coat for women" – Juppe @ ''Teutsch-Englisches Lexicon'' by Christian Ludwig (died 1728), a German-to-English dictionary, year 1716 -- the link goes to year 1765 reprint.ref-1, jump @ ''A dictionary English, German and French'' by Christian Ludwig, year 1706, year 1736 reprint. Says English ''jump'' is synonymous with ''jupe''. Also has English ''jupo'' with same meaning on same page.ref-2. Nathan Bailey's English dictionary in 1726 defined a jump as "a short coat; also a sort of bodice for women", and it does not have the wordform jupeBailey's Dictionary 1726ref. For the jump garment in its 17th century records at Early English Books Online (''EEBO''). Proximity search for jump* (with asterisk) near coat*. Secondarily, proximity search for jump* near breech*. Thirdly, proximity search for jump* near velvet*.EEBO, the wearer is more frequently a man than a woman, the garment is a short coat, it is worn along with breeches by the men, and sometimes it is made of velvet. In 1828, Webster's English dictionary defined a jump as "a kind of loose waistcoat worn by females" – Noah Webster's Dictionary 1828ref. Webster's English dictionary in 1913 defined a jump as "a kind of loose jacket for men" – Webster's Dictionary 1913ref. Webster's 1913 defined a jumper as "a loose upper garment; a sort of blouse worn by workmen over their ordinary dress to protect it" – Webster's Dictionary 1913ref. The NED dictionary published in 1901 defined a jumper in year 1901 as "a kind of loose outer jacket reaching to the hips, made of canvas, serge, coarse linen, etc., and worn by sailors, truckmen, etc." – jumper #2 @ New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (''NED'')NED. The NED dictionary has more history for the three English wordforms jupe, jump, and jumper as jackets. The start of jumpsuit was with war-time parachute troopers in the 1940s.
    Most English dictionaries today say: jumper = "jacket" was from jump = "jacket" which was from jupe = "jacket". Some English dictionaries say also: the alteration from the older English jupe to the newer English jump can have occurred through the influence of the unrelated common English word jump. History has plenty of concrete cases where a less-common word got phonetically ‘‘contaminated’’ by a somewhat comparable more-common word. Rather than calling it ‘‘getting contaminated’’, it is said that the less-common word got assimilated through at Wikipedia : ''Folk etymology'' is a rarified technical term in linguistics, whose meaning differs from the intuitive ordinary meaning of folk etymology."folk morphology" and "folk etymology". In the present case, the judgement is made that the scarcely used English early-modern word jupe = "jacket" got phonetically assimilated to the commonly used English word jump = "leap" and this is what created the wordform jump = "jacket".
  86. ^ kohl

    English traveller describing women in the Middle East year 1615: "They put between the eye-lids and the eye a certain black powder with a fine long pencil, made of a mineral called alcohole, which... do better set forth the whiteness of the eye." – Book, ''A relation of a journey begun in 1610... containing a description of the Turkish Empire...'', by George Sandys, year 1615, on page 67ref. Similar travellers' reports in English are in Book, ''Travels, or, observations relating to several parts of Barbary and the Levant'', by Thomas Shaw, year 1738, on page 294ref: Algeria 1738 , Book, ''Travels through Arabia and other countries in the East'', by Carsten Niebuhr, year 1792, Volume 2, on page 236. The book is translation to English. Original in German in 1772+1774.ref: Yemen 1792 , Book, ''The natural history of Aleppo'', by Alexander Russel, enlarged by Patrick Russel, year 1794, Volume 1, on page 111ref: Syria 1794 , Book, ''A Thousand Miles up the Nile'', by Amelia B. Edwards, year 1877, on page 132ref: Egypt 1877.
  87. ^ lac & lacquer

    A medieval Arabic text about making inks, authored by a servant of emir Ibn Badis (died 1061-1062), used لكّ lakk | lukk = "lac" as an ingredient in some inks, where it acted as a binder and as a red coloring agent – ''Mediaeval Arabic Bookmaking'', by Martin Levey, year 1962, nearly 80 pages, of which nearly 40 pages is an annotated English translation of a manuscript of Ibn Bādīs (died 1061-1062) on the subjects of inks and bookbinding. The English translation has the Arabic word LUKK on pages 19, 23, 30, 32 etc.ref, This link is for when the other link goes defunctalt-link. An early Arabic medicines writer Sabur Ibn Sahl (died 869) has a recipe that calls for لك منقى من عيدانه = "lak cleansed of its twigs", which unmistakeably is the Indian lac – Book in Arabic : ''Sābūr ibn Sahl's Dispensatory in the Recension of the ʿAḍudī Hospital'', curated by Oliver Kahl, year 2009. It has لك منقى = ''cleansed lac, purified lac'' on three pages, one of which is page 78. The volume also does translation to English. English ''woodfree lac'' is on page 182.ref, This link is for when the other link goes defunctalt-link. In Arabic the word was pronounced LAK and LUK and LIK. The dictionary of Ibn Duraid (died c. 933) said: "Concerning اللًّكّ al-lakk for dyeing with, it is not of the Arabs" (read: it is an import from a non-Arab country) – Ibn Duraid says: فأما اللًّكّ الذي يُصبغ به فليس بعربيref, Searchable dictionary : جمهرة اللغة لابن دريد. It has head-word لكك. The linked file is PART ONE of three parts for the whole dictionary.alt-link. The encyclopedia of Al-Nuwayri (died c. 1333) said الُّلكّ al-lukk comes from India – Al-Nuwayri's book is titled نهاية الأرب في فنون الأدب . In it, Al-Nuwayri says:
    الُّلكّ فيقال إنه يسقط على قُضبان الكروم في بلاد الهند فينعقد عليها
    . One old dictionary in Arabic said leather is dyed a red color by a juice that people call اللِك al-likThis old dictionary says that people call it اللُك AL-LUK and اللِك AL-LIK. This particular dictionary is founded upon the dictionary of Ibn Sida (died 1066) but it contains additions from a later time and it has no date. At AlWaraq.net : ابن سيده – المخصصref. Simon of Genoa in the 1290s said in Latin: "Lacca is a red gum from which a dye is made.... The Arabs call it lech " – lacca @ ''Clavis Sanationis sive Synonyma Medicinae'' by Simon of Genoa aka Simon Januensisref. Abu Hanifa al-Dinawari (died c. 895) said لكّ lakk is a kind of gum and he said it does not grow in Arabian territory – he is quoted in LAKKUN @ ''Wörterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache'', by Manfred Ullmann, Volume 2 (letter ل ), year 1991, on page 1241. This dictionary has quotations for لكّ lakk in a number of medieval Arabic writers. As quoted by Ullmann on page 1241, the book of plants of Abu Hanifa al-Dinawari says about the lac resin : ليس ينبت بأرض العرب . Arabian territory may mean all of -- and no more than -- the Arabian peninsula.Ref. Ibn Sina (died 1037) in his medicine book said لك lak is a resinous exudation from a plant and its medicinal properties are akin to those of amber – ''Canon of Medicine'' of Ibn Sina in Arabic : القانون في الطب. Search for the whole words لكّ and اللكّ. Ibn Sina says : ...لك ... هو بولس: هو صمغ حشيشةref. However, Ibn Sina at the same time said the لك lak is similar to myrrh, and this statement of his was essentially wrong, and it later caused much confusion and error when Ibn Sina was translated to medieval Latin. The same confusion and error happens in the book of Serapion the Younger, which was another medieval Latin medicine book that had been translated from Arabic. The medieval Latins depended on info from the Arabs about the nature of lac. The errors of Ibn Sina and Serapion the Younger in their definitions of lac were pointed out as errors in 16th century Latin – ''A Medicinal Dispensatory'' by Jean de Renou aka Joannes Renodaeus (died c. 1620), written in Latin in 1615 and put in English translation in 1657. ''Lacca and Cancamum'' is a chapter at pages 397-398. It summarizes the confusion and falsehoods over defining Lacca. Its main points reiterate Antonius Musa Brasavolus (died 1555) whose book is at :
    , ''Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India'', by Garcia da Orta, written in Portuguese in year 1563 and put in English translation in year 1913. It has a chapter on LACRE, i.e. Lac. Garcia da Orta was located in India and he has correct info about Lac and he says correctly that the info about Lac is not correct in Ibn Sina and Serapion the Younger.ref-2.
    In Latin, lacca occurs about year 800 in a book about making colorants, where the lacca is used as a coloring ingredient – the book Book, ''A Classical Technology, edited from Codex Lucensis 490'', by John M. Burnham, year 1920, has the Latin text ''Compositiones Variae'', plus English translation. The Latin has four ''lacca'' and one ''laca''. The English puts those as ''lacquer''. The text ''Compositiones Variae'' is in a physical manuscript dated about 800 AD. The manuscript is called ''Codex Lucensis 490'' aka ''Codex 490'' aka ''Manoscritto di Lucca 490''.Compositiones Variae about 800 AD. Lacca | Lacha meaning the lac colorant is similarly in Latin in another book about making colorants about year 900 – ''Mappae Clavicula'', by Smith & Hawthorne, year 1974. Publishes complete raw images of ''Mappae Clavicula'' of Sélestat MS 17 manuscript, dated about 900 as manuscript. Manuscript has LACCA and LACHA multiple times meaning lac colorant. In this article's English translation, search for LAC and note the paragraph numbers and then see pages 10-13 to get the corresponding paragraph numbers in Sélestat manuscript.ref, 128-page article, ''Mappae Clavicula: A Little Key to the World of Medieval Techniques'', by CS Smith and JG Hawthorne, year 1974, in journal ''Transactions of the American Philosophical Society'' Volume 64.alt-link. Commercial contracts in Latin at Genoa in years 1154-1164 have multiple instances of lacca = "lac" – Book, ''Genova Comune Medievale - Vita Usi E Costumi Dei Genovesi : Ricavati dal Cartulare di Giovanni Scriba, notaio Genovese dall' anno 1154 all' anno 1164'', by Fortunato Marchetto and Paolo Marchetto, year 2008. Prints medieval Latin documents with modern Italian translations.ref, Book, ''Vocabolario Ligure'', by Sergio Aprosio, year 2001, on page 476 of Latin volume. Cites lacca in ''CGS'' = ''Cartulary of Giovanni Scriba'' in years 1156, 1158, 1163, & 1164.alt-ref. When Ibn Sina's medical book was translated to Latin circa 1175 the Arabic lak was translated as Latin laccaIn Latin : ''Liber Canonis Medicinae'' by Ibn Sina (died 1037) translated by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187), annotated in the page margins by Andreas Alpagus Bellunensis (died c. 1521). Print edition year 1544.ref. Latin lacha | lache | laca is a name in import-tax tariffs at Barcelona in years 1222, 1243 & 1252 and it means "lac" with very high probability – ''Memorias históricas sobre la marina, comercio y artes de la antigua ciudad de Barcelona'' Volume II primera parte, curated by Antonio de Capmany, year 1779 (reissued 1962), publishes medieval Latin documents. Year 1222 Latin ''lacha'' on page 7. Year 1243 Latin ''lache'' on page 18. Year 1252 Latin ''laca'' on page 21.ref. Vernacular Italian lacca | lacha = "lac" is documented from around 1300 – lacca #1 @ TLIOref. Around year 1340 the Italian merchandise book Mercatura by Pegolotti mentions lacca around fifty times, mentioning lacca for sale in Tabriz, Alexandria, Venice, Antwerp, etc, and implicitly indicates it was in good demand in international trade at the time – Book ''La Pratica della Mercatura'' by Francesco Balducci Pegolotti (died 1347) in Italian with annotations in English by Allan Evans year 1936ref. In French late medievally there are all the wordforms Book, ''Addenda au FEW XIX (Orientalia)'', by Raymond Arveiller, year 1999, on page 341, quotes 14th century French wordforms lache, lac, lacca, and laque, and also quotes late 15th century French wordforms lacca and lacque. Altlink : page 334 year 1984 at
    laque, lacque, lacca, lache, & lac
    , all meaning "lac". With the same meaning, late medieval French has also Book ''Addenda au FEW XIX (Orientalia)'' by Raymond Arveiller, year 1999 on page 342. It cites a short text published under title ''Inventaire d'anciennes pharmacies dijonnaises (XVe siècle)'' which contains the words ''ung quarteron de Gomelac'' situated in a pharmacy inventory dated year 1439.gomelac and ''Inventaire de la pharmacie de l'Hôpital St. Nicolas de Metz (27 juin 1509)'', curated by Paul Dorveaux, year 1894 on page 30 has the inventory item ''gomi lacce'' situated in an inventory listing of gums.gomi lacce and ''Liber Albus'' is a compilation done in London, completed in year 1419. Parts are in Anglo-Norman French. It has French lak (page 224) and French lake (page 230) in import tax tariffs at London, in Volume 1 curated by HT Riley year 1859. French spelling LAKE has pronunciation of French laque and English lack. Translation by HT Riley is in Volume 3 pages 58 & 64 @ archive.org/details/munimentagildhal03rile lak and lake.
    Today's English word "lac" starts in English in the 15th century in the wordform "lacca". It has two 15th-century records in Latin-to-English translations where the Latin lacca was translated as English "lacca" – lacca @ Middle English Dictionaryref. A medical glossary in English in 1543 reflects erroneous medieval thinking about lac when it says: "LACCA. Lacha is a gumme or liquor of a tree in Arabie." – lacca @ English glossary by Bartholomew Traheron, year 1543. The glossary was composed as an appendix for the book ''Workes of Chirurgerye'' by Joannes de Vigo (died 1525). The appended glossary was written from scratch by Bartholomew Traheron in 1543. Joannes de Vigo's book was written in Latin in Italy in 1514 and translated to English in 1543.ref, Website ''Lexicons of Early Modern English'' has a searchable copy of Bartholomew Traheron's English medicines glossary, year 1543. Traheron's glossary is an appendix at the back of a book about surgery, namely Joannes de Vigo's ''Chirurgery''.alt-link. The 1543 English author was relying on late medieval Latin info sources. In particular he was reiterating the late-13th-century Latin medicines book of Serapion the Younger, which says: "Lacca est gummi arboris, quae nascitur in Arabia" – lacca @ ''Liber Aggregatus in Medicinis Simplicibus'', by Serapion the Younger. This book is an Arabic-to-Latin translation. The Arabic was written in Iberia by the school of Ibn Al-Wafid (died 1067 or 1074).ref. Similarly misinformed, English dictionary compilers in years 1658, 1661 & 1677 have the wrong definition: They say LACCA is "a kinde of red gumme, issuing from certain trees in Arabia" – lacca @ ''The New World of English Words'', a dictionary by Edward Phillips, year 1658 editionref, lacca @ ''Glossographia, or, A dictionary'', by Thomas Blount, year 1661 edition. It says LACCA is ''a kind of red gum coming forth of certain trees in Arabia, and sold here [in Britain] by Apothecaries, good against diseases.... Painters also and Diers use it.'' Thereby the LACCA is a red dye used by dyers. This can only be the Lac sourced from India and Burma. No dyeing red gum was sourced from Arabia.ref, lacca @ ''An English dictionary'', by Elisha Coles, year 1677. It has LACCA as : ''a red gum from certain Arabian trees''. This dictionary has also : ''LACK, an East-India gum (gathered by Ants) which makes the best wax''. Thereby this dictionary is saying LACCA and LACK are two different gums. Which is bad info. LACCA and LACK are two spellings for one gum. The gum was not obtained in Arabia.ref. In fact, for the five centuries 1160-1660, the lacca gum had been arriving in Europe in non-small quantities from India whereas no red gum of any kind was obtained in the Arabian penninsula under the name lacca. In English in the 16th and 1st half of 17th century the most frequently used wordform was "lacca" – search @ ''Early English Books Online''. You have to do Proximity searches or Boolean searches in order to eliminate the unrelated other meanings of ''lac(k)''.ref-1, search @ ''Lexicons of Early Modern English''. Search suggestion : Boolean search for (gum OR gumme) AND (lacca OR lac OR lacker), whereby you can see that ''Lacca'' was the usual English wordform in the lexicons done in the 16th-17th centuries.ref-2. In French during the same timeframe the wordform was common as French laccasearch @ Books.Google.comexamples. It was also in French as lacque | laque. In French the wordform la[c]que expelled French lacca mainly during the 1st half of the 17th century. The same happened in English in a later timeframe, when "lac[k]" expelled English "lacca" during 2nd half of 17th and 1st half of 18th century. As late as 1749, Benjamin Martin's English dictionary has "lacca" as the only wordform for lac and defined it as "a sort of red gum brought from the Indies" – Lacca @ ''Lingua Britannica Reformata, Or, a New English Dictionary'', by Benjamin Martin, year 1749. This dictionary overall copies heavily from the Kersey-Phillips dictionary of year 1706, but it does not take its definition of lacca from Kersey-Phillips.ref. The English wordform "lac[k]" in its early records is often in the phrase "gum-lac[k]" and "gum[m][e] lac[k][e]" which was a phrase in 16th century Latin medicine in the Latin wordform search @ books.google.comgummi laccæ and gummi lacca. This Latin produced today's German Gummilack and today's Italian gommalacca. English wordform "lac[k]" is French la[c]que. This English came from French and Latin.
    The next wordform issue is English "lacquer" | "lacker" with the letter 'r'. Benjamin Martin's 1749 English dictionary has the word "lacker" defined as "a sort of varnish", which definitionally differs from "lacca" and "gum lac". The word lacquer came to English directly from Portuguese starting in late 16th century. It is of very low frequency in English until the late 17th. Writers in Portuguese in India in the early 16th have all the wordforms lacar | alacar | lacre | alacre | laquer | alaquer | laquar | laccar | lacra, all meaning "lac" – ''Cartas de Affonso de Albuquerque'', in 3 volumes, years 1884-1903. The letters of the first governor of Portuguese India, who died in 1515. The letters have the word spelled in a half dozen different ways. The most frequent way is lacar, second most frequent is alacar, and other ways are laquer, alaquer, laquar, laqar, lacre.ref (3 volumes) , Downloadable book, ''Encontros civilizacionais no Oriente : visões sobre a alteridade nas obras de Duarte Barbosa [died 1521] e de Tomé Pires [died c. 1524]'', by Carla Sofia Saraiva Luís, year 2010. In book's Anexo 15, word-frequencies of words in Tomé Pires's ''Suma'' (= Su) and Duarte Barbosa's ''Livro'' (= Li) are listed. Tomé Pires spells it lacar 9 times. Duarte Barbosa spells it alacre, alacar, & laquer.ref , search @ CORPUS DO PORTUGUÊS. Has early 16th century instances : (#1) ''lacra'' in the journal of first voyage of Vasco da Gama; and (#2) ''laccar'' in Codex Valentim Fernandes; and (#3) ''lacre'' in Chronica dos Reis de Bisnaga. Website's interface is unintuitive and awkward, but it works. Before starting search, click on the word ''Sections'', which will give you a pick list from which you pick time periods.ref. This wordform with 'r' is found occasionally in English, French, Italian, and Spanish in the 16th century, all taking it from Portuguese, all due to the dominance of the Portuguese among the Europeans in bringing commercial goods from the Indies to Europe at the time. Cotgrave's year 1611 French-to-English dictionary has French lacre translated as English "best hard wax" – lacre @ Cotgrave's French-to-English dictionary, year 1611ref. This wordform with 'r' was in Portuguese before the Portuguese sailed to India. It is lacra in the diary of the first voyage of Vasco da Gama, diary written in 1497-1499. It is paralleled in Portuguese by Portuguese çumagre | sumagre @ Dicionário infopédia da Língua Portuguesasumagre from medieval Arabic summāq = English "sumac"; Portuguese almíscar @ Dicionário infopédia da Língua Portuguesaalmíscar from medieval Arabic al-misk = English "musk"; Portuguese alcachofra @ Dicionário infopédia da Língua Portuguesaalcachofra = Spanish alcachofa | alcarchofa from medieval Arabic al-kharshuf = English "artichoke". The leading letter 'a' in Portuguese alacar | alacre | alaquer is the vestige of the Arabic al- in Arabic al-lakk.
  88. ^ lac

    The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea is a well-known text written in Greek in the 1st century AD. Its author was a Greek-Egyptian sea-merchant who had experience doing commerce on the Indian Ocean. He writes about imports and exports at seaports around the rim of the Indian Ocean. He says that at the southern end of the Red Sea on the African coast, the imports received from across the ocean from India include "Indian iron... and Indian cotton cloth... and muslin cloths and lakkos chromatinos". His Greek λάκκος χρωμάτινος lakkos chromatinos is standardly and reasonably translated as "colored lac" or "lac colorant". The letter 's' in lakkos is a grammar affix of Greek. The ancient Greek writer Aelian (died c. 235 AD) displays knowledge of the lac dye. In his book about animals, Aelian says: "In India are born insects about the size of beetles, and they are red.... They flourish on trees.... The Indians hunt them, and crush them, and with these bodies they dye their crimson cloaks and their tunics.... The color is even stronger and more brilliant than the much-vaunted wares of Sardis [in ancient Asia Minor]." – In Greek and English side-by-side : ''Characteristics of Animals'', by Aelian (aka Claudius Aelianus), Chapter IV, paragraph 46(i)ref. Aelian does not use word lakkos nor a similar wordform. Historians and lexicon compilers have not found a word akin to lakkos meaning "lac" elsewhere in ancient Greek. However, early in medieval Greek are documents with λαχάς lachas meaning a red dye – ref: a lexicon of Byzantine Greek, year 2014λαχάς @ Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität. The early medieval Greek spellings included λακχάς lakchas and λαχχᾶ(ς) lachcha(s) and λαχάς lachas, where the terminating letter 's' is a grammar affix of Greek. This early medieval Greek word clearly means a red dye. What specific red dye is not clear. It is not a common word. It can mean lac dye. Assuming it means lac dye, it would have come from the Sanskritic lākh | lakkha = "lac". Regarding the pathway of intermediation by which it would have arrived in Greek, if the Greek came immediately from Semitic, Semitic would not necessarily mean Arabic. The records in early medieval Greek (cited in the above Lexikon) are afflicted with insecurities about what centuries they were written in. But still they suggest that the lac product and the lac name could have been in use in Mediterranean commerce before the Arabic language spread into Egypt and Levant with the adoption of Islam. Hence, the Latin lacca, which is securely dated around year 800 Codex 490 is a physical manuscript. The article ''Compositiones Variae, From Codex 490, Biblioteca Capitolare, Lucca, Italy : An Introductory Study'', by Rozelle Parker Johnson, year 1939, 100 pages, gives references for dating the Codex 490 physical manuscript at about 800 AD. This manuscript has four instances of Latin ''lacca'' (plus one ''laca'') meaning the lac colorant.(ref), was maybe from a pathway of transmission into the Mediterranean region that did not come through the Arabic lakk.
  89. ^ sandarac

    Europeans got all their sandarac resin from the Arab lands, primarily from Morocco Article ''On the real origin of that resin known under the name of Sandarac'', by M. Schousboe, 3 pages, year 1799 in journal ''Philosophical Magazine'' Volume 5. The reporter Schousboe had a lengthy stay at the seaport of Mogador and its hinterland in southern Morocco. He saw the sandarac being collected on trees there.(ref). The sandarac resin's Arabic name sandarūs is the source for the European sandarac resin word. In medieval Arabic, سندروس sandarūs is a resin from a tree, the resin's color is light yellow, and the resin has a pleasant smell and unpleasant taste – in books by Al-Biruni (died c. 1050), Ibn Sina (died 1037), Ibn Al-Baitar (died 1248), Al-Razi (died c. 930), and others – Al-Biruni's Book on Precious Stones has a chapter about amber, in which Al-Biruni describes السندروس AL-SANDARŪS as a tree-resin with a pale yellow color. Link has the book in Arabic, text-searchable. Book has 5 instances of السندروس AL-SANDARŪS. البيروني – الجماهر في معرفة الجواهرref, In Arabic : Ibn Sina's القانون في الطب. Search for سندروس. Ibn Sina says سندروس ... هو صمغ شجرةref, الجامع لمفردات الأدوية والأغذية - ابن البيطار. Ibn al-Baitar on page 472 says سندروس : صمغ أصفر يشبه الكهرباء = ''sandarūs is a yellow resin resembling amber''.ref, Search for السندروس and سندروس in the corpus of texts at ABLibrary.net. ABLibrary.net's corpus is a mix of medieval and modern Arabic texts.ref. Nasir Khusraw (died c. 1077), writing in Persian about his visit to Jerusalem, speaks of a varnish made by mixing سندروس sandarūs with oil, and used as a varnish on paintings in a Christian church – ناصرخسرو » سفرنامه » بخش ۳۶ [Nasir Khusraw's ''Safirnameh'' in Persian]ref-1 , In English translation : Diary of a Journey through Syria and Palestine by Nasir-i Khusrau in 1047 AD, translated from the Persian by Guy Le Strange, year 1888, having varnish of Sandarūs on page 60ref-2. The sandarac resin has high quality as a varnish.
    In ancient Greek and Latin, sandaracha | sandaraca meant Red Arsenic Sulfide and secondarily Red Lead. In medieval Latin sandaraca normally meant arsenic sulfide (red or yellow). But there are instances where it meant a resin from a juniper-like tree and these exceptional instances are in Arabic-to-Latin medicines translations in the late 12th & 13th centuries plus some later medieval Latin instances in the domain of medicine where the word's use is a derivative from the Arabic-to-Latin translations. The late-12th-century Latin medicines book Ad Almansorem is a translation of Kitāb al-Manṣūrī of Al-Razi (died c. 930). It has Latin sandaracha meaning a type of resin in translation of Al-Razi's Arabic sandarūsIn Arabic : Search for السندروس and سندروس in Al-Razi's medicine book كتاب الحاوي في الطب. This book is not the same as Al-Razi's medicine book كتاب المنصوري في الطب but Al-Razi uses the same vocabulary in both books. Al-Razi's كتاب المنصوري في الطب is downloadable elsewhere in raw manuscript format.ref-1, In Latin : Medical Works of Al-Razi translated by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187), in OCR of print edition year 1544. The volume includes the text ''Liber ad Almansorem'' translating Al-Razi's Arabic ''Kitāb al-Manṣūrī fī al-ṭibb''.ref-2, Book, ''In Antidotarium Ioannis Filii Mesuae, censura''. Written in year 1543 in Italy. Authors were Angelus Palea and Bartholomaeus. On page 618 it says correctly: ''Hoc gummi juniperi, arabice, Sandarax, vel sandoros, ut in tertio Rhasis AD ALMANSOREM legitur. Unde est, quod plurimi abusive, sandaracam nominant. Nam sandaraca proprie, auripigmentum rubeum est.''ref-3. Likewise the late-12th-century Arabic-to-Latin translation of the medicines book of Ibn Sina (died 1037) has the Latin sandaracha translating Ibn Sina's Arabic al-sandarūs meaning a type of resin – In Latin : Canon of Medicine of Ibn Sina (died 1037) translated by Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187). Link is print edition year 1555. The edition has also supplementary materials that are not part of the translation. In the given OCR'd text, the search for substring ANDARAC will deliver 22 instances of sandarac__. Ibn Sina's book in Arabic is on the internet at numerous websites.ref. Both of those books were widely circulated in late medieval Latin medicine circles. For both of those books, Gerard of Cremona (died c. 1187) was the translator. In the late 13th century, a Latin dictionary of medicines was compiled by Simon of Genoa, who took many of his Latin medicines words from Arabic-to-Latin translations. Simon of Genoa says sandaracha means arsenic sulfide (yellow or red) and he cites the definition of sandaracha given by Dioscorides (died c. 100 AD; wrote in Greek). Under the headword sandaracha Simon of Genoa says also: Varnishing resin is called sandaros by the Arabs, and the Arabic name sandaros was corrupted into the corrupt Latin name sandaracha meaning sandarac resin in books translated from Arabic to Latin – Sandaracha @ ''Synonyma Medicinae'' by Simon of Genoa, dated c. 1292ref.
    A dictionary of chemicals by Martin Ruland in year 1612 has the definition in Latin: "Sandaraca is a metallic earth, red in color, and having a sulfurous smell.... It is essentially the same thing as orpiment [i.e. yellow arsenic sulfide].... Sometimes sandarac is identified with a resin.... The confusion began with the Arabs." – In Latin : sandaraca @ ''Lexicon Alchemiae sive Dictionarium Alchemisticum'', by Martin Ruland, year 1612 on pages 419-420ref-1, In English : ''A Lexicon of Alchemy by Martin Rulandus the Elder'', translated from Latin to English by Arthur E. Waite, year 1893. Sandarac on PDF pages 267-268 in linked PDF file.ref-2. An author in Latin in 1679 gives the definition: "Sandaraca has a twofold designation, one of the Greeks, the other of the Arabs.... Sandaraca with the Greeks is arsenic sulfide.... The sandaraca of the Arabs is the gum of juniper trees" – Book ''Juniperi Descriptio Curiosa... Et Variis Medicamentis...'', by Benjamin Scharff, year 1679 on page 26ref. A science dictionary in English in 1743 defined SANDARACHA Meaning : ''Of the Arabs'' ARABUM as a gum from a kind of juniper tree and it defined SANDARACHA Meaning : ''Of the Greeks'' GRAECORUM as red arsenic sulfide – Sandarach or Sandaracha @ ''Cyclopaedia, Or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'', Volume 2, by E. Chambers (died 1740), edition year 1743ref. Today's English sandarac is defined as a type of resin only.
    It is not correct to say the pre-existing Latin sandaraca (meaning an arsenic) was expanded in meaning to cover a type of resin. What happened is that, in the late 12th century, the translator Gerard of Cremona borrowed an entirely new word from the Arabs and he modified the Arabic wordform سندروس sandarūs to assimilate it to a pre-existing unrelated European wordform sandaraca. The resin named by the word got little use or notice in western Europe during the late medieval centuries. During the early post-medieval centuries the sandarac resin had a substantial increase in use as a varnish in western Europe. Sandarac with this meaning starts in vernacular European languages in the 16th century in Italian. Some 16th century Italian books talking about the sandaraca | sandracca resin are quoted at sandaraca #1 @ ''Grande dizionario della lingua italiana'' (''GDLI''), years 1961-2002, in Volume 17 on page 494, has several 16th century quotations for the Italian sandaraca meaning sandarac resin. For the dates of the named sources quoted, refer to :
    and some other 16th century Italian books talking about the sandaracca | sandraca resin are cited at Book, ''Original Treatises, Dating from the XIIth to the XVIIIth Centuries, on the Arts of Painting'', curated and introduced by M.P. Merrifield, year 1849, Volume ONE, has info on sandarac resin on page ccliii-ccliv. At foot of page ccliii it cites sandaraca resin in Leonardo Fioravanti's Secreti (year 1564/1566), Raffaello Borghini's Riposo (1584 spelled sandracca), and don Alessio Piemontese's Secreti (spelling sandracha 1557, sandraca 1559).Ref and plenty more 16th century Italian books with this resin are at search @ Books.Google.com, with the Time restricted to 16th-century books. With the meaning of a resin, the 16th-century Italian wordforms include sandracca, sandraca, sandaraca, sandaracca. Those wordforms also occur with the meaning of an arsenic sulfide in 16th-century Italian books.Ref. Today's Italian dictionary at ''Grande dizionario della lingua italiana'' (''GDLI''), years 1961-2002, in Volume 17 on page 494 has Sandaraca #1 and Sandaraca #2GDLI.it says correctly: Italian sandaraca #1 meaning "a type of resin" came from Arabic sandarūs, while Italian sandaraca #2 meaning "arsenic sulfide" came from ancient Latin & Greek sandarache. More fully correctly, the Italian resin-word came directly from medieval Latin, and the medieval Latin resin-word came directly from Arabic. In English, the sandarac meaning "a type of resin" was brought into English in the 2nd half of 17th century, brought from Italian-influenced Mediterranean commerce vocabulary. Old examples in English are at sandarac @ ''A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles'', year 1914, has quotations of early records in English for sandarac. This dictionary says correctly : ''Modern Latin SANDARACHA ARABUM represents Arabic SANDARŪS.''Ref and Article ''On the real origin of that resin known under the name of Sandarac'', by M. Schousboe, 3 pages, year 1799 in journal ''Philosophical Magazine'' Volume 5. The reporter Schousboe had a lengthy stay at the seaport of Mogador and its hinterland in southern Morocco. He saw the sandarac being collected on trees there.Ref. It is an error to see only one rootword in the two meanings of sandarac and the majority of English etymology dictionaries make this error (sandarac @ TheFreeDictionary.com. TheFreeDictionary.com has copies of three current English dictionaries : American Heritage Dictionary, Collins English Dictionary, and Random House Dictionary.examples).
  90. ^ elemi

    Two instances in Arabic for اللامي al-lāmī meaning a resin in & around the 15th century are quoted in Book, ''Remarques sur les mots français dérivés de l'arabe'', by Henri Lammens, on page 288. Includes quotation of word اللاميّ in the writer السيوطي Al-Soyuti (died 1505).Henri Lammens year 1890 page 288. The word with this meaning was rare in Arabic medievally and later. In the European languages, approx earliest is Latin gumi elemi circa 1450 in a list of gums or resins by Saladinus of Ascoli in Italy – Book ''Compendium Aromatariorum'' by Saladinus, aka Saladino Ferro da Ascoli, published in 1488, with ''gumi elemi'' listed under the heading ''De gummis''. The composition date has been estimated at about 1450.ref. Also circa 1450 in Italy, Latin gummi elemi is in medicines recipes by Bartolomeo Montagnana – Book entitled ''Consilia'' by Bartolomeo Montagnana. Its year of completion is put at 1448. Search for elemi.ref. Circa 1490 a medical-botany compilation says in French: "Gomme elempni is a gum of a tree that the Saracens means Muslims. Also Saracens means Arabs. Saracens call elempni " – Book, ''Grant Herbier en Francois'', dated 1486 and printed circa 1498. ''Gomme elempni'' is a heading under letter G on page LXXI + 1. Book is a compilation and translation into French from medieval Latin texts. Done by an anonymous compiler.ref. Medicines books in Latin in Italy in the 1510s have gummi elemi or gumi elimi Book ''Practica in Arte Chirurgica Copiosa'', by Joannes de Vigo, aka Giovanni da Vigo, died 1525. Book's publication year is 1514. Spelling is ''gumi elimi''.(e.g.). Those records can be taken to indicate that the word-transfer to Europe was through Italian sea merchants on the Mediterranean Sea in the 15th century. The al-lāmī resin of the Arabs may have come from Ethiopia. One old Arabic apothecary's book says the لامي lāmī resin comes "from Yemen or from the Indies" –  details Minhāj al-Dukkān is an apothecary's book written in Cairo city in year 1259-1260 AD. Some differences occur among its copies. Henri Lammens year 1890 on page 288 footnote #2 quotes from a manuscript of منهاج الدكان Minhāj al-Dukkān whose transcription year is 1629. The 1629 manuscript says :
    لامي : هو صمغ شجرة تجلب من اليمن او من الهند
    The website ABLibrary.net has a searchable copy of منهاج الدكان Minhāj al-Dukkān. Its copy has nearly the same statement as the above. The website Books.Google.com has Minhāj al-Dukkān in two printed editions searchable, and one has the above statement approximately, and the other does not, and each of the two has the medicinal statement يذاب اللامي بزيت طيب ويدهن به مكان الوجع = "melt elemi with aromatic oil and smear it on the place that hurts". Minhāj al-Dukkān is available in digitized early-14th-century manuscripts but I have not gone into any of them to find out if al-lāmī is there or not.
    . But Yemen was likely just a waystation or transit-point for goods brought across the Indian Ocean at the time. The goods transiting through Yemen from the Indian Ocean could come from Ethiopia as well as from the Indies. Apothecary writers in Latin in the 1530s said a resin product of Ethiopia may be what the gummi elemi is, though they acknowledged a lack of verification – Book, ''Examen omnium simplicium medicamentorum, quorum in officinis usus est'', by Antonius Musa Brasavolus, year 1536, reprinted 1537. Gummi elemi on page 386.ref, Book, ''Herbarum vivae eicones ad nature imitationem'', by Otto Brunfels, year 1530 & 1532, on appendix page 9, says Ethiopian resin is ''perhaps'' synonymous with gummi Elemi.ref. Apothecary writers in French in the 1690s said "true" elemi resin comes from Ethiopia and Yemen, and a different elemi resin comes from America – Book ''A Compleat History of Druggs'', edition year 1737 page 195. This book in English was translated from 1690s French books by Pierre Pomet (died 1699) and Nicholas Lemery (died 1715).ref. John Hill in English in 1751 said "genuine" elemi comes from Ethiopia and "this genuine Elemi is very rare at present in Europe" and "there are a great many resins sent over from different parts of America under the name of Elemi" – ''A history of the materia medica: containing descriptions of all the substances used in medicine'', by John Hill, year 1751, on pages 721-723ref. Peter Forsskal visited Cairo city in 1762 and copied material about resins from a contemporary Arabic pharmaceutical book in Cairo. This Arabic book had a resin لامي lāmī which it said was imported from India – Appendix titled ''Materia medica ex officina pharmaceutica Kahirae [= Cairo] descripta'', with لامي Lami on page 157, in the book ''Descriptiones animalium... quæ in itinere orientali'', by Peter Forskal (died 1763).ref. In the 19th century in Europe the principal elemi in commerce was extracted from a tree native in the Philippines; and this elemi was called "Manila elemi" in 19th-century Europe – elemi @ ''A History of the Principal Drugs of Vegetable Origin'', by Friedrich A. Flückiger and Daniel Hanbury, year 1879 on page 149ref. Today, the name elemi means the Manila elemi. 20th-century organic chemistry has the derived names elemol and elemicin.
  91. ^ lemon  ^ orange  ^ tangerine

    Book, Origin of Cultivated Plants by Alphonse de Candolle, year 1885, pages 178–181 for lemon and lime, pages 183–188 for orange, page 188 for tangerine aka mandarin orange. Further info in "Études sur les noms arabes des végétaux: l'oranger et ses congénères", by J.J. Clement-Mullet in Journal Asiatique year 1870, on pages 17-41. The geographer Al-Mas'udi (died 956), writing in the 940s, said the orange tree (shajar al-nāranj) had been introduced to Arabic-speaking lands only a few decades previously In Arabic with French translation : مروج الذهب للمسعودي Al-Mas'udi's Prairies D'Or, year 1863 volume 2 page 438-439(ref). He does not mention the lemon, and from other evidence it is demonstrable that the lemon had not yet arrived in Al-Mas'udi's time. More on the medieval lemon is in note #92, the next paragraph.
  92. ^ lemon

    A good source for lemon in medieval Arabic is the agriculture book In Arabic : ''Kitāb al-Filāha'' by Ibn al-Awwam, in Arabic together with translation to Spanish by Josef Banqueri, year 1802, Volume One (of two volumes). Has section about growing lemon trees. Also has a section about growing citrus trees in general.Al-Filāha by Ibn al-Awwam (died c. 1200). Ibn al-Awwam makes an acknowledgement on In Arabic : ''Kitāb al-Filāha'' by Ibn al-Awwam, year 1802 edition, Volume One, page 323. Ibn al-Awwam's book is a compilation and it frequently takes material from Abu al-Khayr's book. It frequently uses the notation قال خ ''qāl Kh'' = ''says Abu al-Khayr''.page 323 that part of his info on lemon trees is taken from an agriculture book by Abu al-Khayr of Seville (At Filaha.org : A brief biography of Abu al-Khayr, and a brief synopsis of the contents of his book about agriculturedied c. 1100). Abu al-Khayr is one of the earliest to mention the name lemon in Arabic. Abu al-Khayr has the name spelled الليمون al-līmūn الليمون @ ''Kitāb al-Filāḥa'' by Abū al-Khayr Ishbīlī, curated by Julia Maria Carabaza, year 1991(ref). The 13th century book عبد اللطيف البغدادي - الإفادة والاعتبار في الأمور المشاهدة والحوادث المعاينة بأرض مصر. Link goes to page 26 of year 1789 edition curated by Joseph White.Ard Masr by Abdallatif (died c. 1231) (for which ''Relation de l'Égypte par Abd-Allatif'', being Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi's description of Egypt translated to French by Silvestre de Sacy, with annotations by the translator, year 1810. Abd al-Latif's main statement about lemon is on page 31, and the translator's annotations about it are on page 115-116.French translation) ranks fairly early in composition date among the medieval Arabic books that mention the lemon. The citron fruit is not a lemon or lime. It is easy to find plenty of pre-12th century Arabic books that mention the citron, الأترج al-utrujsearch الأترج @ AlWaraq.net. The plantnames dictionary by Abu Hanifa al-Dinawari (died c. 895; lived in Iran) says: "The citron (utruj) is abundant in Arabia, and it is a cultivated plant and does not grow in the wild" – ''Abu Hanifah Al-Dinawari's Book of Plants: An Annotated English Translation of the Extant Alphabetical Portion'', by Catherine Alice Yff Breslin, year 1986, with ''Utrujj'' on print page 59.ref. Numerous Arabic medicine writers before the 12th century repeatedly mention the citron as a medicinal ingredient. In sharp contrast, the mentions of the lemon before the 12th century are very scarce in Arabic medicine writers, and scarce also in non-medicine writers. Although scarce, the lemon or the lime fruit does occur reliably dated before the 12th century in Arabic. The Arabic words for the lemon and lime fruit are from the same rootword. The earliest instance of lemon or lime in Arabic is in the chapter about Pakistan in the geography book of Al-Istakhri (died about 957; lived in Iran; probably visited Pakistan personally). Al-Istakhri says: "The people of this land [Balād al-Sind = Pakistan] have a fruit the size of a small apple called الليمونة al-līmūna, which is bitter, very acidic" – In Arabic in Volume 1 of ''Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum'' : Al-Istakhri's geography book, curated by M.J. de Goeje, year 1870, reprinted 1927, on page ١٧٣ on lines 9 & 10, where Al-Istakhri says وبأرضهم ثمرة على قدر التفاح تسمى الليمونة، حامضة شديدة الحموضةref. The geography book of Ibn Hawqal (died c. 988) replicates the same statement – In Arabic in Volume 2 of ''Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum'' : geography book of Ibn Haukal (aka Ibn Hawqal) curated by M.J. de Goeje, year 1873, with الليمونة on page ٢٢٨ref. In the above quotation from Al-Istakhri, he might have been talking about the lemon or the lime; we do not know whether it was lemon or lime. Arabic nouns with a terminal ون ūn in the singular, like līmūn(a), are nearly always taken from a foreign language. In the Persian language in the mid 11th century Nasir Khusraw (died c. 1077) used the Persian name لیمو līmū in an enumeration of fruit trees he saw growing at Tripoli in Lebanon – ref: Nasir Khusraw ناصرخسرو » سفرنامه » بخش ۲۲in Persian and Diary of a Journey through Syria and Palestine by Nasir-i Khusrau in 1047 AD, translated from the Persian by Guy Le Strange, year 1888, having lemon on page 7English translation. Again, he might have been talking about lemon or lime, because the Persian name لیمو līmū covers both. Medieval Sanskrit and modern Urdu/Hindi have نمبو nimbū = "lemon and lime fruit" – ''Digital Corpus of Sanskrit'' is a large collection of medieval and pre-medieval Sanskrit documents online. The word ''nimbū'' is in the collection's medieval documents only. ''Digital Corpus of Sanskrit'' says the medieval meaning of ''nimbū'' is a citron or a related fruit.ref, نمبو @ Urdu-to-English dictionary of John T. Platts, year 1884, searchable at ''Digital Dictionaries of South Asia''. Says the modern نمبو ''nimbū'' means lime fruit.ref, Today's Hindi निम्बू nimbū @ Google image search. Shows it mainly means lemon fruit.ref. Probably the medieval Sanskritic nimbū was the parent-word of the medieval Persian līmū = "lemon and lime fruit" –  details  curated and annotated by M.J. de GoejeBibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, volume IV, year 1879, on page 351 has a curator's note about the spelling of the Arabic word meaning lemon -- or maybe the meaning is lime -- in the early medieval geography books written by Al-Istakhri (''I'' = Istakhri) and Ibn Hawqal (''H'' = Hawqal). The curator says that in old manuscripts of these Arabic books the spelling most often is الليمونة al-līmūna but the variants النيمونة al-nīmūna and النيموية al-nīmūiya also occur in Arabic.

    The Arabic word came from Persian. Persian vocabulary has some words begining L__ where the initial letter 'L' is demonstrably a mutation from an earlier letter 'N'. An instance is Persian Johnson's Richardson's Persian-Arabic-English dictionary, year 1852, on page 1075لیلوپر līlūpar, which is more often in Persian as nīlūpar | nīlupar | nīlūpal | nīlūfar | nīlufar | nīlūfal Johnson's Richardson's Persian-Arabic-English dictionary, year 1852, on page 1346(ref), from synonymous Sanskrit nīlotpala @ Digital Corpus of Sanskritnīlotpala, containing Sanskrit nīla @ Digital Corpus of Sanskritnīla and Sanskrit utpala @ Digital Corpus of Sanskritutpala. Another instance is Persian لیلج @ Steingass's Persian-to-English dictionary, year 1892. This dictionary is heavily copied from Johnson's Richardson's Persian-Arabic-English dictionary, year 1852.لیلج līlaj, synonymous with Persian نیله nīlah, from Sanskrit nīla with same meaning. Thus, deriving Persian لیمو līmū = "lemon and lime" from Sanskritic nimbū = "lemon and lime" is not too much of a stretch phonetically in regard to the mutation from 'N' to 'L'. The mutation from 'MB' to 'M' is not too much of a stretch either. Regardless of the names used, today's botanists are agreed that lime fruit trees grew natively in north India and not natively elsewhere, and that human use of lime fruit was transferred from the territory of the Indians into the territory of the Iranians and Arabs, with transfer date medieval. Today's botanists are divided and unsure about the lemon's natural history. There is not a place where lemon trees grow clearly natively. It looks that lemon is a hybrid (hybridizing lime with another citrus species) whose natural history has always been within human cultivation, with starting date early medieval.
  93. ^ luffa

    The first known occurrence of the plantname "Luffa" in a European language is in the botanist Johann Veslingius, who visited Egypt in 1628 and afterwards published drawings and a description of the Luffa aegyptiaca plant. Veslingius wrote that the plant was in cultivation around Cairo, was called "Luff | Luffa" in Arabic, and was in use both as an edible cucumber and as a fibrous scrubber. Veslingius in Latin called it Luffa Arabum and "Egyptian Cucumber" – ref: Book, ''De Plantis Aegyptiis: Observationes et Notae ad Prosperum Alpinum'', written by Ioannus Veslingius (aka Johann Vesling), year 1638. Luffa on page 48.De Plantis Aegyptiis by Johann Veslingius. In 1706 the botanist J.P. de Tournefort introduced the formal botany genus name "Luffa". He referred to Veslingius's earlier description and reiterated that Luffa Arabum is a plant from Egypt in the cucumber family – Tournefort in journal ''Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences'', année MDCCVI. Luffa in text on page 84 and two drawings of Luffa are between pages 86 and 87.ref. In 1761 the botanist Peter Forsskål visited Egypt and noted that the luffa plant was called لوف lūff in Arabic – ref: لوف LUFF = Momordica Luffa on page number LXXV in edition year 1775Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica by Peter Forskal. In Arabic the name lūf has also meant other plants, unrelated to the luffa. In today's Arabic the luffa plant is more usually called ليف līf, which associates with the common Arabic word līf = "fiber" and alludes to the luffa as a fibrous scrubber.
  94. ^   Empty note #94 keeps stable the numbering of the other notes.
  95. ^ lute

    Most medieval Arabic music-making involved human singing, and the al-ʿaūd lute was one of the most preferred supporting instruments in songs. The songbook of Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani (died 967) has well more than 100 instances of the word العود al-ʿaūd or عود ʿaūd = "oud" – The book الأغاني written by أبو الفرج الأصفهاني is freely online in machine-searchable Arabic at multiple websites. Search in it for العود and عود. The author's name is also spelled أبي الفرج الأصبهاني. The book is very lengthy. Some online editions have only the first part of it; or have the first part plus only selections from other parts.ref. Two of the best medieval Arabic sources on the design and tuning of the al-ʿaūd are Al-Kindi (died 870) and Al-Farabi (died 950). Al-ʿaūd of the 9th and 10th century Arabs had the following features: (1) a wooden sound-chamber that bulged out at the back, (2) a relatively short neck (short compared to the tanbur of the time), (3) strings were made of silk and sometimes of gut, (4) strings were struck with a plectrum, (5) the lower-pitch strings were positioned uppermost along the neck, (6) standardly the ʿaūd had four strings, tuned in fourths, each fretted with four frets (note that today's ouds do not have frets), and besides this standard there were also non-standard tunings in use, and (7) the pairings of strings that is seen in the 14th century (and still today) does not appear in the descriptions of the al-ʿaūd in the 9th and 10th centuries. The al-ʿaūd design descriptions from Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi, and from a 10th century source Rasāʾil Ikhwān al-Ṣafā, are paraphrased in the book Book written by Yaron Klein. Publication year 2009. At the link, the full book is downloadable as PDF file. The design descriptions for the oud instrument are on pages 115-122, 132-135, and 208-215 (more tuning info at 171-179).Musical Instruments as Objects of Meaning in Classical Arabic Poetry and Philosophy. One thing Al-Kindi says about al-ʿaūd is: "its back is somewhat round [or circular: استدارة], conic toward the neck". A distinctive design feature of the medieval al-ʿaūd and the Latin lute was a sound-chamber that bulged back, bowled, vaulted, like half of a pear, pear cut in half longitudinally. Adequate descriptions in text are unavailable from the Latins for musical instrument design details. It is necessary to look at Latin artworks for instrument designs. The ancient Latins used guitars, as can be seen in depictions of guitars on ancient Latin artworks: at Wikipedia : History of lute-family instruments. Has photographs of guitars on ancient artworks, including classical Latin artworks.photo examples. But there is no depiction of the al-ʿaūd guitar design in use among the Latins, or at least no clear depiction, until the 12th & 13th century. Guitars are in numerous paintings in illustrated Latin manuscripts made in Northwest Europe in the 9th century. These 9th century Latin guitar pictures are viewable: ''Stuttgarter Psalter'' is a Christian hymn book manuscript made in northwest Europe in the early 9th century. The manuscript at folio 83r (equals page 171) has colored painting of man playing guitar.Stuttgart 83r,